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of  Toronto 


professor  Hlfreo  JSafter 

3anuars  15,  1941 

The    Works 



The  Works 




Letters  and  Journals.    Vol.  V. 








•err  - 1  '    -mmm**.     - 

EEN  I  •  ; 



,  /?- 



THE  period  covered  by  Volume  V.  of  Byron's  Letters 
and  Journals  (April,  1820 — October,  1821)  includes  the 
remainder  of  his  residence  in  the  Palazzo  Guiccioli  at 
Ravenna  and  the  commencement  of  his  stay  in  the 
Palazzo  Lanfranchi  at  Pisa.  Within  these  dates  the 
Italian  Revolution  broke  out  and  failed;  Count  and 
Countess  Guiccioli  were  separated  by  Papal  decree ;  the 
Gambas  were  exiled  from  Ravenna,  and  Byron  followed 
their  fortunes. 

The  excitement  of  these  events  stirred  Byron's  literary 
activity.  In  poetry  he  wrote  the  Fifth  Canto  of  Don 
Juan,  Marino  Faliero,  Sardanapalus,  The  Two  Foscari, 
Cam,  Heaven  and  Earth,  The  Vision  of  Judgment,  and 
The  Blues.  In  prose,  besides  increasing  his  correspond- 
ence, he  kept  a  Diary  for  January  and  February,  1821 
(Chapter  XXL),  filled  a  "  paper-book  "  with  "  Detached 
"Thoughts"  (Chapter  XXIIL),  and  wrote  the  Two 
Letters  to  John  Murray  on  Bowles's  Strictures  upon  Pope 
(Appendix  III.). 

Of  the  183  letters,  which  belong  to  the  period,  and 
are  printed  in  Volume  V.,  68  were  unknown  to  Halleck, 


whose  collection  has  hitherto  been  the  most  complete. 
The  last  letter  in  this  volume,  written  to  Moore  from  Pisa 
in  December,  1821,  is  numbered  in  Moore's  Life,  474; 
in  Halleck's  collection,  542  ;  in  this  edition,  968. 

Apart  from  new  letters,  or  from  additions  made  to 
others  which  have  hitherto  been  published  in  an  in- 
complete form,  the  chief  feature  of  fresh  interest  is 
the  chapter  (XXIII.)  containing  Byron's  "  Detached 
"  Thoughts."  Large  extracts  from  this  collection  have 
been  made  in  previous  editions ;  but  the  passages  have 
been  quoted  in  scattered  fragments,  without  any  indication 
of  their  order  or  connection.  The  original  manuscript  is 
now,  for  the  first  time,  printed  in  its  entirety. 

Attention  has  been  kindly  called  by  Mr.  C.  K. 
Shorter  to  a  series  of  extracts  from  letters,  published 
thirty  years  ago  in  a  well-known  magazine.  With  few 
exceptions,  these  extracts  are  taken  from  the  genuine 
letters,  written  by  Byron  to  Mrs.  Leigh,  which  have  been 
published  in  their  entirety,  from  the  original  documents, 
in  previous  volumes  of  this  collection.  It  is  not  known 
by  whom  the  extracts  were  made,  or  by  whose  agency 
they  reached  the  press :  they  are  not  only  fragmentary 
in  form,  but,  in  many  instances,  when  compared  with  the 
originals,  they  have  evidently  undergone  considerable 
alterations.  Two  of  these  extracts  purport  to  be  taken 
from  letters  written  in  the  autumn  of  1820.  In  the 
circumstances,  it  has  been  decided  not  to  include  them 
in  this  collection. 


November  1 6,  1900. 




786.  April  3.       To  Lady  Byron I 

787.  April  6.            „         „             2 

788.  April  6.        To  John  Hanson 3 

789.  April  9.         To  John  Murray 5 

790.  April  1 1.             „           ,,         7 

791.  April  16.             ,,           „         8 

792.  April  18.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  10 

793.  April  22.  ,,  ,,                „          ....  12 

794.  April  23.      To  John  Murray 16 

795.  May  8.                „            „        . 20 

796.  May  20.              ,,            ,,        25 

797.  May  20.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  26 

798.  May  20.        To  John  Murray 27 

799.  May  24.        To  Thomas  Moore 29 

800.  May  25.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  33 

801.  June  i.          To  Thomas  Moore 34 

802.  June  7.          To  John  Murray 36 

803.  June  8.               „     ,       „         40 

804.  June  9.          To  Thomas  Moore 41 

805.  June  12.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  43 

806.  June  15.        To  Charles  Hanson 45 

807.  July  6.          To  John  Murray 46 

808.  July  13.         To  Thomas  Moore 48 

809.  July  17.        To  John  Murray 52 

810.  July  20.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  55 

811.  July  22.        To  John  Murray 57 

812.  July  24.              ,,            ,,         62 

v"l  LIST   OF   LETTERS. 


813.  July  27.        To  John  Hanson 62 

814.  Aug.  2.         To  Charles  Hanson 63 

815.  Aug.  7.         To  John  Murray 63 

816.  Aug.  12.  „  64 

817.  Aug.  17. 

818.  Aug.  22. 

819.  Aug.  24. 

820.  Aug.  29. 

821.  Aug.  31. 



822.  Aug.  31.       To  John  Hanson 69 

823.  Aug.  31.       To  Thomas  Moore 70 

824.  Sept.  7.         To  John  Murray 71 

825.  SeptS.              „            „        73 

826.  Sept.  10.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  73 

827.  Sept.  n.      To  John  Murray 75 

828.  Sept.  14.            „            , 76 

829.  Sept.  21.            „            „        76 

830.  Sept.  23.            „            „        77 

831.  Sept.  28.            „            „        80 

832.  Sept.  28.            „            „        81 

833.  Oct.  i.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  86 

834.  Oct.  6.          To  John  Murray 86 

835.  Oct.  8.               „            „        89 

836.  Oct.  12.             „            , 93 

837.  Oct.  12.       To  John  Hanson 97 

838.  Oct.  13.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  98 

839.  Oct.  16.        To  John  Murray 98 

840.  Oct.  17.              „            „        loo 

841.  Oct.  17.        ToiThomas  Moore 104 

842.  Oct.  25.        To  John  Murray 106 

843.  Nov.  4.               „            , 107 

844.  Nov.  5.         To  Thomas  Moore no 

845.  Nov.  9.         To  John  Murray 113 

846.  Nov.  18.            „            „        118 

847.  Nov.  19.            „            „ 121 

848.  Nov.  23.             „            ,, 128 

849.  Nov.  30.       To  John  Hanson 130 

850.  Dec.  9.         To  Thomas  Moore 131 

851.  Dec.  9.                „               „         133 

852.  Dec.  9.         To  John  Murray 135 

853.  Dec.  10.             „            ,,        137 

854.  Dec.  14.             „             „        137 


855.  Dec.  22.       To  Francis  Hodgson 140 

856.  Dec.  25.       To  Thomas  Moore 143 

857.  Dec.  28.       To  John  Murray 145 


858.  Jan.  2.          To  Thomas  Moore 212 

859.  Jan.  4.          To  John  Murray 216 

860.  Jan.  6.       ,      ,,   219 

861.  Jan.  n.      ,     „   221 

862.  Jan.  ii.      ,      „   222 

863.  Jan.  19.      ,      „   224 

864.  Jan.  20.      ,      „    226 

865.  Jan.  20.      ,      ,,   228 

866.  Jan.  22.        To  Thomas  Moore 229 

867.  Jan.  27.        To  John  Murray 231 

868.  Jan.  28.  To  Richard  Beigrave  Hoppner     ....  233 

869.  Feb.  2.         To  John  Murray 234 

870.  Feb.  12.  „  „        237 

871.  Feb.  15.  To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire   .     .  237 

872.  Feb.  16.       To  John  Murray 241 

873.  Feb.  21.  „  „        246 

874.  Feb.  22.        To  Thomas  Moore 251 

875.  Feb.  26.       To  John  Murray 253 

876.  March  I.  „  ,,        254 

877.  March  2.  „  ,,        256 

878.  March  9.  ,,  ,,        257 

879.  March  12.          ,,  „        258 

880.  March—  „  ,,         258 

88 1.  April  3.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner     ....  262 

882.  April  21.      To  John  Murray 265 

883.  April  26.       To  Percy  Bysshe  Shelley 266 

884.  April  26.       To  John  Murray 269 

885.  April  28.       To  Thomas  Moore 271 

886.  Mays.  „  , 273 

887.  May  8.          To  John  Murray 275 

888.  May  10.  „          „        276 

889.  May  ii.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner     ....  279 

890.  May  12.        To  Francis  Hodgson 281 

891.  May  14.       To  John  Murray 285 

892.  May  14.       To  Thomas  Moore 286 

893.  May  17.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner     ....  288 

894.  May  19.        To  John  Murray 289 


895.  Undated.      To  Madame  Guiccioli 294 

896.  May  20.       To  Thomas  Moore 295 

897.  May  25.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  296 

898.  May  25.        To  John  Murray 297 

899.  May  28.               „         „          30° 

900.  May  30.               „         „          3°° 

901.  May  31.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner    ....  302 

902.  June  4.         To  Thomas  Moore 3°3 

903.  June  12.  To  Giovanni  Battista  Missiaglia   ....  307 

904.  June  14.       To  John  Murray 3°8 

905.  June  22.        To  Thomas  Moore 3°9 

906.  June  29.       To  John  Murray 311 

907.  July  5.          To  Thomas  Moore 3r8 

908.  July  6.          To  John  Murray 320 

909-  July  7-                 „          »         321 

910.  July  9.                 „           „        322 

911.  July  14.                ,,           „         322 

912.  July  22.                „           „         324 

913.  July  23.  To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner     ....  327 

914.  July  30.        To  John  Murray 329 

915.  Aug.  2.        To  Thomas  Moore 332 

916.  Aug.  4.        To  John  Murray 337 

917.  Aug.  7.                „           „        338 

918.  Aug.  7.                „          „         338 

919.  Aug.  10.              „          „        342 

920.  Aug.  13.              „           , 343 

921.  Aug.  16.              ,,          ,,         ...          344 

922.  Aug.  23.              „           , 346 

923.  Aug.  24.      To  Thomas  Moore 349 

924.  Aug.  31.       To  John  Murray 351 

925.  Undated.             ,,          „         354 

926.  Aug.  31.       To  J.  Mawman 354 

927.  Sept.  3.        To  Thomas  Moore 355 

928.  Sept.  4.        To  John  Murray 357 

929.  Sept.  4.                ,,           ,,        357 

930.  Undated.             ,,          ,,        359 

931.  Sept.  9.  „          „         36o 

932.  Sept.  10.              „          „         36o 

933.  Sept.  12.              „          „         361 

934.  Sept.  17.       To  Thomas  Moore 3^4 

935.  Sept.  19.  „          , 364 

936.  Sept.  20.  „  „         369 



937.  Sept.  20.      To  John  Murray 369 

938.  Sept.  24.             „           „         373 

939.  Sept.  27.                          „         376 

940.  Sept.  27.      To  Thomas  Moore 377 

941..  Sept.  28.      To  John  Murray 378 

942.  Sept.  29.      To  Thomas  Moore 381 

943.  [Mar.  i.]      To  Lady  Byron 382 

944.  Oct.  i.          To  Thomas  Moore 384 

945.  Oct.  4.          To  John  Murray 386 

946.  Oct.  6.          To  Thomas  Moore 387 

947.  Oct.  9.          To  John  Murray 388 

948.  Oct.  20.               „          „         392 

949.  Oct.  21.        To  Samuel  Rogers 394 

950.  Oct.  26.        To  John  Murray 396 

951.  Oct.  26.               „           „         397 

952.  Oct.  28.        To  Thomas  Moore 397 

953.  Oct.  30.        To  John  Murray 400 

954.  Nov.  3.                „           „         469 

955.  Nov.  9.                „           „         472 

956.  Nov.  12.              ,,           ,,         472 

957.  Nov.  14.             „          ,,        473 

958.  Undated.            „           „         475 

959.  Nov.  1 6.       To  Thomas  Moore 475 

960.  Nov.  17.       To  Lady  Byron 479 

961.  Nov.  20.       To  Douglas  Kinnaird 481 

962.  Nov.  24.       To  John  Murray 483 

963.  Dec.  4.                „          „         486 

964.  Dec.  8.         To  John  Sheppard 488 

965.  Dec.  10.       To  John  Murray 491 

966.  Dec.  12.       To  Thomas  Moore 493 

967.  Dec.  12.       To  Percy  Bysshe  Shelley 495 

968.  Undated.     To  Thomas  Moore 495 




CANTO  V.  ...  ...  ...  ...  i 


FEBRUARY  27,  1821    ...  ...  ...    147 

THE  VISION  OF  JUDGMENT  ...  ...  212 


THOUGHTS,  OCTOBER  15, 1821,  TO  MAY  18, 
1822  ...  ...  ...  ...  403 


CAIN  ...  ...  ...  ...    469 



JANE  CLAIRMONT  ...  ...  497 

„         II.    GOETHE  AND  BYRON     ...  ...    503 


„        IV.    THOMAS     MULOCK'S     LINES    TO 

BYRON  ...  ...  ...    593 

„          V.    BYRON'S   ADDRESS  TO  THE  NEA- 
„        VI.    BACON'S  APOPHTHEGMS              ...    597 


BYRON'S  LETTER        ...  ...    60 1 

GUSON ...  ...  ...  604 



TAKEN  IN  MAY,  1823  ...  ...  ...  Frontispiece 

LECTION ...  ...  ...  ...  To  face  p.  4 



CURRAN,    PAINTED    IN    ROME    IN    l8ig      ...  ,,         ,,        266 


DRAWING    BY  O.  F.  M.  WARD,  IN  THE  .,i 

POSSESSION  OF  JOHN  MURRAY,  ESQ.       ...        ,,      „  * -394 

HUNT  „  „  494 




DECEMBER,  1820. 


786.— To  Lady  Byron.1 

Ravenna,  April  3,  1820. 

I  RECEIVED  yesterday   your  answer  dated  March  10. 
My  offer  was  an  honest  one,  and  surely  could  be  only 

I.  Lady  Byron's  answer  to  Byron's  letter  of  January  I,  1820,  was 
sent  by  him  to  Moore,  in  whose  Diary  it  is  published  (Memoirs,  etc., 
vol.  iii.  pp.  114,  115) — 

"Kirkby  Mallory,  March  10,  1820. 

"I  received  your  letter  of  January  I,  offering  to  my  perusal  a 
'  memoir  of  part  of  your  life.  I  decline  to  inspect  it.  I  consider 
'  the  publication  or  circulation  of  such  a  composition  at  any  time 
'  as  prejudicial  to  Ada's  future  happiness.  For  my  own  sake,  I 
1  have  no  reason  to  shrink  from  publication  ;  but,  notwithstanding 
'  the  injuries  which  I  have  suffered,  I  should  lament  some  of  the 
'  consequences. 

"  A.  BYRON." 

Byron's  reply,  given  above,  was  sent  by  him  to  Moore  to  forward 
to  Lady  Byron. 

VOL.  V.  ^*        C 


construed  as  such  even  by  the  most  malignant  Casuistry. 
I  could  answer  you ;  but  it  is  too  late,  and  it  is  not  worth 

To  the  mysterious  menace  of  the  last  sentence — 
whatever  its  import  may  be — and  I  really  cannot  pretend 
to  unriddle  it, — I  could  hardly  be  very  sensible,  even  if  I 
understood  it,  as,  before  it  could  take  place,  I  shall  be 
where  "  nothing  can  touch  him  farther." x  I  advise  yo,u, 
however,  to  anticipate  the  period  of  your  intention ;  for 
be  assured  no  power  of  figures  can  avail  beyond  the 
present;  and,  if  it  could,  I  would  answer  with  the 
Florentine  2 — 

"  Ed  io,  che  posto  son  con  loro  in  croce 

e  certo 

LayZmz  moglie,  piii  ch'altro,  mi  nuoce." 

787.— To  Lady  Byron.3 

Ravenna,  April  6l.h  1820. 

In  February  last,  at  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Douglas 
Kinnaird,  I  wrote  to  you  on  the  proposition  of  the 

1.  Macbeth,  act  iii.  sc.  2. 

2.  Byron  quotes  from  Dante's  Inferno,  canto  xvi.  lines  43-45. 
In  Round  3  of  Circle  vii.  of  Hell,  Dante  meets  three  Florentines — 
Guido  Guerra,  Tegghiaio  Aldobrandi,  and  Jacopo  Rusticucci — who 
have  sinned  against  nature.     The  latter  is  the  spokesman — 

1 '  Ed  io,  che  posto  son  con  loro  in  croce, 
Jacopo  Rusticucci  fui ;  e  certo 
La  fiera  moglie  piu  ch'altro  mi  nuoce." 

Rusticucci  held  a  distinguished  place  in  the  councils  of  Florence, 
representing  her  (1254)  in  her  foreign  affairs.  He  owed  his  place  in 
Hell  to  the  savage  temper  of  his  wife,  and  his  story  is  told  by 
Benvenuto  Rambaldi  da  Imola  to  illustrate  the  consequences  of 
ill-assorted  marriages.  "  Vir  popularis,  sed  tamen  valde  politicus 
"etmoralis.  .  .  .  qui  poterat  videri  satis  felix  .  .  .  nisi  habuisset 
"uxorem  pravam  ;  habuit  enim  mulierem  ferocem,  cum  qua  vivere 
"non  poterat ;  ideo  dedit  se  turpitudini." 

3.  Printed  from  a  draft  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Murray. 


Dublin  investment,1  and,  to  put  you  more  in  possession 
of  his  opinions,  I  enclosed  his  letter.  I  now  enclose  you 
a  statement  of  Mr.  Hanson's,  and,  to  say  the  truth,  I  am 
at  a  loss  what  to  think  or  decide  upon  between  such  very 
opposite  views  of  the  question. 

Perhaps  you  will  lay  it  before  your  trustees.  I  for 
my  own  part  am  ignorant  of  business,  and  am  so  little 
able  to  judge,  that  I  should  be  disposed  to  think  with 
them,  whatever  their  ideas  may  be  upon  the  subject. 
One  thing  is  certain ;  I  cannot  consent  to  sell  out  of  the 
funds  at  a  loss,  and  the  Dublin  House  should  be  insured. 

Excuse  all  this  trouble;  but  as  it  is  your  affair  as 
well  as  mine,  you  will  pardon  it.  I  have  an  innate 
distrust  and  detestation  of  the  public  funds  and  their 
precarious  [  ?  ] ;  but  still  the  sacrifice  of  the  removal 
(at  least  at  present)  may  be  too  great.  I  do  not  know 
what  to  think,  nor  does  any  body  else,  I  believe. 


I  iecd.  yours  of  March  lo".1,  and  enclosed  an  answer 
(to  Mr.  Thomas  Moore)  to  be  forwarded  to  you. 

788.— To  John  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  April  6^  1820. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  have  just  received  yours  dated  March 
22d.  Your  January  packet  only  arrived  last  Sunday,  so 

I.  Charles  John  Gardiner  (1782-1829),  who  succeeded  his  father 
(1798)  as  second  Viscount  Mountjoy,  and  was  created  Earl  of 
Blessington  in  1816,  had  impaired  his  fortune  by  his  taste  for 
magnificence,  passion  for  the  stage,  and  reckless  expenditure.  He 
owned  the  Ormond  Quays  as  well  as  Henrietta  Street  in  Dublin, 
and  it  was  on  this  property  that  Byron  was  advised  to  advance 
money.  But  the  advance  was  in  the  end  not  made  by  Byron's 
trustees.  Lord  Blessington  married,  (i)  in  1812,  Mary  Campbell, 
widow  of  Major  Browne ;  (2)  in  1818,  Marguerite  Power,  second 
daughter  of  Edmund  Power,  of  Curragheen,  co.  Waterford,  and 
widow  of  Maurice  St.  Leger  Farmer,  Captain  47th  Regiment. 


that  I  shall  put  off  replying  to  it  for  the  present  (as  there 
is   a  witness    wanting  for  the  Scotch   deed,   etc.),   and 
answer  your  March  epistle,  which,  as  you  yourself  say, 
is  of  much  more  importance. 
But  how  shall  I  answer  ? 

Between  the  devil  and  deep  Sea,1 
Between  the  Lawyer  and  Trustee — 

it  is  difficult  to  decide.  Mr.  Kinnaird  writes  that  the 
Mortgage  is  the  most  advantageous  thing  possible;  you 
write  that  it  is  quite  the  contrary.  You  are  both  my  old 
acquaintances,  both  men  of  business,  and  both  give  good 
reasons  for  both  your  opinions ;  and  the  result  is  that  I 
finish  by  having  no  opinion  at  all.  I  cannot  see  that  it 
could  any  way  be  the  interest  of  either  to  persuade  me 
either  one  way  or  the  other,  unless  you  thought  it  for  my 
advantage.  In  short,  do  settle  it  among  you  if  you  can, 
for  I  am  at  my  wits'  end  betwixt  your  contrary  opinions. 
One  thing  is  positive.  /  will  not  agree  to  sell  out  of  the 
funds  at  a  loss,  and  the  Dublin  House  property  must  be 
insured;  but  you  should  not  have  waited  till  the  Funds 
get  low  again,  as  you  have  done,  so  as  to  make  the  affair 
impracticable.  I  retain,  however,  my  bad  opinion  of  the 
funds,  and  must  insist  on  the  money  being  one  day 
placed  on  better  security  somewhere.  Of  Irish  Security, 
and  Irish  Law,  I  know  nothing,  and  cannot  take  upon 
me  to  dispute  your  Statement ;  but  I  prefer  higher 
Interest  for  my  Money  (like  everybody  else  I  believe), 
and  shall  be  glad  to  make  as  much  as  I  can  at  the  least 
risk  possible. 

It  is  a  pity  that  I   am  not  upon  the  Spot,  but  I 

I.  So  Cuddie  Headrigg,  appealing  to  Claverhouse  to  save 
Morton  from  the  Cameronians,  found  himself  "atween  the  deil  and 
"  the  deep  sea." — Old  Mortality,  chap,  xxxiii. 

1820.]  BETWEEN    LAWYER   AND   TRUSTEE.  5 

cannot  make  it  at  all  convenient  to  come  to  England  for 
the  present. 

I  am  truly  pleased  to  hear  that  there  is  a  prospect  of 
terminating  the  Rochdale  Business,  in  one  way  or  the 
other  :  pray  see  if  out.  It  has  been  hitherto  a  dead  loss 
of  time  and  expences,  but  may  I  suppose  pay  in  the  long 
run;  and  if  you  could  for  once  be  a  little  qiiicker  about  that, 
or  anything  else,  it  would  be  a  great  gain  to  me  and  no 
loss  to  you,  as  our  final  Settlement  naturally  will  depend 
in  some  measure  upon  the  result.  If  the  claim  could  be 
adjusted,  and  the  whole  brought  to  the  hammer,  I  could 
clear  every  thing,  and  know  what  I  really  possess. 

Pray  write  to  me  (direct  to  Ravenna).  I  do  not  feel 
justified  in  the  present  state  of  the  funds,  and  on  your 
statement,  of  urging  the  fulfilment  of  the  Blessington 
Mortgage,  and  yet  I  feel  sorry  that  it  does  not  seem 
feasible.  At  any  rate,  see  Mr.  Kinnaird  upon  it  and 
come  to  some  decision.  Let  me  hear  about  Rochdale. 

Yours  ever  truly, 


P.S. — Advance  old  Joe  Murray  whatever  may  be 
necessary  and  proper,  and  it  will  be  deducted  from  my 
Bankers  ace' 

789. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  April  9,  1820. 

D?  S*, — In  the  name  of  all  the  devils  in — the 
printing  office,  why  don't  you  write  to  acknowledge  the 
receipt  of  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  packets,  viz. 
the  Pulci — translation  and  original,  the  Danticles, 
the  Observations  on,  etc.?  You  forget  that  you  keep 
me  in  hot  water  till  I  know  whether  they  are  arrived, 
or  if  I  must  have  the  bore  of  recopying. 


I  send  you  "  a  Song  of  Triumph "  by  W.  Botherby, 
Esq1?,  price  sixpence,  on  the  Election  of  J.  C.  H.  Esqre 
for  Westminster  (not  for  publication) ; 

Would  you  go  to  the  House  by  the  true  gate, 
Much  faster  than  ever  Whig  Charley  went ; 

Let  Parliament  send  you  to  Newgate, 

And  Newgate  will  send  you  to  Parliament. 

Have  you  gotten  the  cream  of  translations,  Francesca 
of  Rimini,  from  the  Inferno  ?  Why,  I  have  sent  you  a 
warehouse  of  trash  within  the  last  month,  and  you  have 
no  sort  of  feeling  about  you  :  a  pastry-cook  would  have 
had  twice  the  gratitude,  and  thanked  me  at  least  for  the 

To  make  the  letter  heavier,  I  enclose  you  the 
Cardinal  Legate's  (one  Campeius)  circular  for  his 
Conversazione  this  evening :  it  is  the  anniversary  of  the 
Pope's  tiaration,  and  all  polite  Christians,  even  of  the 
Lutheran  creed,  must  go  and  be  civil.  And  there  will 
be  a  Circle,  and  a  Faro-table,  (for  shillings,  that  is — they 
don't  allow  high  play)  and  all  the  beauty,  nobility,  and 
Sanctity  of  Ravenna  present.  The  Cardinal  himself  is  a 
very  good-natured  little  fellow,  Bishop  of  Imola  and 
Legate  here, — a  devout  believer  in  all  the  doctrines  of 
the  Church.  He  has  kept  his  housekeeper  these  forty 
years,  for  his  carnal  recreation  ;  but  is  reckoned  a  pious 
man,  and  a  moral  liver. 

I  am  not  quite  sure  that  I  won't  be  among  you  this 
autumn,  for  I  find  that  business  don't  go  on — what  with 
trustees  and  Lawyers — as  it  should  do,  "with  all 
"  deliberate  speed."  They  differ  about  investments  in 

Between  the  devil  and  deep  Sea, 
Between  the  Lawyer  and  Trustee, 


I  am  puzzled ;  and  so  much  time  is  lost  by  my  not  being 
upon  the  spot — what  with  answers,  demurs,  rejoinders, 
that  it  may  be  I  must  come  and  look  to  it.  For  one 
says  do,  and  t'other  don't,  so  that  I  know  not  which  way 
to  turn.  But  perhaps  they  can  manage  without  me. 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — I  have  begun  a  tragedy  on  the  subject  of 
Marino  Faliero,1  the  Doge  of  Venice ;  but  you  shan't  see 
it  these  six  years,  if  you  don't  acknowledge  my  packets 
with  more  quickness  and  precision.  Always  write,  if  but 
a  line,  by  return  of  post,  when  anything  arrives,  which  is 
not  a  mere  letter. 

Address  direct  to  Ravenna ;  it  saves  a  week's  time, 
and  much  postage. 

790. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  April  11*  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Pray  forward  the  enclosed  letter  to 
a  fiddler.  In  Italy  they  are  called  "  Professors  of  the 
"Violin."  You  should  establish  one  at  each  of  the 


P.S. — Pray  forward  it  carefully  with  a  frank :  it  is 
from  a  poor  fellow  to  his  musical  Uncle,  of  whom  nothing 
has  been  heard  these  three  years  (though  what  he  can 
have  been  doing  at  Belfast,  Belfast  best  knows),  so  that 
they  are  afraid  of  some  mischief  having  befallen  him  or 
his  fiddle. 

I.  Published  with  the  Prophecy  of  Dante,  April  21,  1821. 


791. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  April  16,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Post  after  post  arrives  without 
bringing  any  acknowledgement  from  you  of  the  different 
packets  (excepting  the  first)  which  I  have  sent  within  the 
last  two  months,  all  of  which  ought  to  be  arrived  long 
ere  now ;  and  as  they  were  announced  in  other  letters, 
you  ought  at  least  to  say  whether  they  are  come  or  not. 
You  are  not  expected  to  write  frequent  or  long  letters,  as 
your  time  is  much  occupied ;  but  when  parcels  that  have 
cost  some  pains  in  the  composition,  and  great  trouble  in 
the  copying,  are  sent  to  you,  I  should  at  least  be  put  out 
of  Suspense  by  the  immediate  acknowledgement,  per 
return  of  post,  addressed  directly  to  Ravenna.  I  am 
naturally — knowing  what  continental  posts  are — anxious 
to  hear  that  they  are  arrived ;  especially  as  I  loathe  the 
task  of  copying  so  much,  that  if  there  was  a  human  being 
that  could  copy  my  blotted  MSS.  he  should  have  all  they 
can  ever  bring  for  his  trouble.  All  I  desire  is  two  lines, 
to  say,  such  a  day  I  received  such  a  packet :  there  are 
now  at  least  six  unacknowledged.  This  is  neither  kind 
nor  courteous. 

I  have,  besides,  another  reason  for  desiring  you  to  be 
speedy,  which  is,  that  there  is  THAT  brewing  in  Italy 
which  will  speedily  cut  off  all  security  of  communication, 
and  set  all  your  Anglo-travellers  flying  in  every  direction, 
with  their  usual  fortitude  in  foreign  tumults.  The 
Spanish  and  French  affairs  have  set  the  Italians  in  a 
ferment ; l  and  no  wonder :  they  have  been  too  long 

I.  In  France,  after  the  fall  of  Decazes,  who,  as  Chateaubriand 
said,  "slipped  in  the  blood"  of  the  Due  de  Berri  (assassinated 
February  13,  1820),  the  Due  de  Richelieu  abandoned  the  attempt 
to  reconcile  revolutionary  changes  with  Bourbon  principles.  The 
Government  became  reactionary.  The  franchise  was  restricted, 
liberty  of  the  press  attacked,  education  entrusted  to  the  clergy,  and 

1 820.]  ITALY    IN    A    FERMENT.  9 

trampled  on.  This  will  make  a  sad  scene  for  your 
exquisite  traveller,  but  not  for  the  resident,  who  naturally 

the  loyalty  of  the  army  alienated  by  the  treatment  of  imperialist 
veterans.  Discontent,  fanned  by  the  songs  of  Beranger,  spread 
rapidly.  The  chevaliers  de  la  liberte  allied  with  the  Carbonari,  and 
in  their  Ventes,  or  lodges,  were  enrolled  men  like  Lafayette  and 
Lafitte.  Plots  were  formed  which  led  to  insurrections  at  Befort, 
Marseilles,  Saumur,  and  La  Rochelle.  The  attempted  risings  were 
suppressed  ;  the  despatch  of  a  military  force  into  Spain,  April, 
1823,  relieved  the  discontent  of  the  army,  and  the  crisis  was  post- 

In  Spain  and  Italy  the  revolutionary  movement  was  more 
formidable,  and  for  the  moment  more  successful.  In  Spain, 
March  9,  1820,  Ferdinand  VII.  was  forced,  by  the  insurrection 
headed  by  Riego  and  Quiroga,  to  take  the  oath  of  fidelity  to  the 
free  constitution  sanctioned  by  the  Cortes  in  1812,  and  abolished  by 
himself  in  1814.  A  similar  demand  for  representative  government 
was  made  by  the  Neapolitans.  Ferdinand  IV.  King  of  Naples, 
and  afterwards  Ferdinand  I.  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  on  his  restoration 
to  the  throne  of  Naples  (1815),  promised  a  government  in  which 
' '  the  people  should  be  sovereign,  and  the  monarchy  only  the  de- 
"  positary  of  the  laws."  But  he  afterwards  bound  himself  by  a 
secret  treaty  with  Austria  to  introduce  no  principles  of  government 
opposed  to  those  adopted  in  Austrian  Italy.  An  insurrection, 
actively  fostered  by  the  Carbonari,  broke  out  among  the  cavalry  at 
Nola,  July  2,  1820.  The  revolt  spread  with  the  utmost  rapidity. 
Guglielmo  Pepe,  as  Captain-general  of  the  constitutional  forces, 
entered  Naples  (July  6,  1820),  and  received  a  solemn  oath,  accepting 
the  new  Spanish  Constitution,  from  Ferdinand,  who  declared  his 
son,  the  Duke  of  Calabria,  Vicar-General  of  the  kingdom  (July  13). 
In  October,  1820,  the  sovereigns  of  Russia,  Austria,  and  Prussia, 
met  at  Troppau,  and,  on  their  invitation,  Ferdinand  went  to  their 
adjourned  conference  at  Laybach  in  December.  In  February,  1821, 
the  allied  sovereigns  issued  a  declaration  against  the  revolutionary 
constitution,  and  sent  an  Austrian  army  to  re-establish  and  maintain 
the  old  system  of  government. 

Early  in  1821  the  Austrian  army,  under  Marshal  Frimont,  crossed 
the  Po  and  marched  on  Naples.  The  Neapolitans,  under  Pepe  and 
Carrascosa,  made  a  short  stand  near  Rieti  (March  7),  but  were 
defeated,  and  attempted  no  further  resistance.  Pepe  fled  to  Barce- 
lona. Carrascosa  made  terms  for  himself  with  the  Austrians,  who 
(March  23,  1821)  entered  Naples.  In  the  following  May  Ferdinand 
returned  to  his  capital. 

A  widespread  revolution  was  preparing  in  Italy ;  but  it  had  no 
organization,  and  was  crushed  without  difficulty.  In  Piedmont — 
at  Turin  and  Genoa — the  Spanish  constitution  was  established,  and 
the  king,  Victor  Emmanuel  I.,  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  brother, 
Charles  Felix  (March,  1821)  ;  but  the  Piedmontese  constitution- 
alists were  defeated  by  the  Austrians  near  Novara  (April  8),  and 


wishes  a  people  to  redress  itself.  I  shall,  if  permitted 
by  the  natives,  remain  to  see  what  will  come  of  it,  and 
perhaps  to  take  a  turn  with  them,  like  Dugald  Dalgetty 
and  his  horse,  in  case  of  business ;  for  I  shall  think  it 
by  far  the  most  interesting  spectacle  and  moment  in 
existence,  to  see  the  Italians  send  the  Barbarians  of  all 
nations  back  to  their  own  dens.  I  have  lived  long 
enough  among  them  to  feel  more  for  them  as  a  nation 
than  for  any  other  people  in  existence  j  but  they  want 
Union,  and  they  want  principle;  and  I  doubt  their 
success.  However,  they  will  try,  probably ;  and  if  they 
do,  it  will  be  a  good  cause.  No  Italian  can  hate  an 
Austrian  more  than  I  do ;  unless  it  be  the  English, 
the  Austrians  seem  to  me  the  most  obnoxious  race  under 
the  Sky. 

But  I  doubt,  if  anything  be  done,  it  won't  be  so 
quietly  as  in  Spain.  To  be  sure,  Revolutions  are  not 
to  be  made  with  Rose-water,1  where  there  are  foreigners 
as  Masters. 

Write  while  you  can ;  for  it  is  but  the  toss  up  of  a 
Paul  that  there  will  not  be  a  row  that  will  somewhat 
retard  the  Mail  by  and  bye. 

Address  right  to  Ravenna. 


792. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  April  18,  1820. 

DEAR  HOPPNER, — I  have  caused  write  to  Siri  and 
Willhalm  to  send  with  Vincenzo  in  a  boat,  the  camp-beds 

submitted.  At  Modena,  Milan,  Ravenna,  and  Florence,  risings  were 
expected ;  but  they  either  came  to  nothing,  or  were  immediately 

I.  "  Voulez-vous  qu'on  vous  fasse  des  revolutions  a  1'eau  rose  ?  " 
— Marmontel,  Mlmoires  (fun  Fire,  etc.,  Livre  xiv.  (CEuvres  com- 
pities,  ed.  1818-19,  torn.  ii.  p.  294). 

l8zO.]  SIR    H.    DAVY    AT   RAVENNA.  II 

and  swords  left  in  their  care  when  I  quitted  Venice. 
There  are  also  several  pounds  of  Mantoris  best  powder 
in  a  Japan  case ;  but  unless  I  felt  sure  of  getting  it  away 
from  V.  without  seizure,  I  won't  have  it  ventured.  I  can 
get  it  in  here,  by  means  of  an  acquaintance  in  the 
Customs,  who  has  offered  to  get  it  ashore  for  me ;  but 
should  like  to  be  certiorated  of  its  safety  in  leaving 
Venice.  I  would  not  lose  it  for  its  weight  in  gold — 
there  is  none  such  in  Italy,  as  I  take  it  to  be. 

I  wrote  to  you  a  week  or  so  ago,  and  hope  you  are 
in  good  plight  and  spirits.  Sir  Humphry  Davy l  is  here, 
and  was  last  night  at  the  Cardinal's.  As  I  had  been 
there  last  Sunday,  and  yesterday  was  warm,  I  did  not  go, 
which  I  should  have  done,  if  I  had  thought  of  meeting 
the  Man  of  Chemistry.  He  called  this  morning,  and  I 
shall  go  in  search  of  him  at  Corso  time.  I  believe, 
to-day  being  Monday,  there  is  no  great  conversazione, 
and  only  the  family  one  at  the  Marchese  Cavalli's, 
where  I  go  as  a  relation  sometimes ;  so  that,  unless  he 
stays  a  day  or  two,  we  should  hardly  meet  in  public. 

The  theatre  is  to  open  in  May  for  the  fair,  if  there 
is  not  a  row  in  all  Italy  by  that  time, — the  Spanish 
business  has  set  them  all  a-constitutioning,  and  what  will 
be  the  end,  no  one  knows — it  is  also  necessary  thereunto 
to  have  a  beginning. 

You  see  the  blackguards  have  brought  in  Hobhouse 
for  Westminster.  Rochfoucault  says  that  "  there  is 
"something  in  the  misfortunes  of  our  best  friends  not 
"  unpleasing  to  us,"  2  and  it  is  to  this  that  I  attribute  my 
not  being  so  sorry  for  his  election  as  I  ought  to  be, 
seeing  that  it  will  eventually  be  a  millstone  round  his 

1.  See  Letters,  vol.  ii.  p.  226,  note  2. 

2.  Maximes  et  Reflexions  morales ;  ccxli. :  "  Dans  1'adversite   de 
' '  nos  meilleurs  amis,  nous  trouvons  souvent  quelque  chose  qui  ne 
"nous  deplait  pas." 


neck,  for  what  can  he  do  ?  he  can't  take  place ;  he  can't 
take  power  in  any  case ;  if  he  succeeds  in  reforming,  he 
will  be  stoned  for  his  pains  ; — and  if  he  fails,  there  he  is 
stationary  as  Lecturer  for  Westminster. 

Would  you  go  to  the  House  by  the  true  gate, 
Much  faster  than  ever  Whig  Charley  went ; 

Let  Parliament  send  you  to  Newgate, 

And  Newgate  will  send  you  to  Parliament. 

But  Hobhouse  is  a  man  of  real  talent  however,  and  will 
make  the  best  of  his  situation  as  he  has  done  hitherto. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


P.S. — My  benediction  to  Mrs.  Hoppner.  How  is 
your  little  boy  ?  Allegra  is  growing,  and  has  increased 
in  good  looks  and  obstinacy. 

793. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  April  22'.'  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — With  regard  to  Gnoatto,  I 
cannot  relent  in  favour  of  Madame  Mocenigo,  who 
protects  a  rascal  and  retains  him  in  her  service.  Suppose 
the  case  of  your  Servant  or  mine,  you  having  the  same 
claim  upon  F[letche]r  or  I  upon  your  Tim,  would  either 
of  us  retain  them  an  instant  unless  they  paid  the  debt  ? 
As  "  there  is  no  force  in  the  decrees  of  Venice,"  *  no 
Justice  to  be  obtained  from  the  tribunals, — because  even 
conviction  does  not  compel  payment,  nor  enforce  punish- 
ment,— you  must  excuse  me  when  I  repeat  that  not  one 
farthing  of  the  rent  shall  be  paid >  till  either  Gnoatto  pays 
me  his  debt,  or  quits  Madame  Mocenigo's  service.  I 

i .  Merchant  of  Venice^  act  iv.  sc.  I . 

1 820.]  NO   REDRESS,   NO   RENT.  13 

will  abide  by  the  consequences ;  but  I  could  wish  that  no 
time  was  lost  in  apprizing  her  of  the  affair.  You  must 
not  mind  her  relation  Seranzo's  statement ;  he  may  be  a 
very  good  man,  but  he  is  but  a  Venetian,  which  I  take 
to  be  in  the  present  age  the  ne  plus  ultra  of  human 
abasement  in  all  moral  qualities  whatsoever.  I  dislike 
differing  from  you  in  opinion ;  but  I  have  no  other 
course  to  take,  and  either  Gnoatto  pays  me,  or  quits  her 
Service,  or  I  will  resist  to  the  uttermost  the  liquidation 
of  her  rent.  I  have  nothing  against  her,  nor  for  her ; 
I  owe  her  neither  ill  will,  nor  kindness; — but  if  she 
protects  a  Scoundrel,  and  there  is  no  other  redress,  I  will 
make  some. 

It  has  been  and  always  will  be  the  case  where  there 
is  no  law.  Individuals  must  then  right  themselves. 
They  have  set  the  example  "  and  it  shall  go  hard  but  I 
"will  better  the  Instruction."1  Two  words  from  her 
would  suffice  to  make  the  villain  do  his  duty ;  if  they  are 
not  said,  or  if  they  have  no  effect,  let  him  be  dismissed ; 
if  not,  as  I  have  said,  so  will  I  do. 

I  wrote  last  week  to  Siri  to  desire  Vincenzo  to  be  sent 
to  take  charge  of  the  beds  and  Swords  to  this  place  by 
Sea.  I  am  in  no  hurry  for  the  books, — none  whatever, 
— and  don't  want  them. 

Pray  has  not  Mingaldo  the  Biography  of  living 
people  ?  2 — it  is  not  here,  nor  in  your  list.  I  am  not  at 
all  sure  that  he  has  it  either,  but  it  may  be  possible. 

Let  Castelli  go  on  to  the  last.  I  am  determined  to 
see  Merryweather  out  in  this  business,  just  to  discover 
what  is  or  is  not  to  be  done  in  their  tribunals,  and  if 
ever  I  cross  him,  as  I  have  tried  the  law  in  vain,  (since 

1.  Merchant  of  Venice^  act  iii.  sc.  I. 

2.  Probably   Colburn's  Biographical  Dictionary  of  the  Living 
Authors  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland:  comprising  Literary  Memoirs 
and  Anecdotes  of  their  Lives,  etc.     London,  1816,  8vo. 


it  has  but  convicted  him  and  then  done  nothing  in 
consequence) — I  will  try  a  shorter  process  with  that 

About  Allegra,  I  can  only  say  to  Claire l — that  I  so 

I.  After  Allegra  returned  in  October,  1818,  from  her  stay  at  Este 
with  her  mother,  she  remained  with  Byron,  under  the  care  of  a 
maid  chosen  by  Mrs.  Hoppner.  She  had  suffered  from  the  unwhole- 
some climate  of  Venice,  and,  as  Mrs.  Hoppner  wrote  to  Mary 
Shelley,  January,  1819,  "estdevenue  tranquille  et  serieuse  comme 
"une  petite  vieille,  ce  qui  nous  peine  beaucoup"  (Dowden's  Lifeof 
Shelley,  vol.  ii.  p.  328).  For  several  months  no  news  of  the  child 
was  heard  by  the  Shelleys,  except  that  Mrs.  Vavassour's  offer  to 
adopt  her  had  been  declined  by  Byron  (Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  325, 
note  i).  When  Byron  settled  at  Ravenna,  in  the- house  of  Count 
Guiccioli,  Miss  Clairmont  appealed  to  him  through  the  Hoppners 
to  be  allowed  to  see  Allegra.  This  appeal  Byron  answers  in  the 
following  paragraph.  The  substance  of  his  reply  was  communicated, 
April  30,  by  Mrs.  Hoppner  to  Claire,  who  refers  in  her  journal  to 
the  answer  as  "concerning  green  fruit  and  God"  (Dowden's  Life 
of  Shelley,  vol.  ii.  p.  329,  note).  Professor  Dowden  prints,  from  a 
rough  draft  in  Miss  Clairmont's  handwriting  (ibid.,  pp.  329,  330), 
the  mother's  direct  appeal  to  see  her  child,  and  her  protest  against 
the  idea,  here  apparently  for  the  first  time  expressed,  of  placing 
Allegra  in  a  convent : — 

"I  beg  from  you  the  indulgence  of  a  visit  from  my  child,  because 

"  that  I  am  weaker  every  day,  and  more  miserable.     I  have  already 

'  proved  in  ten  thousand  ways  that  I  have  so  loved  her  as  to  have 

'  commanded,  nay,  to  have  destroyed,  such  of  my  feelings  as  would 

'  have  been  injurious  to  her  welfare.     You  answer  my  request  by 

'  menacing,  if  I  do  not  continue  to  suffer  in  silence,  that  you  will 

'  inflict  the  greatest  of  all  evils  on  my  child — you  threaten  to  put 

'  her  in  a  convent,  where  she  will  be  equally  divided  from  us  both. 

' .  .  .  This  calls  to  my  remembrance  the  story  in  the  Bible,  where 

'  Solomon  judges  between  the  two  women ;  the  false  parent  was 

'willing  the  child  should  be  divided,  but  the  feelings  of  the  real 

'one  made  her  consent  to  any  deprivation  rather  than  her  child 

'  should  be  destroyed :   so  I  am  willing  to  undergo  any  affliction 

'  rather  than  her  whole  life  should  be  spoilt  by  a  convent  education." 

Byron's  reply,  though  necessarily  shown  to  Miss  Clairmont,  was 

written  to  Shelley,  who  in  answer  condemns  its  harsh  tone,  but 

admits  the  wisdom  of  Byron's  resolution  to  separate  the  mother  and 

the  child  (May  26,  1820).     The  letters  from  Shelley  to  Byron,  and 

from   Shelley  to  Jane  Clairmont,   printed   in   Appendix  I.,  dated 

respectively  September  17,  1820,  and  March,  1822  (?),  illustrate  the 

writer's  sound  judgment  and  good  feeling.     In  the  same  Appendix 

will  be  found  Jane  Clairmont's  appeal  to  Byron  against  placing 

Allegra  in  the  convent  at  Bagnacavallo. 


totally  disapprove  of  the  mode  of  Children's  treatment  in 
their  family,  that  I  should  look  upon  the  Child  as  going 
into  a  hospital.  Is  it  not  so  ?  Have  they  reared  one l  ? 
Her  health  here  has  hitherto  been  excellent,  and  her 
temper  not  bad;  she  is  sometimes  vain  and  obstinate, 
but  always  clean  and  cheerful,  and  as,  in  a  year  or  two, 
I  shall  either  send  her  to  England,  or  put  her  in  a 
Convent  for  education,  these  defects  will  be  remedied  as 
far  as  they  can  in  human  nature.  But  the  Child  shall 
not  quit  me  again  to  perish  of  Starvation,  and  green  fruit, 
or  be  taught  to  believe  that  there  is  no  Deity.  Whenever 
there  is  convenience  of  vicinity  and  access,  her  Mother 
can  always  have  her  with  her  ;  otherwise  no.  It  was  so 
stipulated  from  the  beginning. 

The  Girl  is  not  so  well  off  as  with  you,  but  far  better 
than  with  them ;  the  fact  is  she  is  spoilt,  being  a  great 
favourite  with  every  body  on  account  of  the  fairness  of 
her  Skin,  which  shines  among  their  dusky  children  like 
the  milky  way,  but  there  is  no  comparison  of  her  situation 
now,  and  that  under  Elise,  or  with  them.  She  has  grown 
considerably,  is  very  clean,  and  lively.  She  has  plenty 
of  air  and  exercise  at  home,  and  she  goes  out  daily  with 
M?  Guiccioli  in  her  carriage  to  the  Corso. 

The  paper  is  finished  and  so  must  the  letter  be. 

Yours  ever, 

My  best  respects  to  Mrs.  H.  and  the  little  boy — and 

I.  Shelley  and  his  wife  Mary  had  lost  three  children — an  infant, 
born  February  22,  1815,  died  March  6,  1815;  Clara  Everina,  born 
September  2,  1817,  died  at  Venice,  September  24,  1818 ;  William, 
born  January  24,  1816,  died  at  Rome,  June  7,  1819. 


794. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  April  23,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — The  proofs  don't  contain  the  last 
stanzas  of  Canto  second,  but  end  abruptly  with  the  losth 

I  told  you  long  ago  that  the  new  Cantos  1  were  not 
good,  and  I  also  told  you  a  reason :  recollect,  I  do  not 
oblige  you  to  publish  them ;  you  may  suppress  them,  if 
you  like,  but  I  can  alter  nothing.  I  have  erased  the 
six  stanzas  about  those  two  impostors,  Southey  and 
Wordsworth  (which  I  suppose  will  give  you  great 
pleasure),  but  I  can  do  no  more.  I  can  neither  recast, 
nor  replace ;  but  I  give  you  leave  to  put  it  all  into  the 
fire,  if  you  like,  or  not  to  publish,  and  I  think  that's 

I  told  you  that  I  wrote  on  with  no  good  will — that  I 
had  been,  not  frightened,  but  hurt  by  the  outcry,  and, 
besides  that,  when  I  wrote  last  November,  I  was  ill  in 
body,  and  in  very  great  distress  of  mind  about  some 
private  things  of  my  own ;  but  you  would  have  it :  so  I 
sent  it  to  you,  and  to  make  it  lighter,  cut  it  in  two — but 
I  can't  piece  it  together  again.  I  can't  cobble  :  I  must 
"  either  make  a  spoon  or  spoil  a  horn,"  2 — and  there's  an 
end ;  for  there's  no  remeid :  but  I  leave  you  free  will  to 
suppress  the  whole,  if  you  like  it. 

1.  Don  Juan,  Cantos  III.,  IV. 

2.  So  the  elder  Mr.  Fairford,  when  his  son,  Alan,  made  his  suc- 
cessful debut  in  the  case  of  "  Poor  Peter  Peebles  versus  Plainstanes," 
answered  the  congratulations  of  his  friends,  ' '  his  voice  faltering,  as 

'  he  replied,  '  Ay,  ay,  I  kend  Alan  was  the  lad  to  make  a  spoon  or 
'  spoil  a  horn.'  "  Scott  explains  in  a  note  the  origin  of  the  proverb  : 
'  Said  of  an  adventurous  gipsy,  who  resolves  at  all  risks  to  convert 
'a  sheep's  horn  into  a  spoon"  (Redgauntlet,  chap.  i.  of  the 
'Narrative").  So  also  Baillie  Nicol  Jarvie  (Rob  Roy,  chap,  xxii.) 
ays,  "  Mr.  Osbaldistone  is  a  gude  honest  gentleman  ;  but  I  aye 
'  said  he  was  ane  o'  them  wad  make  a  spune  or  spoil  a  horn,  as  my 
'father  the  worthy  deacon  used  to  say." 

1 8 20.]  SIR  WALTER   SCOTT,    BART.  IJ 

About  the  Morgante  Maggiore,  I  won't  have  a  line 
omitted:  it  may  circulate,  or  it  may  not;  but  all  the 
Criticism  on  earth  shan't  touch  a  line,  unless  it  be 
because  it  is  badly  translated.  Now  you  say,  and  I  say, 
and  others  say,  that  the  translation  is  a  good  one ;  and 
so  it  shall  go  to  press  as  it  is.  Pulci  must  answer  for  his 
own  irreligion  :  I  answer  for  the  translation  only. 

I  am  glad  you  have  got  the  Dante  ;  and  there  should 
be  by  this  time  a  translation  of  his  Francesca  of  Rimini 
arrived  to  append  to  it. 

I  sent  you  a  quantity  of  prose  observations  x  in  answer 
to  Wilson,  but  I  shall  not  publish  them  at  present :  keep 
them  by  you  as  documents. 

Pray  let  Mr.  Hobhouse  look  to  the  Italian  next  time 
in  the  proofs :  this  time,  while  I  am  scribbling  to  you, 
they  are  corrected  by  one  who  passes  for  the  prettiest 
woman  in  Romagna,  and  even  the  Marches,  as  far  as 
Ancona — be  the  other  who  she  may. 

I  am  glad  you  like  my  answer  to  your  enquiries 
about  Italian  Society  :  it  is  fit  you  should  like  something, 
and  be  damned  to  you. 

My  love  to  Scott.  I  shall  think  higher  of  knighthood 
ever  after  for  his  being  dubbed.2  By  the  way,  he  is  the 
first  poet  titled  for  his  talent  in  Britain  :  it  has  happened 
abroad  before  now;  but  on  the  continent  titles  are 
universal  and  worthless.  Why  don't  you  send  me 
Ivanhoe  and  the  Monastery  ?3  I  have  never  written  to 
Sir  Walter,  for  I  know  he  has  a  thousand  things,  and  I 
a  thousand  nothings,  to  do ;  but  I  hope  to  see  him  at 

1.  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  Appendix  IX. 

2.  In  the  Gazette  for  April  I,  1820,  appears  the  announcement  : 
"The  dignity  of  Baronet  granted  to  Walter  Scott,  Esq.  (the  cele- 
brated poet),  and  his  heirs  male." 

3.  Ivanhoe,  The  Monastery ;  and  The  Abbot,  were  all  published  in 

VOL.  V.  C 


Abbotsford  before  very  long,  and  I  will  sweat  his  Claret 
for  him,  though  Italian  abstemiousness  has  made  my 
brain  but  a  shilpit1  concern  for  a  Scotch  sitting  inter 
pocula.  I  love  Scott  and  Moore,  and  all  the  better 
brethren;  but  I  hate  and  abhor  that  puddle  of  water- 
worms  whom  you  have  taken  into  your  troop  in  the 
history  line  I  see.  I  am  obliged  to  end  abruptly. 


P.S. — You  say  that  one  Jialf*  is  very  good  :  you  are 
wrong;  for,  if  it  were,  it  would  be  the  finest  poem  in 
existence.  Where  is  the  poetry  of  which  one  half  is 
good  ?  is  it  the  ^Eneid?  is  it  Milton's?  is  it  Dry  den's  ?  is 
it  any  one's  except  Pope's  and  Goldsmith's,  of  which  all 
is  good  ?  and  yet  these  two  last  are  the  poets  your  pond 
poets  would  explode.  But  if  one  half 'of  the  two  new 
Cantos  be  good  in  your  opinion,  what  the  devil  would 
you  have  more  ?  No — no :  no  poetry  is  generally  good 
— only  by  fits  and  starts — and  you  are  lucky  to  get  a 
sparkle  here  and  there.  You  might  as  well  want  a 
Midnight  all  stars  as  rhyme  all  perfect. 

We  are  on  the  verge  of  a  row  here.  Last  night  they 
have  overwritten  all  the  city  walls  with  "  Up  with  the 
"  Republic ! "  and  "  death  to  the  Pope  ! "  etc.,  etc.  This 
would  be  nothing  in  London,  where  the  walls  are 
privileged,  and  where,  when  somebody  went  to  Chancellor 
Thurlow  to  tell  him,  as  an  alarming  sign,  that  he  had 
seen  "  Death  to  the  king  "  on  the  park  wall,  old  Thurlow 
asked  him  if  he  had  ever  seen  "  *  "  chalked  on  the  same 
place,  to  which  the  alarmist  responding  in  the  affirmative, 

1.  Balmawhapple,  carousing  at  Luckie  Macleary's,  and  fortified 
by  the  Bear  and   the  Hen,  ' '  pronounced  the   claret  shilpit,  and 
"demanded  brandy  with  great  vociferation  "  ( IVavwley,  chap.  xi.). 

2.  Of  Don  Juan. 

1 820.]  MURAL    INSCRIPTIONS.  1 9 

Thurlow  resumed  "  and  so  have  I  for  these  last  30  years, 
"  and  yet  it  never  *  *  *  *."  But  here  it  is  a  different 
thing :  they  are  not  used  to  such  fierce  political  inscrip- 
tions, and  the  police  is  all  on  the  alert,  and  the  Cardinal 
glares  pale  through  all  his  purple. 

April  24,  1820,  8  o'clock,  P.M. 

The  police  have  been,  all  Noon  and  after,  searching 
for  the  Inscribers,  but  have  caught  none  as  yet.  They 
must  have  been  all  night  about  it,  for  the  "  Live  republics 
" — death  to  popes  and  priests,"  are  innumerable,  and 
plastered  over  all  the  palaces  :  ours  has  plenty.  There 
is  "  down  with  the  Nobility,"  too — they  are  down  enough 
already,  for  that  matter.  A  very  heavy  rain  and  wind 
having  come  on,  I  did  not  get  on  horseback  to  go  out 
and  "  skirr  the  country  ;  "  but  I  shall  mount  tomorrow, 
and  take  a  canter  among  the  peasantry,  who  are  a 
savage,  resolute  race,  always  riding  with  guns  in  their 
hands.  I  wonder  they  don't  suspect  the  Serenaders,  for 
they  play  on  the  guitar  all  night,  here  as  in  Spain,  to  their 

Talking  of  politics,  as  Caleb  Quotem  l  says,  pray  look 
at  the  Conclusion  of  my  Ode  on  Waterloo?  written  in  the 
year  1815,  and,  comparing  it  with  the  Duke  de  Bern's 

1.  In  The  Review,  or  the  Wags  of  Windsor,  by  G.  Colman  the 
Younger.      The    phrase  is,   however,   not    used    by  his   "  Caleb 
"Quotem,"  a  character  which  he  appropriated  from  Henry  Lee 
(1765-1836),  whose   "Caleb   Quotem"   was  played  at  the  Hay- 
market,  July  6,  1798,  under  the  title  of  Throw  Physic  to  the  Dogs. 

2.  "  Even  in  this  low  world  of  care 

Freedom  ne'er  shall  want  an  heir  ; 
Millions  breathe  but  to  inherit 
Her  for  ever  bounding  spirit. 
When  once  more  her  hosts  assemble, 
Tyrants  shall  believe  and  tremble ; 
Smile  they  at  this  idle  threat  ? 
Crimson  tears  will  follow  yet." 


catastrophe  in  1820 : l  tell  me  if  I  have  not  as  good  a 
right  to  the  character  of  "  Vates"  in  both  senses  of  the 
word,  as  Fitzgerald  and  Coleridge  ?  2 

"  Crimson  tears  will  follow  yet " — 

and  have  not  they  ? 

I  can't  pretend  to  foresee  what  will  happen  among 
you  Englishers  at  this  distance,  but  I  vaticinate  a  row  in 
Italy ;  in  whilk  case,  I  don't  know  that  I  won't  have  a 
finger  in  it.  I  dislike  the  Austrians,  and  think  the 
Italians  infamously  oppressed  j  and  if  they  begin,  why, 
I  will  recommend  "the  erection  of  a  Sconce  upon 
"  Drumsnab,"  3  like  Dugald  Dalgetty. 

795. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  8,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — From  your  not  having  written  again, 
an  intention  which  your  letter  of  y"  7th  Ult°  indicated,  I 
have  to  presume  that  "  Tfie  Prophecy  of  Dante  "  has  not 
been  found  more  worthy  than  its  immediate  precursors 
in  the  eyes  of  your  illustrious  Synod.  In  that  case,  you 
will  be  in  some  perplexity;  to  end  which,  I  repeat  to 
you,  that  you  are  not  to  consider  yourself  as  bound  or 
pledged  to  publish  any  thing  because  it  is  mine,  but 
always  to  act  according  to  your  own  views,  or  opinions, 
or  those  of  your  friends ;  and  to  be  sure  that  you  will 
in  no  degree  offend  me  by  "  declining  the  article,"  to  use 

1.  Pierre-Louis  Louvel  (1785-1820),  by  trade  a  saddler,  murdered 
the  Due  de  Berri,  grandson  of  Louis  XVIII.,  and  second  son  of  the 
Comte  d'Artois,  afterwards  Charles  X.,  as  he  returned  to  the  Opera, 
February  13,  1820.     The  murder  and  Louvel's  louche  regard  horri- 
fied Victor  Hugo,  who  wrote  an   ode  on  "La  Mort  du  Due  de 
"  Berri "  (Odes  et  Ballades,  Livre  I.  Ode  vii.). 

2.  For  W.  T.  Fitzgerald,  see  Letters,  vol.  iii.  p.  IO,  note  I.     For 
S.  T.  Coleridge,  see  ibid.,  vol.  iii.  p.  190,  no te  3. 

3.  The  Legend  of  Montrose,  chap.  x. 


a  technical  phrase.  The  Prose  observations  on  J? 
Wilson's  attack,1  I  do  not  intend  for  publication  at  this 
time  ;  and  I  sent  a  copy  of  verses  to  Mr.  Kinnaird  (they 
were  written  last  year,  on  crossing  the  Po 2)  which  must 
not  be  published  either.  I  mention  this,  because  it  is 
probable  he  may  give  you  a  copy.  Pray  recollect  this, 
as  they  are  mere  verses  of  Society,  and  written  upon 
private  feelings  and  passions.  And,  moreover,  I  cannot 
consent  to  any  mutilations  or  omissions  of  Puld :  the 
original  has  been  ever  free  from  such  in  Italy,  the  Capital 
of  Christianity,  and  the  translation  may  be  so  in  England ; 
though  you  will  think  it  strange  that  they  should  have 
allowed  such  freedom  for  so  many  centuries  to  the 
Morgante,  while  the  other  day  they  confiscated  the  whole 
translation  of  the  4"?  Canto  of  Childe  H\aroi\d,  and  have 
persecuted  Leoni,3  the  translator — so  he  writes  me,  and 
so  I  could  have  told  him,  had  he  consulted  me  before 
his  publication.  This  shows  how  much  more  politics 
interest  men  in  these  parts  than  religion.  Half  a  dozen 
invectives  against  tyranny  confiscate  C?  H'-  in  a  month ; 
and  eight  and  twenty  cantos  of  quizzing  Monks  and 
Knights,  and  Church  Government,  are  let  loose  for 
centuries.  I  copy  Leoni's  account : — 

"Non  ignorera  forse  che  la  mia  versione  del  4° 
"  Canto  del  Childe  Harold  fu  confiscata  in  ogni  parte : 
"ed  io  stesso  ho  dovuto  soffrir  vessazioni  altrettanto 
"  ridicole  quanto  illiberali,  ad  arte  che  alcuni  versi  fossero 
"  esclusi  dalla  censura.  Ma  siccome  il  divieto  non  fa 
"  d'ordinario  che  accrescere  la  curiosita  cosi  quel  carme 

1.  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  Appendix  IX. 

2.  "  Stanzas  to  the  Po,"  written,  it  is  said,  when  Byron  was  on 
his  way  to  meet  Countess  Guiccioli  at  Ravenna. 

3.  L' Italia.     Canto  IV.  del  Pellegrinaggio  di  Childe  Harold  .  .  . 
tradotto  da  Michele  Leoni,  Italia  (London?),  1819,  8?.    Leoni  also 
translated   the  Lament  of  Tasso  (Lamento  del  Tasso  .   .  .  Recato 
in  Italiano  da  M.  Leoni,  Pisa,  1818). 


"  sull'  Italia  e  ricercato  piU  che  mai,  e  penso  di  farlo 
"  ristampare  in  Inghilterra  senza  nulla  escludere.  Scia- 
"  gurata  condizione  di  questa  mia  patria !  se  patria  si 
"  pub  chiamare  una  terra  cos!  awilita  dalla  fortuna,  dagli 
"  uomini,  da  se  medesima." 

Rose  will  translate  this  to  you.  Has  he  had  his 
letter  ?  I  enclosed  it  to  you  months  ago. 

This  intended  piece  of  publication  I  shall  dissuade 
him  from,  or  he  may  chance  to  see  the  inside  of  St. 
Angelo's.  The  last  Sentence  of  his  letter  is  the  common 
and  pathetic  sentiment  of  all  his  Countrymen,  who 
execrate  Castlereagh  as  the  cause,  by  the  conduct  of  the 
English  at  Genoa.1  Surely  that  man  will  not  die  in  his 
bed  :  there  is  no  spot  of  the  earth  where  his  name  is  not 
a  hissing,  and  a  curse.  Imagine  what  must  be  the  man's 
talent  for  Odium,  who  has  contrived  to  spread  his 
infamy  like  a  pestilence  from  Ireland  to  Italy,  and  to 
make  his  name  an  execration  in  all  languages. 

Talking  of  Ireland,  Sir  Humphry  Davy  2  was  here  last 

1.  The  Republic  of  Genoa,  conquered  by  the  French  in  1797, 
lived  a  short  life  as  the  Ligurian  Republic  until,  in  1805,  it  was 
absorbed  by  the  French  Empire.     In  1814  Lord  William  Bentinck 
compelled  the  French  troops  to  evacuate  the  city,  proclaimed  the 
restoration  of  the  Genoese  constitution   as  it  existed  before  I797» 
and  pledged  the  honour  of  the  Allied  Powers  that  the  independence 
of  Genoa  should   be  respected.     But  at   the  Congress  of  Vienna 
republics  were  unfashionable,  and  nationalities  were  sacrificed  to 
political  equilibrium.     Genoa  was  annexed  to  Piedmont,  its  ancient 
rival,  and  the  British  troops  were  withdrawn,  February,  1815. 

In  making  the  decision  of  the  Congress  known  to  Colonel 
Dalrymple,  the  British  commander,  Castlereagh  regretted  his  in- 
ability "to  preserve  to  Genoa  a  separate  existence,"  insisted  on  the 
"generous  disposition  of  the  King  of  Sardinia,"  and  hoped  that  the 
Genoese  of  every  class  would  accept  the  new  rule  as  "a  benefit." 
But  it  appears  {Castlereagh  Correspondence,  3rd  series,  vol.  ii.  pp.  18, 
221)  that  Bentinck  made  his  promise  with  Castlereagh's  knowledge, 
though  Castlereagh  denied  ( Wellington  Supplementary  Despatches, 
vol.  ix.  p.  64)  that  Bentinck  had  any  authority  from  the  British 
Government.  The  Genoese  believed  that  they  had  been  betrayed, 
and  saw  in  Castlereagh  the  traitor. 

2.  "  Davy,"   writes    Moore,    in    his    Diary   for    May    19,    1820 



fortnight,  and  I  was  in  his  company  in  the  house  of  a  very 
pretty  Italian  Lady  of  rank,  who,  by  way  of  displaying  her 
learning  in  presence  of  the  great  Chemist  then  describing 
his  fourteenth  ascension  of  Mount  Vesuvius,  asked  "  if 
"there  was  not  a  similar  Volcano  in  Ireland  1"  My 
only  notion  of  an  Irish  Volcano  consisted  of  the  Lake  of 
Killarney,  which  I  naturally  conceived  her  to  mean ;  but, 
on  second  thoughts,  I  divined  that  she  alluded  to  Ice- 
land  and  to  Hecla — and  so  it  proved,  though  she 
sustained  her  volcanic  topography  for  some  time  with  all 
the  amiable  pertinacity  of  "  the  Feminie."  She  soon 
after  turned  to  me  and  asked  me  various  questions  about 
Sir  Humphry's  philosophy,  and  I  explained  as  well  as  an 
Oracle  his  skill  in  gases,  safety  lamps,  and  in  ungluing 
the  Pompeian  MSS.1  "But  what  do  you  call  him?" 

(Memoirs^  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  118),  "went  to  Ravenna  to  see  Lord 
'  Byron,  who  is  now  living  domesticated  with  the  Guiccioli  and  her 
'  husband  after  all.  He  was  rather  anxious  to  get  off  with  Davy  to 
'  Bologna,  professedly  for  the  purpose  of  seeing  Lady  Davy,  but  I 
'  have  no  doubt  with  a  wish  to  give  his  Contessa  the  slip." 

i.  In  the  Philosophical  Transactions  (1821,  pp.  191,  192)  will  be 
bund  a  paper  read  by  Sir  Humphry  Davy  (March  15,  1821),  on 
"Some  Observations  and  Experiments  on  the  Papyri  found  in  the 

Ruins  of  Herculaneum."  From  this  paper  the  following  extract 
s  taken  : — 

"  During  the  two  months  that  I  was  actively  employed  in  experi- 
'  ments  on  the  papyri  at  Naples,  I  had  succeeded,  with  the  assist - 
'  ance  of  six  of  the  persons  attached  to  the  Museum,  and  whom  I  had 
'engaged  for  the  purpose,  in  partially  unrolling  23  MSS.,  from 
'  which  fragments  of  writing  were  obtained,  and  in  examining 
'  about  1 20  others,  which  afforded  no  hopes  of  success ;  and  I  should 
'  gladly  have  gone  on  with  the  undertaking,  from  the  mere  pros- 
'  pect  of  a  possibility  of  discovering  some  better  results,  had  not  the 
'  labour,  in  itself  difficult  and  unpleasant,  been  made  more  so,  by 
'  the  conduct  of  the  persons  at  the  head  of  this  department  in  the 
'  Museum.  At  first  every  disposition  was  shown  to  promote  my 
'  researches  ;  for  the  papyri  remaining  unrolled  were  considered  by 
'  them  as  incapable  of  affording  anything  legible  by  the  former 
'methods,  or,  to  use  their  own  word,  disperati ;  and  the  efficacy 
'  and  use  of  the  new  processes  were  fully  allowed  by  the  Svolgatori, 
'  or  unrollers  of  the  Museum  ;  and  I  was  for  some  time  permitted 
'  to  choose  and  operate  upon  the  specimens  at  my  own  pleasure. 


said  she.  "  A  great  Chemist,"  quoth  I.  "  What  can  he 
"  do  ?  "  repeated  the  lady.  "  Almost  any  thing,"  said  I. 
"  Oh,  then,  mio  Caro,  do  pray  beg  him  to  give  me  some- 
"  thing  to  dye  my  eyebrows  black.  I  have  tried  a 
"thousand  things,  and  the  colours  all  come  off;  and 
"  besides,  they  don't  grow :  can't  he  invent  something  to 
"  make  them  grow  ?  "  All  this  with  the  greatest  earnest- 
ness ;  and  what  you  will  be  surprized  at,  she  is  neither 
ignorant  nor  a  fool,  but  really  well  educated  and  clever. 
But  they  speak  like  children,  when  first  out  of  their 
convents;  and,  after  all,  this  is  better  than  an  English 

I  did  not  tell  Sir  Humphry  of  this  last  piece  of 
philosophy,  not  knowing  how  he  might  take  it.  He  is 
gone  on  towards  England.  Sotheby  has  sent  him  a 
poem  on  his  undoing  the  MSS.,  which  Sir  H.  says  is  a 
bad  one.  Who  the  devil  doubts  it  ?  Davy  was  much 
taken  with  Ravenna,  and  the  primitive  Italianism  of  the 
people,  who  are  unused  to  foreigners  :  but  he  only  staid 
a  day. 

Send  me  Scott's  novels  and  some  news. 

P.S. — I  have  begun  and  advanced  into  the  second 
Act  of  a  tragedy  on  the  subject  of  the  Doge's  Conspiracy 

'  When,  however,  the  Reverend  Peter  Elmsley,  whose  zeal  for  the 
'  promotion  of  ancient  literature  brought  him  to  Naples  for  the 
'  purpose  of  assisting  in  the  undertaking,  began  to  examine  the  frag- 
1  ments  unrolled,  a  jealousy,  with  regard  to  his  assistance,  was 
'  immediately  manifested  ;  and  obstacles,  which  the  kind  interfer- 
'ence  of  Sir  William  A'Court  was  not  always  capable  of  removing, 
'  were  soon  opposed  to  the  progress  of  our  enquiries ;  and  these 
'  obstacles  were  so  multiplied,  and  made  so  vexatious  towards  the 
'  end  of  February,  that  we  conceived  it  would  be  both  a  waste  of 
'the  public  money,  and  a  compromise  of  our  own  characters,  to 
'  proceed."  For  the  improvements  in  Padre  Piaggi's  method  of 

unrolling  the  MSS.  (described  in  the  Annual  Register  for  1820,  p. 

504),   which  were   suggested   by   Sir   H.   Davy,  see    Philosophical 

Transactions,  1821,  p.  199. 


(i.e.  the  story  of  Marino  Faliero) ;  but  my  present  feeling 
is  so  little  encouraging  on  such  matters,  that  I  begin  to 
think  I  have  mined  my  talent  out,  and  proceed  in  no 
great  phantasy  of  finding  a  new  vein. 

P.S. — I  sometimes  think  (if  the  Italians  don't  rise) 
of  coming  over  to  England  in  the  Autumn  after  the 
coronation,  (at  which  I  would  not  appear,  on  account  of 
my  family  Schism  with  "  the  feminie  ")  but  as  yet  I  can 
decide  nothing.  The  place  must  be  a  great  deal  changed 
since  I  left  it,  now  more  than  four  years  ago. 

May  gth,  1820.     Address  directly  to  Ravenna. 

796. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  20,  1820. 

Murray,  my  dear,  make  my  respects  to  Thomas 
Campbell,  and  tell  him  from  me,  with  faith  and  friend- 
ship, three  things  that  he  must  right  in  his  Poets : 
Firstly,  he  says  Anstey's  Bath  Guide  Characters  are 
taken  from  Smollett.  'Tis  impossible : — the  Gtiide  was 
published  in  1766,  and  Humphrey  Clinker  in  1771 — 
dunque,  'tis  Smollett  who  has  taken  from  Anstey.1 
Secondly,  he  does  not  know  to  whom  Cowper  alludes, 
when  he  says  that  there  was  one  who  "  built  a  church  to 
"  God,  and  then  blasphemed  his  name  : "  it  was  "  Deo 
"  erexit  Voltaire "  to  whom  that  maniacal  Calvinist  and 
coddled  poet  alludes.2  Thirdly,  he  misquotes  and  spoils 

1.  Campbell's  Specimens  of  the  British  Poets,  with  biographical 
and  critical  notices,  etc.,  was  published  in  1819  (7  vols.,  London). 
The  corrections  pointed  out  by  Byron  were  not  made  in  subsequent 
editions  of  the  biographical  portion  of  the  work.     In  the  Notice 
of   Christopher   Anstey  (Notices  of  the  British   Poets,    ed.    1819, 
p.  439),  Campbell  says  of  The  New  Bath  Guide,  "The  droll  and 
' '  familiar  manner  of  the  poem  is  original,  but  its  leading  characters 
"are  evidently  borrowed  from  Smollett." 

2.  In   his  Notice   of  Cowper   (Notices,   etc.,  ed.    1819,  p.   358), 
Campbell  lays  stress  on  the  impersonal  character  of  his  satires.     "  I 


a  passage  from  Shakespeare,  "to  gild  refined  gold,  to 
"  paint  the  lily,"  etc. ;  for  lily  he  puts  rose,  and  bedevils 
in  more  words  than  one  the  whole  quotation.1 

Now,  Tom  is  a  fine  fellow  ;  but  he  should  be  correct ; 
for  the  i-1  is  an  injustice  (to  Anstey),  the  2"?  an  ignorance, 
and  the  third  a  blunder.  Tell  him  all  this,  and  let  him 
take  it  in  good  part ;  for  I  might  have  rammed  it  into  a 
review  and  vexed  him — instead  of  which,  I  act  like  a 


797. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  May  20".'  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — Let  Merryweather  be  kept  in 
for  one  week,  and  then  let  him  out  for  a  Scoundrel.  Tell 
him  that  such  is  the  lesson  for  the  ungrateful,  and  let  this 
be  a  warning;  a  little  common  feeling,  and  common 
honesty  would  have  saved  him  from  useless  expence  and 
utter  ruin. 

"know  not,"  he  adds  in  a  note,  "to  whom  he  alludes  in  these 
"  lines  : — 

' ' '  Nor  he  who,  for  the  bane  of  thousands  born, 

Built  God  a  church,  and  laugh'd  His  word  to  scorn.'  " 

The  lines  are  from  Cowper's  Retirement,  and  the  allusion  is,  as 
Byron  says,  to  Voltaire. 

i.  Campbell,  in  his  Notice  of  Burns  (Notices,  etc.,  ed.  1819,  p. 
245),  says,  "Every  reader  must  recal  abundance  of  thoughts  in 
"his  love-songs,  to  which  any  attempt  to  superadd  a  tone  of 
"  gallantry  would  not  be 

"  'To  gild  refined  gold,  to  paint  the  rose, 
Or  add  fresh  perfume  to  the  violet  ; ' 

"  but  to  debase  the  metal,  and  to  take  the  odour  and  colour  from  the 
"flower."  The  quotation  from  King  John  (act  iv.  sc.  2)  should 
be,  as  Byron  points  out — 

"To  gild  refined  gold,  to  paint  the  lily, 
To  throw  a  perfume  on  the  violet." 

1820.]  A   MORAL   LESSON.  27 

Never  would  I  pursue  a  man  to  Jail  for  a  mere  debtt 
and  never  will  I  forgive  one  for  ingratitude  such  as  this 
Villain's.  But  let  him  go  and  be  damned  (once  in  though 
first) ;  but  I  could  much  wish  you  to  see  him  and 
inoculate  him  with  a  moral  sense  by  shewing  him  the 
result  of  his  rascality. 

As  to  Mother  Mocenigo,  we'll  battle  with  her,  and  her 
ragamuffin.  Castelli  must  dungeon  Merryweather,  if  it 
be  but  for  a  day,  I  don't  want  to  hurt,  only  to  teach 

I  write  to  you  in  such  haste  and  such  heat ;  it  seems 
to  be  under  the  dog  (or  bitch)  Star  that  I  can  no  more, 
but  sottoscribble  myself, 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — My  best  respects  to  the  Consolessa  and 
Compts.  to  Mr.  Dorville. 

Hobhouse  is  angry  with  me  for  a  ballad *  and  epigram 
I  made  upon  him  ;  only  think — how  odd  ! 

798. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  2Oth,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — First  and  foremost,  you  must 
forward  my  letter  to  Moore  dated  2d  January,  which  I 
said  you  might  open,  but  desired  you  to  forward.  Now, 
you  should  really  not  forget  these  little  things,  because 
they  do  mischief  among  friends.  You  are  an  excellent 
man,  a  great  man,  and  live  among  great  men,  but  do 
pray  recollect  your  absent  friends  and  authors. 

I  return  you  the  packets.  The  prose  (the  Edin.  Mag. 
answer)  looks  better  than  I  thought  it  would,  and  yon 

i.  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  423,  note  I,  and  Appendix  XI. 


may  publish  it:  there  will  be  a  row,  but  I'll  fight  it  out 
one  way  or  another.  You  are  wrong  :  I  never  had  those 
"  two  ladies,"  l  upon  my  honour  !  Never  believe  but  half 
of  such  stories.  Southey  was  a  damned  scoundrel  to 
spread  such  a  lie  of  a  woman,  whose  mother  he  did  his 
best  to  get  and  could  not. 

So  you  and  Hobhouse  have  squabbled  about  my 
ballad  :  you  should  not  have  circulated  it ;  but  I 
am  glad  you  are  by  the  ears,  you  both  deserve  it — 
he  for  having  been  in  Newgate,  and  you  for  not  being 

Excuse  haste :  if  you  knew  what  I  have  on  hand,  you 

In  the  first  place,  your  packets ;  then  a  letter  from 
Kinnaird,  on  the  most  urgent  business  :  another  from 
Moore,  about  a  communication  to  Lady  B[yron]  of 
importance ;  a  fourth  from  the  mother  of  Allegra ;  and, 
fifthly,  at  Ravenna,  the  Contessa  G.  is  on  the  eve  of 
being  divorced  on  account  of  our  having  been  taken 
together  quasi  in  the  fact,  and,  what  is  worse,  that  she 
did  not  deny  it :  but  the  Italian  public  are  on  our  side, 
particularly  the  women, — and  the  men  also,  because  they 
say  that  he  had  no  business  to  take  the  business  up  now 
after  a  year  of  toleration.  The  law  is  against  him, 
because  he  slept  with  his  wife  after  her  admission.  All 
her  relations  (who  are  numerous,  high  in  rank,  and 
powerful)  are  furious  against  him  for  his  conduct,  and  his 
not  wishing  to  be  cuckolded  at  ///mscore,  when  every  one 
else  is  at  ONE.  I  am  warned  to  be  on  my  guard,  as  he 
is  very  capable  of  employing  Sicarii — this  is  Latin  as 
well  as  Italian,  so  you  can  understand  it ;  but  I  have 
arms,  and  don't  mind  them,  thinking  that  I  can  pepper 
his  ragamuffins  if  they  don't  come  unawares,  and  that,  if 
i.  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  pp.  298,  482. 

l82O.]  THE  BEGGAR'S  OPERA    QUOTED.  29 

they  do,  one  may  as  well  end  that  way  as  another ;  and 
it  would  besides  serve  yoti  as  an  advertisement : — 

"  Man  may  escape  from  rope  or  Gun,  etc. 
But  he  who  takes  Woman,  Woman,  Woman,"  etc.1 



P.S. — I  have  looked  over  the  press,  but  Heaven 
knows  how :  think  what  I  have  on  hand  and  the  post 
going  out  tomorrow.  Do  you  remember  the  epitaph  on 
Voltaire  ?  2 

"  Cy  git  1'enfant  gate,"  etc. 

"  Here  lies  the  spoilt  child 
Of  the  World  which  he  spoil'd." 

The  original  is  in  Grimm  and  Diderot,  etc.,  etc.,  etc. 
799. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  May  24,  1820. 

I  wrote  to  you  a  few  days  ago.  There  is  also  a  letter 
of  January  last  for  you  at  Murray's,  which  will  explain  to 
you  why  I  am  here.  Murray  ought  to  have  forwarded 

1.  The  Beggar's  Opera,  act  ii.  sc.  2 — 

Air. — Macheath. 

"  Courtiers,  courtiers,  think  it  no  harm." 
Man  may  escape  from  rope  and  gun, 

Nay,  some  have  outliv'd  the  doctor 's  pill ; 
Who  takes  a  woman,  must  be  undone, 

That  basilisk  is  sure  to  kill. 
The  fly,  that  sips  treacle,  is  lost  in  the  sweets, 

So  he,  that  tastes  woman,  woman,  woman, 
He,  that  tastes  woman,  ruin  meets. 

2.  In  the  Correspondance  Littcraire,  Partie  II'.ne  torn.  iv".ie  p.  355, 
ed.  1812,  the  epitaph  is  thus  given — 

"  Epitaphe  de  Voltaire,  faite  par  une  dame  de  Lausanne — 
'  Ci  git  1'enfant  gate  du  monde  qu'il  gata.'  " 


it  long  ago.  I  enclose  you  an  epistle  from  a  country- 
woman of  yours  at  Paris,  which  has  moved  my  entrails.1 
You  will  have  the  goodness,  perhaps,  to  enquire  into  the 
truth  of  her  story,  and  I  will  help  her  as  far  as  I  can, — 
though  not  in  the  useless  way  she  proposes.  Her  letter 
is  evidently  unstudied,  and  so  natural,  that  the  ortho- 
graphy is  also  in  a  state  of  nature. 

Here  is  a  poor  creature,  ill  and  solitary,  who  thinks, 
as  a  last  resource,  of  translating  you  or  me  into  French  ! 
Was  there  ever  such  a  notion?  It  seems  to  me  the 
consummation  of  despair.  Pray  enquire,  and  let  me 
know,  and,  if  you  could  draw  a  bill  on  me  here  for  a  few 
hundred  francs,  at  your  banker's,  I  will  duly  honour  it, — 
that  is,  if  she  is  not  an  impostor.  If  not,  let  me  know, 
that  I  may  get  something  remitted  by  my  banker  Longhi, 
of  Bologna,  for  I  have  no  correspondence  myself  at 
Paris :  but  tell  her  she  must  not  translate ; — if  she  does, 
it  will  be  the  height  of  ingratitude. 

I  had  a  letter  (not  of  the  same  kind,  but  in  French 
and  flattery)  from  a  Madame  Sophie  Gail,  of  Paris,  whom 
I  take  to  be  the  spouse  of  a  Gallo-Greek  of  that  name.2 

1.  Moore,  in  his  Diary  for  June,  1820  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  Hi.  p. 
123),  writes,  "Received  a  letter  from  Lord  Byron  about  the  7'.'1  or 

'  8"?,  commissioning  me  to  find  out  an  Irishwoman  of  the  name  of 
'  Mahony,  who  had  written  to  him  to  request  he  would  let  her 
'have  the  proof  sheets  of  one  of  his  new  works,  that  she  might 
'  translate  it  into  French,  and  so  make  a  little  money  by  being  first 
'  in  the  field  with  a  translation,  she  being  an  orphan,  etc.  ...  I 
'  called  upon  the  lady,  and  found  her  so  respectably  dressed  and 
'  lodged,  that  I  felt  delicate,  at  first,  about  mentioning  the  gift 
'  Lord  Byron  intended  for  her  ;  and  when,  on  my  second  visit,  1 
'  presented  the  fifteen  Napoleons,  the  poor  girl  refused  them,  saying 
'  it  was  not  in  that  way  she  wished  to  be  served  ;  having  contrived 
'  hitherto,  though  an  orphan,  to  support  herself  without  pecuniary 
'  assistance  from  any  one." 

2.  Moore  describes  Jean  Baptiste  Gail  (1755-1829),  Professor  of 
Greek  Literature  in  the  College  de  France  at  Paris,  "whose  edition 

'  of  Anacreon  I  remember  my  mother  buying  for  me  when  I  was 
'about  nineteen,  and  busy  with  my  own  translations,"  as  "a 

1 820.]  THE   BEST  ADVICE.  31 

Who  is  she  ?  and  what  is  she  ?  and  how  came  she  to  take 
an  interest  in  my  poeshie  or  its  author?  If  you  know 
her,  tell  her,  with  my  compliments,  that,  as  I  only  read 
French,  I  have  not  answered  her  letter ;  but  would  have 
done  so  in  Italian,  if  I  had  not  thought  it  would  look 
like  an  affectation.  I  have  just  been  scolding  my  monkey 
for  tearing  the  seal  of  her  letter,  and  spoiling  a  mock 
book,  in  which  I  put  rose  leaves.  I  had  a  civet-cat  the 
other  day,  too;  but  it  ran  away,  after  scratching  my 
monkey's  cheek,  and  I  am  in  search  of  it  still.  It  was 
the  fiercest  beast  I  ever  saw,  and  like  *  *  in  the  face  and 

I  have  a  world  of  things  to  say ;  but,  as  they  are  not 
come  to  a  denouement^  I  don't  care  to  begin  their  history 
till  it  is  wound  up.  After  you  went,  I  had  a  fever,  but 
got  well  again  without  bark.  Sir  Humphry  Davy  was 
here  the  other  day,  and  liked  Ravenna  very  much.  He 
will  tell  you  any  thing  you  may  wish  to  know  about  the 
place  and  your  humble  servitor. 

Your  apprehensions  (arising  from  Scott's)  were  un- 
founded. There  are  no  damages  in  this  country,  but 
there  will  probably  be  a  separation  between  them,  as  her 
family,  which  is  a  principal  one,  by  its  connections,  are 
very  much  against  him,  for  the  whole  of  his  conduct ; — 
and  he  is  old  and  obstinate,  and  she  is  young  and  a 
woman,  determined  to  sacrifice  every  thing  to  her  affec- 
tions. I  have  given  her  the  best  advice,  viz.  to  stay  with 
him, — pointing  out  the  state  of  a  separated  woman,  (for 

"convivial  and  rather  weak  old  man"  (Memoirs,  etc.,  January  24, 
1820,  vol.  iii.  p.  100).  He  was,  however,  a  very  distinguished 
scholar,  who  had  done  good  service  to  the  study  of  Greek  in  France. 
His  wife,  nee  Sophie  Garre  (1776-1819),  was  celebrated  for  her 
novels  and  her  musical  talents.  Her  opera,  les  Deux  Jaloux,  had 
gained  a  great  success  in  1813.  She  was  dead  at  the  time  of 
Byron's  letter.  Byron's  correspondent  was  really  Madame  Sophie 
Gay,  mother  of  Delphine  Gay  afterwards  Madame  de  Girardin. 


the  priests  won't  let  lovers  live  openly  together,  unless 
the  husband  sanctions  it,)  and  making  the  most  exquisite 
moral  reflections, — but  to  no  purpose.  She  says,  "  I  will 
"  stay  with  him,  if  he  will  let  you  remain  with  me.  It  is 
"  hard  that  I  should  be  the  only  woman  in  Romagna  who 
"  is  not  to  have  her  Amico  ;  but,  if  not,  I  will  not  live  with 
"  him;  and  as  for  the  consequences,  love,  etc.,  etc.,  etc." 
— you  know  how  females  reason  on  such  occasions. 

He  says  he  has  let  it  go  on  till  he  can  do  so  no  longer. 
But  he  wants  her  to  stay,  and  dismiss  me ;  for  he  doesn't 
like  to  pay  back  her  dowry  and  to  make  an  alimony. 
Her  relations  are  rather  for  the  separation,  as  they  detest 
him, — indeed,  so  does  every  body.  The  populace  and 
the  women  are,  as  usual,  all  for  those  who  are  in  the 
wrong,  viz.  the  lady  and  her  lover.  I  should  have 
retreated,  but  honour,  and  an  erysipelas  which  has 
attacked  her,  prevent  me, — to  say  nothing  of  love,  for  I 
love  her  most  entirely,  though  not  enough  to  persuade 
her  to  sacrifice  every  thing  to  a  frenzy.  "  I  see  how  it 
"  will  end ;  she  will  be  the  sixteenth  Mrs.  Shuffleton."  1 

My  paper  is  finished,  and  so  must  this  letter. 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — I  regret  that  you  have  not  completed  the  Italian 
Fudges.2  Pray,  how  come  you  to  be  still  in  Paris? 
Murray  has  four  or  five  things  of  mine  in  hand — the  new 
Don  Juan,  which  his  back-shop  synod  don't  admire ; — a 

1.  In  John   Bull,    or  the    Englishman 's    Fireside,   by   George 
Colman  the  Younger  (act  ii.  sc.  2),  the  Honourable  Tom  Shuffleton 
says,   "  Fine  blue  eyes,  faith,  and  very  like  my  Fanny's.     Yes,  I 
"see  how  it  will  end  ;— she'll  be  the  fifteenth  Mrs.  Shuffleton." 

2.  Moore  at  one  time  proposed  to  continue  his  Fudge  Family  in 
Paris  (1818),  by  a  series  of  letters  in  verse  from  the  Fudge  family  in 
Italy.     He  did  not  carry  out  the  plan.     The  Fudges  in  England : 
being  a  sequel  to  the  "  Fudge  Family  in  Paris,"  appeared  in  1823. 

1 820.]  GOETHE   ON   MANFRED.  33 

translation  of  the  first  canto  of  Pulci's  Morgante  Maggiore, 
excellent; — a  short  ditto  from  Dante,  not  so  much 
approved :  the  Prophecy  of  Dante >  very  grand  and  worthy, 
etc.,  etc.,  etc. : — a  furious  prose  answer  to  Blackwood's 
"  Observations  on  Don  Juan"  with  a  savage  Defence  of 
Pope — likely  to  make  a  row.  The  opinions  above  I 
quote  from  Murray  and  his  Utican  senate; — you  will 
form  your  own,  when  you  see  the  things. 

You  will  have  no  great  chance  of  seeing  me,  for  I 
begin  to  think  I  must  finish  in  Italy.  But,  if  you  come 
my  way,  you  shall  have  a  tureen  of  macaroni.  Pray  tell 
me  about  yourself,  and  your  intents. 

My  trustees  are  going  to  lend  Earl  Blessington  sixty 
thousand  pounds  (at  six  per  cent.)  on  a  Dublin  mortgage. 
Only  think  of  my  becoming  an  Irish  absentee  ! 

800. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  May  25,  1820. 

A  German  named  Ruppsecht  has  sent  me,  heaven 
knows  why,  several  Deutsche  Gazettes,  of  all  which  I 
understand  neither  word  nor  letter.  I  have  sent  you  the 
enclosed  to  beg  you  to  translate  to  me  some  remarks, 
which  appear  to  be  Goethe's  upon  Manfred?- — and  if  I 
may  judge  by  two  notes  of  admiration  (generally  put 
after  something  ridiculous  by  us)  and  the  word  "  hypocon- 
" drisch"  are  any  thing  but  favourable.  I  shall  regret 
this,  for  I  should  have  been  proud  of  Goethe's  good 
word ;  but  I  shan't  alter  my  opinion  of  him,  even  though 
he  should  be  savage. 

Will  you  excuse  this  trouble,  and  do  me  this  favour  ? 

I.  For  Goethe's  criticism  on  Manfred,  Hoppner's  translation,  and 
a  general  note  on  Goethe  and  Byron,  see  Appendix  II. 

VOL.  V.  D 


— Never  mind — soften  nothing — I  am  literary  proof — 
having  had  good  and  evil  said  in  most  modern  languages. 

Believe  me,  etc. 

80 1. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  June  1, 1820. 

I  have  received  a  Parisian  letter  from  W[edderburn] 
W[ebster],  which  I  prefer  answering  through  you,  if  that 
worthy  be  still  at  Paris,  and,  as  he  says,  an  occasional 
visitor  of  yours.  In  November  last  he  wrote  to  me  a 
well-meaning  letter,  stating,  for  some  reasons  of  his  own, 
his  belief  that  a  re-union  might  be  effected  between  Lady 
B.  and  myself.  To  this  I  answered  as  usual;  and  he 
sent  me  a  second  letter,  repeating  his  notions,  which 
letter  I  have  never  answered,  having  had  a  thousand 
other  things  to  think  of.  He  now  writes  as  if  he  believed 
that  he  had  offended  me  by  touching  on  the  topic ;  and 
I  wish  you  to  assure  him  that  I  am  not  at  all  so, — but, 
on  the  contrary,  obliged  by  his  good  nature.  At  the 
same  time  acquaint  him  the  thing  is  impossible.  You 
know  this,  as  well  as  I, — and  there  let  it  end. 

I  believe  that  I  showed  you  his  epistle  in  autumn 
last.  He  asks  me  if  I  have  heard  of  my  "  laureat "  at 
Paris,1 — somebody  who  has  written  "  a  most  sanguinary 

I.  Byron  refers  to  Lamartine's  "L'Homme — k  Lord  Byron,"  one 
of  the  poems  in  his  Premieres  Meditations  Pottiques  (1820).  Lamar- 
tine  was  an  ardent  admirer  of  Byron.  In  the  subsequent  "Com- 
"  mentaire  "  on  the  poem  he  thus  describes  its  origin — 

"J'entendis  parler  pour  la  premiere  fois  de  lui  [Byron]  par  un  de 
'mes  anciens  amis  qui  revenait  d'Angleterre  en  1819.  Le  seul 
'  recit  de  quelques-uns  de  ses  poemes  m'ebranla  1'imagination.  .  .  . 
'  Je  lus,  dans  un  recueil  periodique  de  Geneve,  quelques  fragments 
'traduits  du  Corsaire,  de  Lara,  de  Manfred.  Je  devins  ivre  de 
1  cette  poesie.  J'avais  enfin  trouve  la  fibre  sensible  d'un  poete  a 
'  1'unisson  des  mes  voix  interieures.  .  .  .  Je  n'adressai  point  ces 
'  vers  4  Lord  Byron.  .  .  .  J'ai  lu  depuis,  dans  ses  Memoires,  qu'il 
1  avail  entendu  parler  de  cette  meditation  d'un  jeune  Fra^ais,  mais 
'  qu'il  ne  1'avait  pas  lue.  II  ne  savait  pas  notre  langue." 


" Epitre"  against  me;  but  whether  in  French,  or  Dutch, 
or  on  what  score,  I  know  not,  and  he  don't  say, — except 
that  (for  my  satisfaction)  he  says  it  is  the  best  thing  in 
the  fellow's  volume.  If  there  is  anything  of  the  kind 
that  I  ought  to  know,  you  will  doubtless  tell  me.  I 
suppose  it  to  be  something  of  the  usual  sort ; — he  says, 
he  don't  remember  the  author's  name. 

I  wrote  to  you  some  ten  days  ago,  and  expect  an 
answer  at  your  leisure. 

The  separation  business  still  continues,  and  all  the 
world  are  implicated,  including  priests  and  cardinals. 
The  public  opinion  is  furious  against  him,  because  he 
ought  to  have  cut  the  matter  short  at  first,  and  not 
waited  twelve  months  to  begin.  He  has  been  trying  at 
evidence,  but  can  get  none  sufficient;  for  what  would 
make  fifty  divorces  in  England  won't  do  here — there 
must  be  the  most  decided  proofs.  *  *  * 

It  is  the  first  cause  of  the  kind  attempted  in  Ravenna 
for  these  two  hundred  years;  for,  though  they  often 
separate,  they  assign  a  different  motive.  You  know  that 
the  continental  incontinent  are  more  delicate  than  the 
English,  and  don't  like  proclaiming  their  coronation  in  a 
court,  even  when  nobody  doubts  it. 

All  her  relations  are  furious  against  him.  The  father 
has  challenged  him — a  superfluous  valour,  for  he  don't 
fight,  though  suspected  of  two  assassinations — one  of  the 
famous  Monzoni  of  Forli.  Warning  was  given  me  not 
to  take  such  long  rides  in  the  Pine  Forest  without  being 
on  my  guard ;  so  I  take  my  stiletto  and  a  pair  of  pistols 
in  my  pocket  during  my  daily  rides. 

I  won't  stir  from  this  place  till  the  matter  is  settled 
one  way  or  the  other.  She  is  as  femininely  firm  as 
possible ;  and  the  opinion  is  so  much  against  him,  that 
the  advocates  decline  to  undertake  his  cause,  because  they 


say  that  he  is  either  a  fool  or  a  rogue — fool,  if  he  did  not 
discover  the  liaison  till  now ;  and  rogue,  if  he  did  know 
it,  and  waited  for  some  bad  end  to  divulge  it.  In  short, 
there  has  been  nothing  like  it  since  the  days  of  Guido  di 
Polenta's  family,1  in  these  parts. 

If  the  man  has  me  taken  off,  like  Polonius  "  say,  he 
"  made  a  good  end,"  2 — for  a  melodrame.  The  principal 
security  is,  that  he  has  not  the  courage  to  spend  twenty 
scudi — the  average  price  of  a  clean-handed  bravo — 
otherwise  there  is  no  want  of  opportunity,  for  I  ride 
about  the  woods  every  evening,  with  one  servant,  and 
sometimes  an  acquaintance,  who  latterly  looks  a  little 
queer  in  solitary  bits  of  bushes. 

Good  bye. — Write  to  yours  ever,  etc. 

802. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  June  7,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Enclosed  is  something  which  will 
interest  you,  (to  wit),  the  opinion  of  the  Greatest  man  of 
Germany — perhaps  of  Europe — upon  one  of  the  great 
men  of  your  advertisements,  (all  "famous  hands,"  as 
Jacob  Tonson3  used  to  say  of  his  ragamuffins,) — in 
short,  a  critique  of  Goethe's  upon  Manfred.  There  is 
the  original,  Mr.  Hoppner's  translation,  and  an  Italian 
one;  keep  them  all  in  your  archives, — for  the  opinions 
of  such  a  man  as  Goethe,  whether  favourable  or  not, 
are  always  interesting,  and  this  is  moreover  favourable. 

1.  Guido  Vecchio  da  Polenta  (d.  1310),  whose  "eagle"  brooded 
over  Ravenna  in  the  days  of  Dante,  was  the  father  of  Francesca  da 

2.  Hamlet,  act  iv.  sc.  5. 

3.  "Perhaps  I  should  myself  be  much  better  pleased,  if  I  were 
"  told  you  called  me  your  little  friend,  than  if  you  complimented 
' '  me  with  the  title  of  a  great  genius  or  an  eminent  hand,  as  Jacob 
"does  all   his   authors." — Pope  to    Steele,    November   29,    1712 
(Courthope's  Pope,  vol.  vi.  p.  396). 

1 8 20.]  BARRY   CORNWALL.  37 

His  Faiist  I  never  read,  for  I  don't  know  German ;  but 
Matthew  Monk  Lewis,  in  1816,  at  Coligny,  translated 
most  of  it  to  me  viva  voce,  and  I  was  naturally  much 
struck  with  it;  but  it  was  the  Staubach  and  the  Jungfrau, 
and  something  else,  much  more  than  Faustus,  that  made 
me  write  Manfred.  The  first  Scene,  however,  and  that 
of  Faustus  are  very  similar.  Acknowledge  this  letter. 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — I  have  received  Ivanhoe  ; — good.  Pray  send 
me  some  tooth  powder  and  tincture  of  Myrrh,  by  Waite^ 
etc.  Ricdardetto  should  have  been  translated  literally, 
or  not  at  alL  As  to  puffing  Whistlecraft,  it  ivorit  do : * 
I'll  tell  you  why  some  day  or  other.  Cornwall's  a  poet,2 

1.  Probably  this  alludes  to  an  article    on   Whistlecraft,  in  the 
Quarterly  Review,  vol.  xxi.  ;  in  which  the  reviewer  (p.  503)  says, 
"  About  a  hundred  years  ago,  a  poem,  bearing  a  certain  degree  of 
"  affinity  to  the  '  Specimen,'  was  produced  by  Monsignor  Forteguerri, 
' '  a  writer  who  in  genius  and  means  was  far  inferior  to  the  English 
"Poet,"  etc.,  etc.      Niccolo  Forteguerri  (1674-1735),  a  native  of 
Pistoja,  and  a  cardinal,  wrote  Ricdardetto  (pub.   1738),   a  broad 
burlesque  of  Ariosto.     The  poem,   already  twice   translated  into 
French   verse  (Dumouriez,   1766;    Due  de  Nivernais,   1796),  may 
have  helped  to  suggest  to  Frere  his  Prospectus  and  Specimen  of  an 
Intended  National  Work,  by  William  and  Robert  Whistlecraft. 

2.  Bryan  Waller  Procter  (1787-1874),  father  of  Adelaide  Procter 
(1825-1864),  entered  Harrow  School  in  February,  1801.    He  became 
a  solicitor,  then  a  barrister,  and  finally  (1832-61)  a  metropolitan 
commissioner  in  lunacy.     But  though  the  law  was  his  profession, 
literature,  especially  before  his  marriage  (1824)  with  Miss  Skepper, 
was  his  passion.     Under  the  disguise  of  "Barry  Cornwall,"  a  partial 
anagram  of  his  real  name,  he  published  his  Dramatic  Scenes  in  1819  ; 
his  Mercian  Colonna  appeared  in  the  next  year,  his  Sicilian  Story 
in  1821.     In  the  two  last-named  works  the  influence  of  Leigh  Hunt 
was  conspicuous,  as  Byron  remarks  (p.  217);  but  Moore  gratified 
his  feeling  against  Hunt  by  omitting  the  name,  now  for  the  first  time 
restored,  at   the   expense   of  Byron's    critical    insight.      Procter's 
Mirandola  was  produced  at  Covent  Garden,  January  9,  1821,  with 
Macready  as  the  "Duke  of  Mirandola;"  Charles  Kemble  as  his 
son,   "Guido;"    Miss  Foote  as  "  Isidora  ;  "   and  Mrs.  Faucit   as 
"Isabella."    Genest  (English  Stage,  vol.  ix.  pp.  102,  103)  calls  it 


but  spoilt  by  the  detestable  Schools  of  the  day.  Mrs. 
Hemans l  is  a  poet  also,  but  too  stiltified  and  apostrophic, 

"  a  pretty  good  play,"  and  says  that  it  was  acted  sixteen  times. 
Some  of  Procter's  best  poetical  work  is  contained  in  his  English 
Songs  and  other  Smaller  Poems  (1832).  As  an  intimate  friend  of 
"Elia,"  he  wrote  a  charming  biography  of  Charles  Lamb  (Charles 
Lamb  :  a  Memoir,  1866-68).  He  made  himself  responsible  for  part 
of  the  expenses  of  the  publication  of  Shelley's  posthumous  poetry. 
The  following  is  a  letter  from  Procter  to  Byron  : — 

"  March  19,  1821,  25,  Store  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

"  MY  LORD, — It  gave  me  much  pleasure  to  learn  that  you  had 
"  some  recollection  of  a  Harrow  boy,  as  well  as  that  you  felt  some 
"interest  in  my  poetical  progress.  It  has,  in  truth,  been  fortunate. 
"  Pray  endeavour  to  believe  that  I  am  obliged  by  your  remembering 
"  me.  I  sent  you  in  January,  thro'  Mr.  Murray,  who  promised  to 
"  forward  it,  a  copy  of  my  play  of  Mirandola,  which  was  very 
"  well  received.  I  scarcely  know  how  you  will  like  it,  but  the  style 
"  is  after  a  better  fashion,  I  think,  than  what  has  generally  been 
"followed  of  late  years.  I  shall  try  to  do  better  some  of  these 
"  days,  and  in  the  mean  time,  if  you  have  an  idle  five  minutes, 
"  I  need  not  say  that  I  shall  feel  flattered  by  your  devoting  them  to 
"me.  I  am  induced  to  say  thus  much  because  you  have  already 
"  taken  the  trouble  of  thinking  of  me  and  my  little  literary  ventures. 

"  There  is  little  book-news  at  present.  Scott's  Kenilworth  has 
"  been  very  well  received,  and  there  is  a  great  deal  of  dramatic 
"power  in  the  tale,  tho'  it  is  too  much  like  a  fragment  of  history, 
"  and  not  altogether  complete  in  itself,  perhaps.  Southey  has  tried 
"the  English  hexameter,  and  has  written  7'he  Vision  of  Jitdg- 
"  ment ;  but  it  will  not  be  popular,  I  apprehend.  I  have  not  read 
"  it.  Thomas  Moore  has  been  in  France,  and  has  written  nothing, 
"  as  you  know.  I  wish  he  would  dispatch  one  of  his  little  piquant 
"  duodecimos  here.  We  want  something  to  enliven  us.  Don  Juan 
"  is  not  out  yet.  Pray  don't  keep  him  back  ;  he  is  rather  wicked, 
"but  very  delightful.  Have  you  seen  Shelley's  Cencil  It  is  a 
"very  powerful  performance,  I  think,  tho'  I  wish  he  would  let  those 
"disagreeable  subjects  alone.  Poor  Keats  is  at  Rome,  dying,  I 
"  hear.  Wordsworth  and  Coleridge  are  idle,  as  far  as  poetry  is 
"  concerned.  This  is  all  the  news  in  my  possession. 

"  The  Neapolitans  have  stirred  our  lazy  blood  a  little.  I  hope, 
"however,  that  they  will  not  (nor  the  Austrians)  make  your  stay  at 
"  Venice  either  perilous  or  uncomfortable.  Do  not  allow  the  hot 
"sun  of  the  South  to  beget  indolence  upon  you,  but  pray  write  as 
"much  as  is  consistent  with  your  health  ;  about  this  latter  point  I 
"  beg  you  to  believe  that  I  am  interested,  as  well  as  most  sincerely 
"  about  every  thing  you  do. 

"  I  am,  my  dear  lord, 

"  Your  most  obliged  and  sincere  servt., 

"B.  W.  PROCTER. 

"  I  do  not  send   you  my  last  book,  Martian  Colonna,  as   Mr. 

l820.]  COURAGE  IN  DEATH.  39 

and  quite  wrong :  men  died  calmly  before  the  Christian 
sera,  and  since,  without  Christianity — witness  the  Romans, 
and,  lately,  Thistlewood,2  Sandt,3  and  Louvel 4 — men  who 
ought  to  have  been  weighed  down  with  their  crimes,  even 
had  they  believed.  A  deathbed  is  a  matter  of  nerves 
and  constitution,  and  not  of  religion.  Voltaire  was 
frightened,  Frederick  of  Prussia  not :  Christians  the 
same,  according  to  their  strength  rather  than  their  creed. 
What  does  Helga  Herbert5  mean  by  his  Stanza ?  which. 

"  Murray  may  perhaps  have  forwarded  it  to  you  among  other  new 
"  publications.  It  is  rather  a  hasty  affair." 

1.  Mrs.  Hemans,  in  The  Sceptic  (1820),  based  the  truth  of  religion 
on  the  misery  of  man  without  it, — especially  at  the  moment  of  death. 

2.  Arthur  Thistlewood  (1770-1820),  son  of  a  Lincolnshire  farmer, 
had  three  times  attempted  to  inaugurate  a  revolution  in  London 
(Spa  Fields,   December  2,  1816  ;  Smithfield,  September  6,  1817  ; 
and  October  12,  1817).     For  the  first  attempt  he  was  tried  for  high 
treason  ;  but  the  case  was  not  proceeded  with.    From  May,  1818,  to 
May,  1819,  he  was  imprisoned  in  Horsham  Gaol  for  a  threatened 
breach  of  the  peace  by  a  challenge  which  he  sent  to  Lord  Sidmouth. 
Despairing  of  revolution,  he  fell  back  on  assassination.     His  plan 
was  to  assassinate  the  Ministers  at  a  Cabinet  dinner  to  be  given  at 
Lord  Harrowby's,  February  23,  1820.     On  tke  evening  of  the  23rd 
the  conspirators  were  arrested  in  a  loft  over  a  stable  in  Cato  Street. 
Thistlewood  escaped,  but  was  taken  next  day  in  Moorfields.     He 
was  hanged  in  front  of  Newgate,  defiant  to  the  last,  on  May  i,  1820. 

3.  Charles  Sandt  (1795-1820)  assassinated  Kotzebue  (1761-1819), 
whom  he  suspected  of  being  a  Russian  spy,  at  Mannheim,  March  23, 

1819.  After  the  murder  he  exclaimed,    "God,  I  thank  Thee,  for 
"having  permitted  me  to  accomplish  this  act!"  and  plunged  the 
knife  in  his  own  breast.     He  was  executed  at  Mannheim,  May  20, 

1820,  going  to  the  scaffold  as  to  &f$te,  and  his  last  words  were,  that 
he  died  "for  the  liberty  of  Germany." 

4.  For  Pierre-Louis  Louvel,  see  p.  20,  note  i. 

5.  The    Hon.    William    Herbert    (1778-1847),    poet,    linguist, 
botanist,  ornithologist,  and  divine,  was  the  third  son  of  the  first  Earl 
of  Carnarvon.     He  began  life  as  a  barrister,  and  became  M.P.  first 
for  Hampshire   (1806),   then  for  Cricklade  (l8n).      Ordained   in 
1814,  he  was  made  Dean  of  Manchester  in  1840.    As  a  boy  at  Eton, 
he  had  edited  the  Muses  Etonenses  (1795).    *n  1804-6  he  published, 
in  two  parts,  his  Select  Icelandic  Poetry.     Herbert  was  one  of  the 
earliest  Edinburgh  Reviewers,  and  hence  Byron  alludes  to  him  in 
English  Bards,  and  Scotch-  Reviewers,  lines  510,  511 — 

"  Herbert  shall  wield  Thor's  hammer,  and  sometimes 
In  gratitude,  thou'lt  praise  his  rugged  rhymes." 


is  octave  got  drunk  or  gone  mad.  He  ought  to  have 
his  ears  boxed  with  Thor's  hammer  for  rhyming  so 

803. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  June  8"?  1 820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — It  is  intimated  to  me  that  there  is 
some  demur  and  backwardness  on  your  part  to  make 
propositions  with  regard  to  the  MSS.  transmitted  to  you 
at  your  own  request.  How  or  why  this  should  occur, 
when  you  were  in  no  respect  limited  to  any  terms,  I 
know  not,  and  do  not  care — contenting  myself  with 
repeating  that  the  two  cantos  of  Juan  were  to  reckon  as 
one  only,  and  that,  even  in  that  case  you  are  not  to  consider 
yourself  as  bound  by  your  former  proposition,  particularly 
as  your  people  may  have  a  bad  opinion  of  the  production, 
the  whilk  I  am  by  no  means  prepared  to  dispute. 

With  regard  to  the  other  MSS.  (the  prose  will  not  be 
published  in  any  case),  I  named  nothing,  and  left  the 
matter  to  you  and  to  my  friends.  If  you  are  the  least 
shy  (I  do  not  say  you  are  wrong),  you  can  put  the  whole 
of  the  MSS.  in  Mr.  Hobhouse's  hands;  and  there  the 
matter  ends.  Your  declining  to  publish  will  not  be  any 
offence  to  me. 

Yours  in  haste, 

His  Helga,  a  poem  in  seven  cantos,  appeared  in  1815,  and  Hedin,  or 
the  Spectre  of  the  Tomb,  in  1820.  The  metre  of  Hedin  is  peculiar. 
Stanza  Ivii.  runs  as  follows  : — 

"  Strange  signs  upon  the  tomb  her  hands  did  trace; 
Then  to  strong  spells  she  did  herself  address, 
And  in  slow  measure  breathed  that  fatal  strain, 
Whose  awful  harmony  can  wake  the  slain, 
Rive  the  cold  grave,  and  work  the  charmer's  will. 
Thrice,  as  she  called  on  Hedin,  rang  the  plain  ; 
Thrice  echoed  the  dread  name  from  hill  to  hill ; 

Thrice  the  dark  wold  sent  back  the  sound,  and  all  was  still." 

i Sao.]  MOORE'S  BIOGRAPHER.  41 

804, — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  June  9,  1820. 

Galignani  has  just  sent  me  the  Paris  edition  of  your 
works  (which  I  wrote  to  order),  and  I  am  glad  to  see 
my  old  friends  with  a  French  face.  I  have  been  skim- 
ming and  dipping,  in  and  over  them,  like  a  swallow,  and 
as  pleased  as  one.  It  is  the  first  time  that  I  had  seen 
the  Melodies  without  music ;  and,  I  don't  know  how,  but 
I  can't  read  in  a  music-book — the  crotchets  confound  the 
words  in  my  head,  though  I  recollect  them  perfectly 
when  sung.  Music  assists  my  memory  through  the  ear, 
not  through  the  eye ;  I  mean,  that  her  quavers  perplex 
me  upon  paper,  but  they  are  a  help  when  heard.  And 
thus  I  was  glad  to  see  the  words  without  their  borrowed 
robes ; — to  my  mind  they  look  none  the  worse  for  their 

The  biographer1  has  made  a  botch  of  your  life — 
calling  your  father  "a  venerable  old  gentleman,"  and 
prattling  of  "  Addison,"  and  "  dowager  countesses."  If 

I.  In  the  "  Sketch  of  Thomas  Moore,"  prefixed  to  the  collected 
edition  of  his  works  published  by  Galignani,  the  biographer  speaks 
of  "  Mr.  Moore,  sen.,  a  venerable  old  gentleman,  the  father  of  our 
"bard."     Alluding  to  Moore's  marriage  with  Miss  Dyke,  he  says 
that  "the  fate  of  Addison  with  his  Countess  Dowager"  held  "out 
"no  encouragement  for  the  ambitious  love  of  Mr.  Moore."     In  his 
report  of  Moore's  speech  at  Morrison's  Hotel,  Dublin,  on  June  8, 
1818,  he  represents  Moore  as  saying,  in  response  to  Lord  Charle- 
mont's   toast  of  "the   living   Poets   of  Great   Britain,"    "Can   I 
'  name  to  you  a  Byron,  without  recalling  to  your  hearts  recollections 
'  of  all  that  his  mighty  genius  has  awakened  there  ;  his  energy,  his 
'  burning  words,  his  intense  passion,  that  disposition  of  fine  fancy 
'  to  wander  only  among  the  ruins  of  the  heart,  to  dwell  in  places 
'  which  the  fire  of  feeling  has  desolated,  and,  like  the  chestnut-tree, 
'  that  grows  best  in  volcanic  soils,  to  luxuriate  most  where  the 
'  conflagration  of  passion  has   left  its  mark  ?  "     Other  poets  men- 
tioned by  Moore  were  Scott,  Southey,  Rogers,  Campbell,  Words- 
worth, Crabbe,  Maturin  whose  dramatic  powers  were  "consecrated 
"by  the  applause  of  a  Scott  and  a  Byron,"  Sheil,  Phillips,  and 
Lady  Morgan. 


that  damned  fellow  was  to  write  my  life,  I  would  certainly 
take  his.  And  then,  at  the  Dublin  dinner,  you  have 
"made  a  speech"  (do  you  recollect,  at  Douglas  K.'s., 
"  Sir,  he  made  me  a  speech  ?  ")  too  complimentary  to 
the  "living  poets,"  and  somewhat  redolent  of  universal 
praise.  I  am  but  too  well  off  in  it,  but  *  *  * 

You  have  not  sent  me  any  poetical  or  personal  news 
of  yourself.  Why  don't  you  complete  an  Italian  Tour  of 
the  Fudges  ?  I  have  just  been  turning  over  Little,  which 
I  knew  by  heart  in  1803,  being  then  in  my  fifteenth 
summer.  Heigho !  I  believe  all  the  mischief  I  have 
ever  done,  or  sung,  has  been  owing  to  that  confounded 
book  of  yours. 

In  my  last  I  told  you  of  a  cargo  of  "  Poeshie,"  which 
I  had  sent  to  M.  at  his  own  impatient  desire ; — and,  now 
he  has  got  it,  he  don't  like  it,  and  demurs.  Perhaps  he 
is  right.  I  have  no  great  opinion  of  any  of  my  last  ship- 
ment, except  a  translation  from  Pulci,  which  is  word  for 
word,  and  verse  for  verse. 

I  am  in  the  third  act  of  a  Tragedy ;  but  whether  it 
will  be  finished  or  not,  I  know  not:  I  have,  at  this 
present,  too  many  passions  of  my  own  on  hand  to  do 
justice  to  those  of  the  dead.  Besides  the  vexations 
mentioned  in  my  last,  I  have  incurred  a  quarrel  with  the 
Pope's  carabiniers,  or  gens  d'armerie^  who  have  petitioned 
the  Cardinal  against  my  liveries,  as  resembling  too  nearly 
their  own  lousy  uniform.  They  particularly  object  to 
the  epaulettes,  which  all  the  world  with  us  have  on  upon 
gala  days.  My  liveries  are  of  the  colours  conforming  to 
my  arms,  and  have  been  the  family  hue  since  the  year 

I  have  sent  a  trenchant  reply,  as  you  may  suppose  ; 
and  have  given  to  understand  that,  if  any  soldados  of  that 
respectable  corps  insult  my  servants,  I  will  do  likewise 

1820.]         TIRESOME   FEUDS   FOR  A   QUIET   MAN.  43 

by  their  gallant  commanders;  and  I  have  directed  my 
ragamuffins,  six  in  number,  who  are  tolerably  savage,  to 
defend  themselves,  in  case  of  aggression;  and,  on 
holidays  and  gaudy  days,  I  shall  arm  the  whole  set, 
including  myself,  in  case  of  accidents  or  treachery.  I 
used  to  play  pretty  well  at  the  broad-sword,  once  upon 
a  time,  at  Angelo's;  but  I  should  like  the  pistol,  our 
national  buccaneer  weapon,  better,  though  I  am  out  of 
practice  at  present.  However,  I  can  "wink  and  hold 
"  out  mine  iron." l  It  makes  me  think  (the  whole  thing 
does)  of  Romeo  and  Juliet — "  now,  Gregory,  remember 
"  thy  swashing  blow." 2 

All  these  feuds,  however,  with  the  Cavalier  for  his 
wife,  and  the  troopers  for  my  liveries,  are  very  tiresome 
to  a  quiet  man,  who  does  his  best  to  please  all  the  world, 
and  longs  for  fellowship  and  good  will.  Pray  write. 

I  am  yours,  etc. 

805. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  June  12"?  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — The  accident  is  very  disagree- 
able, but  I  do  not  see  why  you  are  to  make  up  the  loss, 
until  it  is  quite  clear  that  the  money  is  lost ;  nor  even 
then,  because  I  am  not  at  all  disposed  to  have  you  suffer 
for  an  act  of  trouble  for  another.  If  the  money  has  been 
paid,  and  not  accounted  for  (by  Dorville's  illness),  it 
rests  with  me  to  supply  the  deficit,  and,  even  if  not,  I  am 
not  at  all  clear  on  the  justice  of  your  making  up  the 
money  of  another,  because  it  has  been  stolen  from  your 
bureau.  You  will  of  course  examine  into  the  matter 
thoroughly,  because  otherwise  you  live  in  a  state  of 

1.  Henry  V.,  act  ii.  sc.  I. 

2.  Romeo  and  Jttliet,  act  5.  sc.  I. 


perpetual  suspicion.  Are  you  sure  that  the  whole  sum 
came  from  the  Bankers  ?  was  it  counted  since  it  passed 
to  you  by  Mr.  Dorville  or  by  yourself?  or  was  it  kept 
unmixed  with  any  cash  of  your  own  expences? — in 
Venice  and  with  Venetian  servants  any  thing  is  possible 
and  probable  that  savours  of  villainy. 

You  may  give  up  the  house  immediately  and  licentiate 
the  Servitors,  and  pray,  if  it  likes  you  not,  sell  the 
Gondola,  and  keep  that  produce  and  in  (sic)  the  other 
balance  in  your  hands  till  you  can  clear  up  this 

Mother  Mocenigo  will  probably  try  a  bill  for  break- 
ables, to  which  I  reckoned  that  the  new  Canal  posts  and 
pillars,  and  the  new  door  at  the  other  end,  together  with 
the  year's  rent,  and  the  house  given  up  without  further 
occupation,  are  an  ample  compensation  for  any  cracking 
of  crockery  of  her's  in  qflitto.  Is  it  not  so?  how  say 
you?  the  Canal  posts  and  doors  cost  many  hundred 
francs,  and  she  may  be  content,  or  she  may  be  damned ; 
it  is  no  great  matter  which.  Should  I  ever  go  to  Venice 
again,  I  will  betake  me  to  the  Hostel  or  Inn. 

I  was  greatly  obliged  by  your  translation  from  the 
German;  but  it  is  no  time  to  plague  you  with  such 
nonsense  now,  when  in  the  full  exasperation  of  this 
vexatious  deficit. 

Make  my  best  respects  to  Mrs.  Hoppner,  who  doubt- 
less wishes  me  at  the  devil  for  all  this  trouble,  and  pray 

And  believe  me,  yours  ever  and  truly, 


P.S. — Allegra  is  well  and  obstinate,  much  grown  and 
a  favourite. 

My  love  to  your  little  boy. 

1820.]  A   SUMMONS   TO   THE   CORONATION.  45 

806. — To  Charles  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  June  15"?  1820. 

MY  DEAR  CHARLES, — After  a  mature  consideration 
I  decided  to  agree  to  the  mortgage,  and  sent  my  consent 
addressed  jointly  to  Mr.  Kinnaird  with  your  father,  a  few 
days  ago. 

The  contents  of  the  January  packet  have  not  been 
returned,  because  I  presume  that  both  the  witnesses  must 
be  Britons,  and  the  only  one  here  besides  myself  is  my 
servant  Fletcher.  Upon  this  point  let  me  be  avised. 

It  would  have  given  me  pleasure  that  the  Rochdale 
suit  could  have  been  terminated  amicably,  and  without 
further  law,  but  by  arbitration;  but  since  it  must  go 
before  a  Court,  I  resign  myself  to  the  decision,  and  wish 
to  hear  the  result. 

I  shall  not  return  to  England  for  the  present,  but  I 
wish  you  to  send  me  (obtain  it)  my  summons  as  a  Peer 
to  the  Coronation l  (from  curiosity),  and  let  me  know  if 
we  have  any  claims  in  our  family  (as  connected  with 
Sherwood  Forest)  to  carry  any  part  of  the  mummery, 
that  they  may  not  lapse,  but,  by  being  presented,  be 
preserved  to  my  Successors. 

It  will  give  me  great  pleasure  to  hear  further  from 
you  on  these  points ;  and  I  beg  you  to  believe  me,  with 
my  best  regards  to  your  father  and  family, 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


I.  The  Coronation  of  George  IV.  was  originally  fixed  for  August 
I,  1820.  But,  owing  to  the  proceedings  against  the  Queen,  the 
ceremony  did  not  take  place  till  July  19,  1821. 


807. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  July  6"?  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — My  former  letters  will  prove  that  I 
found  no  fault  with  your  opinions  nor  with  you  for  acting 
upon  them — but  I  do  protest  against  your  keeping  me 
four  months  in  suspense — without  any  answer  at  all.  As 
it  is  you  will  keep  back  the  remaining  trash  till  I  have 
woven  the  tragedy  of  which  I  am  in  the  4th  act.  With 
regard  to  terms  I  have  already  said  that  I  named  and 
name  none.  They  are  points  which  I  leave  between  you 
and  my  friends,  as  I  cannot  judge  upon  the  subject; 
neither  to  you  nor  to  them  have  I  named  any  sum,  nor 

have  I  thought  of  any,  nor  does  it  matter But  if  you 

don't  answer  my  letters  I  shall  resort  to  the  Row — where 
I  shall  not  find  probably  good  manners  or  liberality — 
but  at  least  I  shall  have  an  answer  of  some  kind.  You 
must  not  treat  a  blood  horse  as  you  do  your  hacks,  other- 
wise he'll  bolt  out  of  the  course.  Keep  back  the  stuff 
till  I  can  send  you  the  remainder — but  recollect  that  I 
don't  promise  that  the  tragedy  will  be  a  whit  better  than 
the  rest.  All  I  shall  require  then  will  be  a  positive 
answer  but  a  speedy  one — and  not  an  awkward  delay. 
Now  you  have  spoken  out  are  you  any  the  worse  for  it  ? 
and  could  not  you  have  done  so  five  months  ago  ?  Do 
you  think  I  lay  a  stress  on  the  merits  of  my  "  poeshie." 
I  assure  you  I  have  many  other  things  to  think  of.  At 
present  I  am  eager  to  know  the  result  of  the  Colliery 
question  between  the  Rochdale  people  and  myself.  The 
cause  has  been  heard — but  as  yet  Judgement  is  not 
passed — at  least  if  it  is  I  have  not  heard  of  it.  Here  is 
one  thing  of  importance  to  my  private  affairs.  The  next 
is  that  I  have  been  the  cause  of  a  great  conjugal  scrape 
here — which  is  now  before  the  Pope  (seriously  I  assure 

l820.j  VITTORIA   CARAMBANA.  47 

you)  and  what  the  decision  of  his  Sanctity  will  be  no 
one  can  predicate.  It  would  be  odd  that  having  left 
England  for  one  Woman  ("Vittoria  Carambana  the 
"  White  Devil " 1  to  wit)  I  should  have  to  quit  Italy  for 
another.  The  husband  is  the  greatest  man  in  these  parts 
with  100000  Scudi  a  year — but  he  is  a  great  Brunello  2  in 

1.  Byron  refers  to  John  Webster's  play  of  The  White  Devil,  pub- 
lished in  1612  under  the  following  title :  The  White  Divel,  or,  the 
Tragedy  of  Paulo\  Giordano  Ursini,  Duke  of  Brachiano,   With  the 
Life  and  Death  of  Vittoria  Corombona  the  famous  Venetian  Curtizan. 
Acted  by  the  Queenes  Maiesties  Seruants.     Written  by  John  Webster 
(London,     1612,    4*°).      In    the    tragedy  Brachiano,   married    to 
Isabella  de   Medici,  loves  Vittoria,   wife   to  Camillo.      Vittoria's 
brother,    Flamineo,  promotes   Brachiano's   intrigue,  and   contrives 
the  murder  of  Camillo  and  Isabella.  <?  Tried  before  the  Duke  of 
Florence,  Isabella's  brother,  and  the  Cardinal  Monticelso,  Vittoria 
defends  herself  with  such  art  that,  though  condemned,  she  wins  the 
love  of  the  Duke.    He  writes  to  her  in  the  "  Convent  of  Convertites," 
where  she  is  confined,  suggesting  a  plan  for  her  escape.     Brachiano 
gains  possession  of  the  letter,  and  uses  the  plan  for  his  own  purposes. 
The  Duke  kills  Brachiano,  and  two  of  his  friends  kill  Flamineo 
and  Vittoria. 

From  1663  to  1682  the  play  was  one  of  the  stock  pieces  at  the 
Theatre  Royal  (Genest's  English  Stage,  vol.  i.  pp.  334  and  346). 
Speaking  of  the  fine  trial  scene,  Charles  Lamb  says  (Specimens  of 
Eng.  Dram.  Poets,  p.  229) — 

"  This  White  Devil  of  Italy  sets  off  a  bad  cause  so  speciously, 
'  and  pleads  with  such  an  innocence  resembling  boldness,  that  we 
'  seem  to  see  that  matchless  beauty  of  her  face  which  inspires  such 
'  gay  confidence  into  her :  and  are  ready  to  expect,  when  she  has 
'done  her  pleadings,  that  her  very  judges,  her  accusers,  the  grave 
'  ambassadors  who  sit  as  spectators,  and  all  the  court,  will  rise  and 
'  make  proffer  to  defend  her  in  spite  of  the  utmost  conviction  of  her 
'  guilt." 

The  story  is  founded  on  history.  Vittoria  Accoramboni  (1557- 
1585)  married  (1573)  Francesco  Peretti,  nephew  of  Cardinal  Mon- 
talto,  afterwards  Pope  Sixtus  V.  Peretti  was  murdered  (1581), 
and  his  widow,  in  the  same  year,  was  tried  for  the  crime,  and 
acquitted.  She  then  married  Paolo  Giordano  Orsini,  Duke  of 
Bracciano,  himself  suspected  of  the  assassination.  When  Peretti's 
uncle  became  (1585)  Pope,  Orsini  and  his  wife  fled  to  Venice. 
There  he  died,  not  without  suspicion  of  poison,  and  at  the  close  of 
the  same  year  (December  22,  1585)  Vittoria  and  her  brother 
Flaminio  were  murdered  at  Padua.  The  story  is  told  at  length 
by  J.  A.  Symonds,  in  his  Renaissance  in  Italy,  "  The  Catholic 
"  Reaction,"  part  i.  pp.  381-399. 

2.  In  Orlando  Furioso  "Brunello"  is  a  leader  in  the  Saracen 


politics  and  private  life — and  is  shrewdly  suspected  of 
more  than  one  murder.  The  relatives  are  on  my  side 
because  they  dislike  him.  We  wait  the  event. 

Yours  truly, 


808. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  July  13,  1820. 

To  remove  or  increase  your  Irish  anxiety  about  my 
being  "  in  a  wisp," l  I  answer  your  letter  forthwith ; 
premising  that,  as  I  am  a  "  Will  of  the  wisp,"  I  may 
chance  to  flit  out  of  it.  But,  first,  a  word  on  the  Memoir ; 2 
— I  have  no  objection,  nay,  I  would  rather  that  one 
correct  copy  was  taken  and  deposited  in  honourable 
hands,  in  case  of  accidents  happening  to  the  original ; 
for  you  know  that  I  have  none,  and  have  never  even 
re-read,  nor,  indeed,  read  at  all  what  is  there  written ;  I 
only  know  that  I  wrote  it  with  the  fullest  intention  to  be 

army,  the  misshapen  dwarf  to  whom  the  king  gave  the  talismanic 

"  Brunello  is  his  name  that  hath  the  ring, 
Most  leud  and  false,  but  politike  and  wise." 

Sir  John  Harington's  translation  of  Orlando 
Furioso,  bk.  iii.  stanza  58. 

1.  "An  Irish  phrase  for  being  in  a  scrape  "  (Moore). 

2.  In  Moore's  Rhymes  on  the  Road,   Extract  vii.  ( Works,   ed. 
1854,   vol.   vii.   pp.   301-304),  will  be  found  a  poem  written  at 
Venice  when  about  to  open  the  Memoirs  for  the  first  time — 

"  Let  me  a  moment, — ere  with  fear  and  hope 
Of  gloomy,  glorious  things,  these  leaves  I  ope — 
As  one,  in  fairy  tale,  to  whom  the  key 

Of  some  enchanter's  secret  halls  is  given, 
Doubts,  while  he  enters,  slowly,  tremblingly, 

If  he  shall  meet  with  shapes  from  hell  or  heaven 

Let  me,  a  moment,  think  what  thousands  live 
O'er  the  wide  earth  this  instant,  who  would  give, 
Gladly,  whole  sleepless  nights  to  bend  the  brow 
Over  these  precious  leaves,  as  I  do  now,"  etc.,  etc. 

1820.]  THE  POPE'S  DECREE.  49 

"  faithful  and  true  "  in  my  narrative,  but  not  impartial — 
no,  by  the  Lord !  I  can't  pretend  to  be  that,  while  I  feel. 
But  I  wish  to  give  every  body  concerned  the  opportunity 
to  contradict  or  correct  me. 

I  have  no  objection  to  any  proper  person  seeing  what 
is  there  written, — seeing  it  was  written,  like  every  thing 
else,  for  the  purpose  of  being  read,  however  much  many 
writings  may  fail  in  arriving  at  that  object. 

With  regard  to  "  the  wisp,"  the  Pope  has  pronounced 
their  separation.  The  decree  came  yesterday  from 
Babylon, — it  was  she  and  her  friends  who  demanded  it, 
on  the  grounds  of  her  husband's  (the  noble  Count 
Cavalier's)  extraordinary  usage.  He  opposed  it  with  all 
his  might  because  of  the  alimony,  which  has  been 
assigned,  with  all  her  goods,  chattels,  carriage,  etc.,  to  be 
restored  by  him.1  In  Italy  they  can't  divorce.  He 
insisted  on  her  giving  me  up,  and  he  would  forgive  every 
thing, — even  the  adultery,  which  he  swears  that  he  can 
prove  by  "  famous  witnesses."  But,  in  this  country,  the 
very  courts  hold  such  proofs  in  abhorrence,  the  Italians 
being  as  much  more  delicate  in  public  than  the  English, 
as  they  are  more  passionate  in  private. 

The  friends  and  relatives,  who  are  numerous  and 
powerful,  reply  to  him — "  You,  yourself,  are  either  fool 
"  or  knave, — fool,  if  you  did  not  see  the  consequences  of 
"  the  approximation  of  these  two  young  persons, — knave, 
"if  you  connive  at  it.  Take  your  choice, — but  don't 
"  break  out  (after  twelve  months  of  the  closest  intimacy, 
"under  your  own  eyes  and  positive  sanction)  with  a 
"  scandal,  which  can  only  make  you  ridiculous  and  her 
"  unhappy." 

I.  On  July  1 6  Madame  Guiccioli  left  Ravenna,  and  retired  to 
a  villa  belonging  to  her  father,  Count  Gamba,  about  fifteen  miles 
from  the  city.  The  alimony  allowed  by  her  husband  was  ,£200  a 

VOL.  V.  E 


He  swore  that  he  thought  our  intercourse  was  purely 
amicable,  and  that  /  was  more  partial  to  him  than  to  her, 
till  melancholy  testimony  proved  the  contrary.  To  this 
they  answer,  that  "Will  of  this  wisp"  was  not  an  un- 
known person,  and  that  "  clamosa  Fama "  had  not  pro- 
claimed the  purity  of  my  morals ; — that  her  brother,  a 
year  ago,  wrote  from  Rome  to  warn  him  that  his  wife 
would  infallibly  be  led  astray  by  this  ignis  fatuus,  unless 
he  took  proper  measures,  all  of  which  he  neglected  to 
take,  etc.,  etc. 

Now  he  says  that  he  encouraged  my  return  to 
Ravenna,  to  see  "  in  quanti  piedi  di  acqua  siamo"  and  he 
has  found  enough  to  drown  him  in.  In  short, 

"  Ce  ne  fut  pas  le  tout ;  sa  femme  se  plaignit — 

Proces — La  parente  se  joint  en  excuse  et  dit 
Que  du  Docteur  venoit  tout  le  mauvais  menage  ; 
Que  cet  homme  etoit  fou,  que  sa  femme  etoit  sage. 
On  fit  casser  le  mariage." 1 

It  is  best  to  let  the  women  alone,  in  the  way  of  conflict, 
for  they  are  sure  to  win  against  the  field.  She  returns  to 
her  father's  house,  and  I  can  only  see  her  under  great 
restrictions — such  is  the  custom  of  the  country.  The 
relations  behave  very  well: — I  offered  any  settlement, 
but  they  refused  to  accept  it,  and  swear  she  shan't  live 
with  G.  (as  he  has  tried  to  prove  her  faithless),  but  that 
he  shall  maintain  her ;  and,  in  fact,  a  judgment  to  this 
effect  came  yesterday.  I  am,  of  course,  in  an  awkward 
situation  enough. 

I    have  heard    no    more   of    the   carabiniers  who 

I.  Byron  quotes  from  La  Fontaine's  "Le  Roi  Candaule  et  le 
"  Maftre  en  Droit"     The  last  lines  are— 
"  Et  puis  la  dame  se  rendit 
Belle  et  bonne  religieuse 
A  Saint-Croissant  en  Vavoureuse 
Un  prelat  lui  donna  1'habit."  j 

1 820.]  LAMARTINE   ON    BYRON.  51 

protested  against  my  liveries.  They  are  not  popular, 
those  same  soldiers,  and,  in  a  small  row,  the  other  night, 
one  was  slain,  another  wounded,  and  divers  put  to  flight, 
by  some  of  the  Romagnuole  youth,  who  are  dexterous, 
and  somewhat  liberal  of  the  knife.  The  perpetrators  are 
not  discovered,  but  I  hope  and  believe  that  none  of  my 
ragamuffins  were  in  it,  though  they  are  somewhat  savage, 
and  secretly  armed,  like  most  of  the  inhabitants.  It  is 
their  way,  and  saves  sometimes  a  good  deal  of  litigation. 

There  is  a  revolution  at  Naples.  If  so,  it  will  prob- 
ably leave  a  card  at  Ravenna  in  its  way  to  Lombardy. 

Your  publishers  seem  to  have  used  you  like  mine. 
M.  has  shuffled,  and  almost  insinuated  that  my  last 
productions  are  dull.  Dull,  sir ! — damme,  dull !  I 
believe  he  is  right.  He  begs  for  the  completion  of  my 
tragedy  of  Marino  Faliero^  none  of  which  is  yet  gone  to 
England.  The  fifth  act  is  nearly  completed,  but  it  is 
dreadfully  long — 40  sheets  of  long  paper  of  4  pages  each 
— about  150  when  printed;  but  "so  full  of  pastime  and 
"  prodigality  "  that  I  think  it  will  do. 

Pray  send  and  publish  your  Pome  upon  me;  and 
don't  be  afraid  of  praising  me  too  highly.  I  shall  pocket 
my  blushes. 

"  Not  actionable  ! " — Chantretfenfer!  l — by  *  *  that's 
"  a  speech,"  and  I  won't  put  up  with  it.  A  pretty  title  to 
give  a  man  for  doubting  if  there  be  any  such  place  ! 

So  my  Gail  is  gone — and  Miss  Mah0/zy  won't  take 

I.  The  phrase  occurs  in  the  Premieres  Meditations  Pottiques  of 
Lamartine,  towards  the  end  of  the  poem  "  L'Homme — a  Lord 
"  Byron." 

"  Mais  silence,  6  ma  lyre  !  Et  toi,  qui  dans  tes  mains 
Tiens  le  cceur  palpitant  des  sensibles  humains, 
Byron,  viens  en  tirer  des  torrents  d'harmonie  ; 
C'est  pour  la  verite  que  Dieu  fit  le  genie. 
Jette  un  cri  vers  le  ciel,  6  chantre  des  enfers  ! 
Le  ciel  meme  aux  damnes  enviera  tes  concerts." 


money.     I  am  very  glad  of  it — I  like  to  be  generous,  free 
of  expense.     But  beg  her  not  to  translate  me. 

Oh,  pray  tell  Galignani  that  I  shall  send  him  a  screed 
of  doctrine  if  he  don't  be  more  punctual.  Somebody 
regularly  detains  two,  and  sometimes  four,  of  his 
Messengers  by  the  way.  Do,  pray,  entreat  him  to  be 
more  precise.  News  are  worth  money  in  this  remote 
kingdom  of  the  Ostrogoths. 

Pray,  reply.  I  should  like  much  to  share  some  of 
your  Champagne  and  La  Fitte,  but  I  am  too  Italian  for 
Paris  in  general.  Make  Murray  send  my  letter  to  you — 
it  is  full  of  epigrams. 

Yours,  etc. 

809. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  July  17,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Moore  writes  that  he  has  not  yet 
received  my  letter  of  January  2?  consigned  to  your  care 
for  him.  I  believe  this  is  the  sixth  time  I  have  begged 
of  you  to  forward  it,  and  I  shall  be  obliged  by  your  so 

I  have  received  some  books,  and  quarterlies,  and 
Edinburgh*,  for  all  which  I  am  grateful :  they  contain  all 
I  know  of  England,  except  by  Galignani's  newspaper. 

The  tragedy  is  completed,  but  now  comes  the  task  of 
copy  and  correction.  It  is  very  long,  (42  Sheets  of  long 
paper,  of  4  pages  each),  and  I  believe  must  make  more 
than  140  or  150  pages,  besides  many  historical  extracts 
as  notes,  which  I  mean  to  append.  History  is  closely 
followed.  Dr.  Moore's  account1  is  in  some  respects 

I.  Dr.  John  Moore  (1729-1802)  published  his  View  of  Society  and 
Manners  in  Italy  (2  vols.,  8vo)  in  1781.  In  the  Preface  to  Marino 
Faliero,  Byron  speaks  of  Moore's  account  as  "false  and  flippant, 
"full  of  stale  jests  about  old  men  and  young  wives,  and  wondering 
"  at  so  great  an  effect  from  so  slight  a  cause." 

1 8 20.]  A   LIST   OF   AUTHORITIES.  53 

false,  and  in  all  foolish  and  flippant.  None  of  the 
Chronicles  (and  I  have  consulted  Sanuto,1  Sandi, 
Navagero,  and  an  anonymous  Siege  of  Zara,  besides  the 
histories  of  Laugier,  Daru,  Sismondi,  etc.)  state,  or  even 
hint,  that  he  begged  his  life;  they  merely  say  that  he 
did  not  deny  the  conspiracy.  He  was  one  of  their  great 
men, — commanded  at  the  siege  of  Zara,  beat  80,000 
Hungarians,  killing  8000,  and  at  the  same  time  kept  the 
town  he  was  besieging  in  order.  Took  Capo  d'Istria ; 
was  ambassador  at  Genoa,  Rome,  and  finally  Doge, 
where  he  fell  for  treason,  in  attempting  to  alter  the 
Government,  by  what  Sanuto  calls  a  Judgement  on  him, 
for,  many  years  before  (when  Podesta  and  Captain  of 
Treviso),  having  knocked  down  a  bishop,  who  was 
sluggish  in  carrying  the  host  at  a  procession.  He 
"  saddles  him,"  as  Thwackum  did  Square,  "  with  a  Judge- 
"  ment ; "  2  but  does  not  mention  whether  he  had  been 
punished  at  the  time  for  what  would  appear  very  strange 
even  now,  and  must  have  been  still  more  so  in  an  age  of 
Papal  power  and  glory.  Sanuto  says,  that  Heaven  took 
away  his  senses  for  this  buffet  in  his  old  age,  and  in- 
duced him  to  conspire. — Pero  fu  permesso  che  il  Faliero 
perdette  rintelletto,  etc. 

I  don't  know  what  your  parlour  boarders  will  think 
of  the  drama  I  have  founded  upon  this  extraordinary 
event:  the  only  similar  one  in  history  is  the  story  of 

1.  Marino  Sanuto  (1466-1535)  wrote  Vitce  ducum  Venetorum  ab 
origine  urbis,  sive  ab  anno  421  ad  annum  1493.     Though  the  title  is 
in  Latin,  the  work  is  in  Italian.     It  was  first  published  by  Muratori 
in  J733  (Rerum  Italicorum  Scriptores,  torn.  xxii.).     In  the  Preface 
and   Notes   to   Marino  Faliero,    Byron   quotes  as  his   authorities 
Sanuto,  Vettor  Sandi,  Andrea  Navagero,  the  anonymous  account 
of  the  siege  of  Zara  preserved  in  Morelli's  Monumenti  Veneziani, 
Laugier's  Histoire  de    Venise,   Daru's  Histoire  de  la  Rtpublique  de 
Venise,  Sismondi's  Histoire  des  ReptMiques  Italiennes,  and  Petrarch's 

2.  Tom  Jones,  bk.  iv. 


Agis,  King  of  Sparta,1  a  prince  with  the  Commons 
against  the  aristocracy,  and  losing  his  life  therefor ;  but 
it  shall  be  sent  when  copied. 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  why  your  Quartering- 
Reviewers,  at  the  close  of  the  Fall  of  Jei-usalem,  accuse 
me  of  Manicheism  ?  a  compliment  to  which  the  sweetener 
of  "  one  of  the  mightiest  Spirits  "  by  no  means  reconciles 
me.  The  poem  they  review  is  very  noble;  but  could 
they  not  do  justice  to  the  writer  without  converting  him 
into  my  religious  Antidote?  I  am  not  a  Manichean, 
nor  an  ,/4/y-chean.  I  should  like  to  know  what  harm 
my  "  poeshies  "  have  done  :  I  can't  tell  what  your  people 
mean  by  making  me  a  hobgoblin.2 

1.  Agis  IV.,  King  of  Sparta  (B.C.  244-240),  said  to  one  of  his 
executioners  whom  he  saw  in  tears,  "  Weep  not,  my  man  !    Though 
"  I  suffer  death  contrary  both  to  law  and  justice,  yet  am  I  in  happier 
"case  than  my  murderers"  (Plutarch,  APIS,  20).      "Pausamas's 
"statement  that  Agis  was  killed  in  the  battle  is  implicitly  contra- 
"  dieted  by  Plutarch,  who  describes  in  detail  how  Agis  was  seized 
"by  conspirators  in  Sparta  and  put  to  death"  (Eraser's  Pausanias, 
vol.  iv.  p.  217). 

2.  The  Fall  of  Jerusalem,  by  Henry  Hart  Milman,  appeared  in 
1820.     In  the  Preface  to  Marino  Faliero,  Byron,  speaking  of  the 
play,  says,  "  But  surely  there  is  dramatic  power  somewhere,  where 

'  Joanna  Baillie,  and  Milman,  and  John  Wilson  exist.  The  '  City 
'  of  the  Plague '  and  the  '  Fall  of  Jerusalem '  are  full  of  the  best 
' '  materiel '  for  tragedy  that  has  been  seen  since  Horace  Walpole, 
'except  passages  of  Ethel wald  and  De  Montfort."  The  Quarterly 
eviewer,  Bishop  Heber,  says,  "  Mr.  Milman  has  much  to  add  to  his 
'  own  reputation  and  that  of  his  country.  Remarkably  as  Britain 
'is  now  distinguished  by  its  living  poetical  talent,  our  time  has 
'  room  for  him.  For  sacred  poetry  (a  walk  which  Milton  alone  has 
'hitherto  successfully  trodden)  his  taste,  his  peculiar  talents,  his 
'  education,  and  his  profession  appear  alike  to  designate  him  ;  and, 
'  while  by  a  strange  predilection  for  the  worser  half  of  Manicheism, 
'one  of  the  mightiest  spirits  of  the  age  has,  apparently,  devoted 
'  himself  and  his  genius  to  the  adornment  and  extension  of  evil,  we 
'  may  be  well  exhilarated  by  the  accession  of  a  new  and  potent  ally 
'  to  the  cause  of  human  virtue  and  happiness,  whose  example  may 
'  furnish  an  additional  evidence  that  purity  and  weakness  are  not 
'  synonymous,  and  that  the  torch  of  genius  never  burns  so  bright 
'  as  when  duly  kindled  at  the  altar." — Quarterly  Review  on  the  Fall 
of  Jerusalem,  vol.  xxiii.  p.  225. 

1 8 20.]  TWICE  A   HOBGOBLIN.  55 

This  is  the  second  thing  of  the  same  sort:  they 
could  not  even  give  a  lift  to  that  poor  Creature,  Gaily 
Knight,  without  a  similar  insinuation  about  "moody 
"passions."  Now,  are  not  the  passions  the  food  and 
fuel  of  poesy  ?  I  greatly  admire  Milman ;  but  they  had 
better  not  bring  me  down  upon  Gaily,  for  whom  I  have 
no  such  admiration.  I  suppose  he  buys  two  thousand 
pounds'  worth  of  books  in  a  year,  which  makes  you  so 
tender  of  him.  But  he  won't  do,  my  Murray:  he's 
middling,  and  writes  like  a  Country  Gentleman — for  the 
County  Newspaper. 

I  shall  be  glad  to  hear  from  you,  and  you'll  write 
now,  because  you  will  want  to  keep  me  in  a  good 
humour  till  you  can  see  what  the  tragedy  is  fit  for.  I 
know  your  ways,  my  Admiral. 

Yours  ever  truly, 

810. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  July  2O'1;  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — On  Vincenzo's  return  I  will 
send  you  some  books,  though  the  latter  arrivals  have  not 
been  very  interesting  you  shall  have  the  best  of  them. 

You  do  not  mention  that  Vincenzo  delivered  to  you  a 
paper  with  sixty  francs ;  he  had  it;  did  you  get  it?  they 
were  for  the  tickets. 

Lega  tells  me  that  the  Mocenigo  Inventory  was 
delivered  last  week;  is  it  so?  I  made  him  send  to 
Venice  on  purpose. 

With  regard  to  Mrs.  Mocenigo,  I  am  ready  to 
deliver  up  the  palace  directly ;  with  respect  to  breakables 
she  can  have  no  claim  till  June  next,  the  rent  being 
stipulated  as  prior  payment  (and  paid),  but  not  the 
articles  missing  till  the  whole  period  was  expired.  I 


have  replenished  three  times  over,  and  made  good  by 
the  equivalent  of  the  doors,  and  Canal  posts  (to  say 
nothing  of  the  exorbitant  rent),  any  little  damage  done 
to  her  pottery.  If  any  articles  are  taken  by  mistake, 
they  shall  be  restored  or  replaced;  but  I  will  submit 
to  no  exorbitant  charge,  nor  imposition.  You  had  best 
state  this  by  Seranzo,  who  seduced  me  into  having 
anything  to  do  with  her,  and  who  has  probably  still 
something  of  the  gentleman  about  him.  What  she  may 
do,  I  neither  know  nor  care :  if  they  like  law,  they  shall 
have  it  for  years  to  come,  and  if  they  gain,  what  then  ? 
They  will  find  it  difficult  to  "shear  the  Wolf"  no  longer 
in  Lombardy.  They  are  a  damned  infamous  set,  and,  to 
prevent  any  unpleasantness  to  you  with  that  nest  of 
whores  and  scoundrels,  state  my  words  as  my  words; 
who  can  blame  you  when  you  merely  take  the  trouble  to 
repeat  what  I  say,  and  to  restore  what  I  am  disposed  to 
give  up, — that  is  her  house, — a  year  before  it  is  due, 
thereby  losing  a  year's  rent  ? 

I  can  hardly  spare  Lega  at  this  moment,  or  I  would 
willingly  send  him.  At  any  rate  you  can  give  up  the 
house,  and  let  us  battle  for  her  crockery  afterwards. 

I  regret  to  hear  what  you  say  of  yourself,  if  you  want 
any  cash,  pray  use  any  balance  in  your  hands  (of  course) 
without  ceremony.  I  am  glad  the  Gondola  was  sold  at 
any  price  as  I  only  wanted  to  get  rid  of  it. 

I  am  not  very  well,  having  had  a  twinge  of  fever 
again ;  the  heat  is  83  in  the  Shade. 

I  suppose  you  know  that  there  is  a  Revolution  at 

Yours  ever  and  truly,  in  haste, 


P.S. — I  have  finished  a  tragedy  in  five  acts,  Marino 

1820.]  SPARKS   OF   THE   VOLCANO.  57 

Faliero ;  but  now  comes  the  bore  of  copying,  and  in 
this  weather  too. 

Comp1.5  to  Madame  Hoppner. 

811. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  July  22n<?  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — The  tragedy  is  finished,  but  when 
it  will  be  copied  is  more  than  can  be  reckoned  upon. 
We  are  here  upon  the  eve  of  evolutions  and  revolutions. 
Naples  is  revolutionized,  and  the  ferment  is  among  the 
Romagnuoles,  by  far  the  bravest  and  most  original  of 
the  present  Italians,  though  still  half  savage.  Buonaparte 
said  the  troops  from  Romagna  were  the  best  of  his  Italic 
corps,  and  I  believe  it.  The  Neapolitans  are  not  worth 
a  curse,  and  will  be  beaten  if  it  comes  to  fighting :  the 
rest  of  Italy,  I  think,  might  stand.  The  Cardinal  is  at 
his  wits'  end ;  it  is  true  that  he  had  not  far  to  go.  Some 
papal  towns  on  the  Neapolitan  frontier  have  already 
revolted.  Here  there  are  as  yet  but  the  sparks  of  the 
volcano;  but  the  ground  is  hot,  and  the  air  sultry. 
Three  assassinations  last  week  here  and  at  Faenza — an 
anti-liberal  priest,  a  factor,  and  a  trooper  last  night, — I 
heard  the  pistol-shot  that  brought  him  down  within  a 
short  distance  of  my  own  door.  There  had  been  quarrels 
between  the  troops  and  people  of  some  duration  :  this  is 
the  third  soldier  wounded  within  the  last  month.  There 
is  a  great  commotion  in  people's  minds,  which  will  lead 
to  nobody  knows  what — a  row  probably.  There  are 
secret  Societies  all  over  the  country  as  in  Germany,  who 
cut  off  those  obnoxious  to  them,  like  the  Free  tribunals, 
be  they  high  or  low ;  and  then  it  becomes  impossible  to 
discover  or  punish  the  assassins — their  measures  are 
taken  so  well. 


You  ask  me  about  the  books.  Jerusakm l  is  the  best ; 
Anastasius  2  good,  but  no  more  written  by  a  Greek  than 
by  a  Hebrew ;  the  Diary  of  an  Invalid  good  and  true, 
bating  a  few  mistakes  about  Serventismo?  which  no 

1.  The  Fall  of  Jerusalem,  a  dramatic  poem  by  Henry  Hart 
Milman  (1820). 

2.  Anastasius,  or  Memoirs  of  a  Greek,  -written  at  the  close  of  the 
Eighteenth  Century  (1819),  was  written  by  Thomas  Hope  (1770- 
1831),  son  of  a  wealthy  merchant  of  Amsterdam,  who  settled  in 
England  in  1796.     As  a  collector  of  ancient  vases  and  marbles,  and 
as  a  writer  on  Household  Furniture  and  Interior  Decoration  (1807), 
Byron  alludes  to  Hope  in  a  suppressed  stanza  of  Childe  Harold, 
Canto  II. — 

"  Nor  that  lesser  wight, 
The  victim  sad  of  vase-collecting  spleen, 
House-furnisher  withal,  one  Thomas  hight." 

In  1810  Hope  disputed  the  price  of  his  wife's  portrait  with  the 
artist,  Dubost,  who  revenged  himself  by  exhibiting  a  caricature  of 
them  as  "  Beauty  and  the  Beast."  In  Hints  from  Horace  (lines  7, 8, 
and  note  l)  Byron  refers  to  the  exhibition — 

"  Or  low  Dubost — as  once  the  world  has  seen — 
Degrade  God's  creatures  in  his  graphic  spleen  ?  " 

Byron  evidently  regarded  Hope,  in  Sydney  Smith's  phrase,  as  only 
"  the  man  of  chairs  and  tables,  the  gentleman  of  sophas,  the  GEdipus 
"of  coal-boxes,  he  who  meditated  on  muffineers  and  planned 
"  pokers,"  and  was  surprised  at  the  power  which  he  displayed  in  his 
Anastasius.  The  book  was  at  first  attributed  to  Byron.  It  is 
reviewed  as  his  in  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magazine  for  September, 
1821  (pp.  200-206).  "I  must,"  wrote  Croker  to  Murray  (Memoir 
of  John  Murray,  vol.  ii.  p.  76),  "believe  in  the  'Metempsychosis,' 
"and  that  Tom  Hope's  late  body  is  now  the  tabernacle  of  Lord 
"Byron's  soul."  Byron  told  Lady  Blessington  (Conversations,  p. 
64)  that  he  wept  bitterly,  on  reading  Anastasius,  first  because  he 
had  not  written  the  book,  and  then  because  Hope  had.  He  added 
that  "he  would  have  given  his  two  most  approved  poems  to  have 
4 '  been  the  author  of  Anastasius. "  Scott,  in  the  Introduction  to 
T/ie  Talisman,  says  that  "the  author  of  Anastasius  .  .  .  had  de- 
4  scribed  the  manners  and  vices  of  the  Eastern  nations,  not  only 
4  with  fidelity,  but  with  the  humour  of  Le  Sage  and  the  ludicrous 
4  power  of  Fielding  himself." 

3.  "It  is  indeed,  nine  times  in  ten,  to  the  fault  of  the  husband, 
'  that  the  infidelity  of  the  wife  is  to  be  ascribed  .   .  .  the  truth  is 
4  better  attested  by  the  exemplary  conduct  of  those  women,  whose 
4  husbands  take  upon  themselves  to  perform  the  offices  of  affection, 
4  that  are  ordinarily  left  to  the  Cavaliere.  .  .  .  Nor  is  it  always  a 
'  criminal  connexion  that  subsists  between  a  Lady  and  her  Cavaliere, 
4  though  it  is  generally  supposed  to  be  so.  ...  The  Lady  must  not 

l820.]  SERVENTISMO.  59 

foreigner  can  understand  or  really  know  without  residing 
years  in  the  country.  I  read  that  part  (translated  that  is) 
to  some  of  the  ladies  in  the  way  of  knowing  how  far  it 
was  accurate,  and  they  laughed,  particularly  at  the  part 
where  he  says  that  "  they  must  not  have  children  by  their 
"lover."  "Assuredly"  (was  the  answer),  "we  don't 
"  pretend  to  say  that  it  is  right ;  but  men  cannot  conceive 
"  the  repugnance  that  a  woman  has  to  have  children  except 
" by  the  man  she  loves''  They  have  been  known  even  to 
obtain  abortions  when  it  was  by  the  other,  but  that  is  rare. 
I  know  one  instance,  however,  of  a  woman  making 
herself  miscarry,  because  she  wanted  to  meet  her  lover 
(they  were  in  two  different  cities)  in  the  lying-in  month 
(hers  was  or  should  have  been  in  October).  She  was  a 
very  pretty  woman — young  and  clever — and  brought  on 
by  it  a  malady  which  she  has  not  recovered  to  this  day  : 
however,  she  met  her  Amico  by  it  at  the  proper  time.  It 
is  but  fair  to  say  that  he  had  dissuaded  her  from  this 
piece  of  amatory  atrocity,  and  was  very  angry  when  he 
knew  that  she  had  committed  it;  but  the  "it  was  for 
"your  sake,  to  meet  you  at  the  time,  which  could  not 
"  have  been  otherwise  accomplished,"  applied  to  his  Self 
love,  disarmed  him ;  and  they  set  about  supplying  the  loss. 

I  have  had  a  little  touch  of  fever  again ;  but  it  has 
receded.  The  heat  is  85  in  the  shade. 

I  remember  what  you  say  of  the  Queen :  it  happened 

in  Lady  Ox 's  boudoir  or  dressing  room,  if  I  recollect 

rightly ;  but  it  was  not  her  Majesty's  fault,  though  very 
laughable  at  the  time :  a  minute  sooner,  she  might  have 
stumbled  on  something  still  more  awkward.  How  the 
Porcelain  came  there  I  cannot  conceive,  and  remember 

"have  children  by  her  Paramour  ;— at  least,  the  notoriety  of  such  a 
"fact  would  be  attended  with  the  loss  of  reputation." — Diary  of 
an  In-valid  (ed.  1820),  pp.  258-262. 


asking  Lady  O.  afterwards,  who  laid  the  blame  on  the 
Servants.    I  think  the  Queen  will  win  * — I  wish  she  may  : 

i.  Queen  Caroline  (1768-1821),  second  daughter  of  Duke  Charles 
of  Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel  by  the  Princess  Augusta,  sister  of 
George  III.,  married,  April  8,  1795,  her  first  cousin  George,  Prince 
of  Wales,  afterwards  George  IV.  After  the  birth  of  Princess 
Charlotte  (January  7,  1796),  the  prince  deserted  his  wife,  from 
whom,  three  months  later,  he  was  formally  separated.  In  1806 
rumours  spread  by  Lady  Douglas  induced  George  III.  to  issue  a 
commission  of  inquiry  into  the  conduct  of  the  princess.  The  com- 
mission, though  it  censured  her  levity  of  manners,  acquitted  her 
from  anymore  serious  charge.  On  August  9,  1814,  with  the  consent 
of  the  prince  regent,  the  princess,  who  was  forbidden  the  court  or 
access  to  her  daughter,  went  abroad.  Early  in  her  residence  on  the 
Continent,  she  engaged  Bartolommeo  Bergami  as  her  courier,  made 
him  her  chamberlain,  procured  for  him  a  knighthood  of  Malta  and 
a  barony  in  Sicily,  and  promoted  his  relations  to  important  offices 
about  her  person.  She  travelled  in  the  East,  and  afterwards  settled 
for  some  time  at  Como  and  Pesaro. 

Some  of  the  charges  against  the  queen  probably  originated  in  her 
irrepressible  spirits  and  want  of  dignity.  Sir  William  Cell,  a 
member  of  her  household,  writing  to  Miss  Berry,  September  29, 
1817  (Journal,  etc.,  of  Miss  Berry,  vol.  iii.  p.  145),  says,  "If  fate 
'ever  puts  you  in  the  way,  make  her  tell  you  how  the  Empress 
'  Marie  Louisa  invited  her  to  Parma  ;  how  the  attendants  dined  in 
'  the  outer  room ;  and  how,  in  full  dress  feathers,  and  velvet 
'  chairs  with  heavy  gold  legs  and  backs,  the  two  ladies  sat  at  a 
'  very  long  tete-a-tete  before  dinner  at  a  fire.  '  You  imagine  it  not 
'  very  entertaining ;  I  assure  you,  very  doll  (dull),  I  yarn  (yawn), 
'  and  she  de  same ;  mein  Gott,  I  balance  on  my  chaire  mit  my  feet 
'  pon  die  fire.  What  you  tink  ?  I  tomble  all  back  mit  di  chair, 
'  and  mit  meine  legs  in  die  air  ;  man  see  nothing  more  als  my 
'  feet.  I  die  from  laugh,  and  what  you  tink  she  do  ?  She  stir  not, 
'  she  laugh  not ;  but  mit  die  utmost  gravity  she  say,  "  Mon  Dieu, 
'madame,  comme  vous  m'avez  effraye."  I  go  in  fits  of  laugh,  and 
'  she  repeat  di  same  word  witout  variation  or  change  of  feature. 
'  I  not  able  to  resist  bursting  out  every  moment  at  dinner,  and  die 
'  to  get  away  to  my  gens  to  tell  die  story.  We  all  scream  mit  di 
'  ridiculousness  for  my  situation.'  " 

On  the  death  of  George  III.  (January  29,  1820)  she  returned  to 

England  as  queen,  was  enthusiastically  received  at  Dover  (June  5), 

and  entered  London  (June  6)  "at  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening,  in 

'an  open  landau,  the  alderman  (Wood)  sitting  by  her  side,  and 

'  Lady  A.  Hamilton  backwards !  .  .  .  She  took  up  her  residence 

'  at  Alderman  Wood's  house  in  South  Audley  Street.     Ever  since 

'  her  arrival,  the  house  has  been  surrounded  by  immense  crowds  of 

'  people,  huzzaing,  and  crying,  '  Long  live  Queen  Caroline ! ' "  (Lady 

C.  Lindsay's  Journal  of  the  Queen's  Trial,  Journal,  etc.,  of  Miss 

Berry,  vol.  iii.  pp.  238,  239).      Proceedings  were  at  once  taken 

l820.j  WORTH   OF   ITALIAN   WITNESSES.  6l 

she  was  always  very  civil  to  me.  You  must  not  trust 
Italian  witnesses:  nobody  believes  them  in  their  own 
courts;  why  should  you?  For  50  or  100  Sequins  you 
may  have  any  testimony  you  please,  and  the  Judge  into 
the  bargain. 

Yours  ever, 

Pray  forward  my  letter  of  January  to  Mr.  Moore. 

against  her.  A  message  from  the  king  was  presented  to  the  House 
of  Lords  by  Lord  Liverpool,  June  6,  1820,  communicating  "certain 
"papers  respecting  the  conduct  of  Her  Majesty  since  her  departure 
"  from  this  kingdom,"  and  recommending  them  to  the  consideration 
of  the  House.  The  papers  were  contained  in  a  green  bag.  A 
secret  committee  of  fifteen  peers  was  appointed  by  ballot,  June  8, 
to  whom  the  papers  were  referred.  On  their  report  (July  4),  Lord 
Liverpool  proposed,  July  5,  a  Bill  of  Pains  and  Penalties :  "  An 
"Act  to  deprive  Her  Majesty  Queen  Caroline  Amelia  Elizabeth  of 
"  the  title,  prerogatives,  rights,  privileges,  and  exemptions  of  Queen- 
"  Consort  of  this  realm,  and  to  dissolve  the  marriage  between  His 
' '  Majesty  and  the  said  Caroline  Amelia  Elizabeth."  The  Bill  was  read 
a  first  time  the  same  day,  and  the  second  reading  was  fixed  for  August 
17.  On  that  day  the  trial  began.  The  division  was  taken  November 
6,  when  123  voted  for  the  second  reading  of  the  Bill,  and  95  against. 

The  queen  was  defended  by  her  Attorney-General,  Henry 
Brougham  ;  by  her  Solicitor-General,  Thomas  Benman ;  by  "  Dr. 
"  Lushington,  a  civilian  ;  and  Messrs.  John  Williams,  Tindal  and 
"  Wilde,  utter  barristers." 

Meanwhile  pamphlets  and  squibs  ridiculing  the  king  and  the 
Government  poured  from  the  press  ;  indignation  meetings  were  held 
throughout  the  country,  and  popular  feeling  ran  high  in  the  queen's 
favour.  So  great  was  the  excitement  that,  on  November  10,  Lord 
Liverpool  withdrew  the  Bill,  and  the  queen  went  in  state  to  St. 
Paul's,  ten  days  later,  to  return  thanks  for  her  acquittal.  At  the 
coronation  of  George  IV.,  July  19,  1821,  she  was  refused  admission 
to  the  ceremony,  and  the  blow  is  said  to  have  proved  fatal.  Taken 
ill  the  next  day,  she  died  August  7,  1821. 

Byron,  stimulated  by  Hobhouse,  took  an  interest  in  the  cause  of 
the  queen,  who  had  shown  him  civility  in  London,  and,  while  living 
at  Pesaro,  was  known  to  Countess  Guiccioli.  He  had  long  intended 
to  return  to  England  and  challenge  Brougham,  but  abandoned  his 
intention,  lest  the  challenge  should  injure  her  defence.  He  en- 
deavoured to  induce  witnesses  on  her  behalf  to  go  from  Italy  to 
England,  collected  information  as  to  the  character  of  witnesses  called 
against  her,  and  suppressed  a  stanza  in  Don  Juan  which  seemed  to 
reflect  on  her  character.  The  queen's  story  forms  the  subject  of 
Mrs.  Stepney  Rawson's  novel,  A  Lady  of  the  Regency  (1900). 


8 1 2. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  July  24.^,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Enclosed  is  the  account  from 
Marin  Sanuto  of  Faliero,1  etc.  You  must  have  it  trans- 
lated (to  append  original  and  translation  to  the  drama 
when  published) :  it  is  very  curious  and  simple  in  itself, 
and  authentic;  I  have  compared  it  with  the  other 
histories.  That  blackguard  Dr.  Moore  has  published  a 
false  and  flippant  story  of  the  transaction. 


P.S.  The  first  act  goes  by  this  post.  Recollect  that, 
without  previously  reading  the  Chronicle,  it  is  difficult  to 
understand  the  tragedy.  So,  translate.  I  had  this 
reprinted  separately  on  purpose. 

813. — To  John  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  July  27"?  1820. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  have  received  from  Mr.  Kinnaird  the 
intelligence  of  the  Rochdale  decision.2  It  has  not  sur- 
prized me,  and  there  is  no  more  to  be  said.  Even  if  a 
further  question  could  arise,  I  am  not  disposed  to  carry 
it  higher.  What  I  desire  to  be  done,  and  done  quickly, 
is  to  bring  the  Manor,  and  my  remaining  rights 
immediately  to  auction,  and  sell  it  to  the  highest  bidder 

1.  The  original,  and  a  translation  by  Francis  Cohen,  afterwards 
Sir  Francis  Palgrave  (see  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  341,  note  i),  were  added 
to  the  first  edition  of  Marino  Faliero  as  Appendix  I.  and  II. 

2.  In  the  Court  of  Exchequer,  before  the  Lord  Chief  Baron, 
June  5,  1820,  the  Rochdale  case  came  on  for  trial.    James  Dearden 
obtained  an   injunction   restraining  Byron  from  prosecuting  a  writ 
of  ejectment  to  recover  possession  of  mineral  property  at  Rochdale. 
The  property  was  sold  to  Dearden  in  1823. 


without  consideration  of  price :  it  will  at  least  pay  the 
law  expences,  and  part  of  the  remaining  debts. 

Pray  let  this  be  done  without  delay,  and  believe  me 

Yours  very  truly, 


P.S. — I  presume  that  you  proceed  in  the  transfer 
from  the  funds  to  the  Irish  Mortgage. 

814. — To  Charles  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  August  2?  1820. 

DEAR  CHARLES, — I  have  received  your  letter.  That 
being  the  case,  I  hereby  authorize  you  to  enter  an  Appeal 
immediately.  Inform  me  when  and  where  the  further 
proceedings  will  come  on. 

Yours  truly  and  affectionately, 


815. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Agosto  7°,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  have  sent  you  three  acts  of  the 
tragedy,  and  am  copying  the  others  slowly  but  daily. 
Enclosed  are  some  verses  *  Rose  sent  me  two  years  ago 
and  more.  They  are  excellent  description. 

Pray  desire  Douglas  K.  to  give  you  a  copy  of  my 
lines  to  the  Po  in  1819  :  they  say  "  they  be  good  rhymes," 
and  will  serve  to  swell  your  next  volume.  Whenever 
you  publish,  publish  all  as  you  will,  except  the  two  Juans, 
which  had  better  be  annexed  to  a  new  edition  of  the  two 
first,  as  they  are  not  worth  separate  publication,  and  I 
won't  barter  about  them. 

I.  For  the  verses,  see  Lettws,  vol.  iv.  pp.  212-214. 


Pulci  is  my  favourite,  that  is,  my  translation  :  I  think 
it  the  acme  of  putting  one  language  into  another. 

I  have  sent  you  my  say  upon  your  recent  books. 
Ricciarda l  I  have  not  yet  read,  having  lent  it  to  the 
natives,  who  will  pronounce  upon  it.  The  Italians  have 
as  yet  no  tragedy — Alfieri's  are  political  dialogues,  except 

Bankes  has  done  miracles  of  research  and  enterprize — 
salute  him. 

I  am  yours, 


Pray  send  me  by  the  first  opportunity  some  of  Waiters 
red  tooth-powder. 

8 1 6. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  I2t!?,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Ecco,  the  fourth  Act. 

Received  powder — tincture — books.  The  first  wel- 
come, second  ditto — the  prose  at  least;  but  no  more 
modern  poesy,  I  pray ;  neither  Mrs.  Hewoman's,  nor  any 
female  or  male  Tadpole  of  Poet  Wordsworth's,  nor 
any  of  his  ragamuffins. 

Send  me  more  tincture  by  all  means,  and  Scott's 
novels — the  Monastery. 

We  are  on  the  eve  of  a  row  here :  Italy's  primed  and 
loaded,  and  many  a  finger  itching  for  the  trigger.  So 
write  letters  while  you  can.  I  can  say  no  more  in  mine, 
for  they  open  all. 

Yours  very  truly, 


I.  Rictiardat  Tragedia  (in  five  acts),  was  published  by  Niccolo 
Ugo  Foscolo  in  1820.  (For  Foscolo,  see  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  283, 
note  I.) 

1 820.]  TRIAL   OF   QUEEN   CAROLINE.  65 

P.S. — Recollect  that  I  told  you  months  ago  what 
would  happen ;  it  is  the  same  all  over  the  boot,  though 
the  heel  has  been  the  first  to  kick :  never  mind  these 
enigmas — they'll  explain  themselves. 

817. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  I7t!.1  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY, — In  t'other  parcel  is  the  5l-h  Act. 
Enclosed  in  this  are  some  notes — historical.  Pray  send 
me  no  proofs ;  it  is  the  thing  I  can  least  bear  to  see. 
The  preface  shall  be  written  and  sent  in  a  few  days. 
Acknowledge  the  arrival  by  return  of  post. 


P.S. — The  time  for  the  Dante  would  be  good  now 
(did  not  her  Majesty  occupy  all  nonsense),  as  Italy  is  on 
the  eve  of  great  things. 

I  hear  Mr.  Hoby  says  "that  it  makes  him  weep  to 
"  see  her — She  reminds  him  so  much  of  Jane  Shore." 

Mr.  Hoby  the  Bootmaker's  soft  heart  is  sore, 
For  seeing  the  Queen  makes  him  think  of  Jane  Shore ; 
And,  in  fact,  such  a  likeness  should  always  be  seen — 
Why  should  Queens  not  be  whores  ?     Every  Whore  is  a 

This  is  only  an  epigram  to  the  ear.     I  think  she  will  win  : 
I  am  sure  she  ought,  poor  woman. 

Is  it  true  that  absent  peers  are  to  be  mulcted  ?  does 
this  include  those  who  have  not  taken  the  oaths  in  the 
present  parliament  ?  I  can't  come,  and  I  won't  pay. 

VOL.  v. 


8 1 8.— To  John  Murray. 

August  22"d  1 82O. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — None  of  your  damned  proofs  now 
recoiled ;  print,  paste,  plaster,  and  destroy — but  don't  let 
me  have  any  of  your  cursed  printers'  trash  to  pore  over. 
For  the  rest,  I  neither  know  nor  care. 


819. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  24"?  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Enclosed  is  an  additional  note  to 
the  play  sent  you  the  other  day.  The  preface  is  sent 
too,  but  as  I  wrote  it  in  a  hurry  (the  latter  part  par- 
ticularly), it  may  want  some  alterations :  if  so,  let  me 
know,  and  what  your  parlour  boarders  think  of  the 
matter.  Remember,  I  can  form  no  opinion  of  the  merits 
of  this  production,  and  will  abide  by  your  Synod's.  If 
you  should  publish,  publish  them  all  about  the  same 
time ;  it  will  be  at  least  a  collection  of  opposites. 

You  should  not  publish  the  new  Cantos  of  Juan 
separately;  but  let  them  go  in  quietly  with  the  first 
reprint  of  the  others,  so  that  they  may  make  little  noise, 
as  they  are  not  equal  to  the  first.  The  Pulci,  the  Dante, 
and  the  Drama,  you  are  to  publish  as  you  like,  if  at  all. 


820. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  29".'  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  enclose  to  you  for  Mr.  Hobhouse 
(with  liberty  to  read  and  translate,  or  get  translated  if 
you  can — it  will  be  nuts  for  Rose)  copies  of  the  letter  of 




Cavalier  Commendatore  G.  to  his  wife's  brother  at 
Rome,  and  other  documents  explaining  this  business 
which  has  put  us  all  in  hot  water  here.  Remember  that 
Guiccioli  is  telling  his  own  story  >  true  in  some  things,  and 
very  false  in  the  details.  The  Pope  has  decreed  against 
him ;  so  also  have  his  wife's  relations,  which  is  much.  No 
man  has  a  right  to  pretend  blindness,  after  letting  a  girl 
of  twenty  travel  with  another  man,  and  afterwards  taking 
that  man  into  his  house.  You  want  to  know  Italy: 
there's  more  than  Lady  Morgan  can  tell  me  in  these 
sheets,  if  carefully  perused. 

The  enclosed  are  authentic  :  I  have  seen  the  originals. 

Yours  ever, 

821. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  3  Is.',  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  have  "put  my  Soul  into  the 
"  tragedy"  (as  you  if  it);  but  you  know  that  there  are 
damned  souls  as  well  as  tragedies.  Recollect  that  it  is 
not  a  political  play,  though  it  may  look  like  it ;  it  is 
strictly  historical :  read  the  history  and  judge. 

Ada's  picture  is  her  mother's :  I  am  glad  of  it — the 
mother  made  a  good  daughter.  Send  me  Gifford's 
opinion,  and  never  mind  the  Archbishop.  I  can  neither 
send  you  away,  nor  give  you  a  hundred  pistoles,  nor  a 
better  taste.  I  send  you  a  tragedy,  and  you  ask  for 
"  facetious  epistles ; "  a  little  like  your  predecessor,  who 
advised  Dr.  Prideaux  to  "put  some  more  humour  into 
"  his  Life  of  Mahomet."  * 

I.  Humphrey  Prideaux  (1648-1724),  Dean  of  Norwich  (1702- 
24),  published  The  True  Nature  of  Imposture  fully  displayed  in 
the  Life  of  Mahomet,  in  1697,  and  The  Old  and  New  Testament 


The  drawings  for  Juan l  are  superb :  the  brush  has 
beat  the  poetry.  In  the  annexed  proof  of  Marino 
Faliero,  the  half  line — "  The  law,  my  Prince "  must  be 
stopped  thus — as  the  Doge  interrupts  Bertuccio  Faliero. 

Bankes  is  a  wonderful  fellow ;  there  is  hardly  one  of 
my  School  and  College  cotemporaries  that  has  not  turned 
out  more  or  less  celebrated.  Peel,  Palmerstone,  Bankes, 
Hobhouse,  Tavistock,  Bob  Mills,  Douglas  Kinnaird,  etc., 
etc.,  have  all  of  them  talked  and  been  talked  of. 

Then  there  is  your  Galley  Knight,  and  all  that — ;  but 
I  believe  that  (except  Milman  perhaps)  I  am  still  the 
youngest  of  the  fifteen  hundred  first  of  living  poets, 
as  W™  *worth  is  the  oldest.  Galley  Knight  is  some 
Seasons  my  Senior :  pretty  Galley  I  so"  amiable"  1 !  You 
Goose,  you — such  fellows  should  be  flung  into  Fleet 
Ditch.  I  would  rather  be  a  Galley  Slave  than  a  Galley 
Knight — so  utterly  do  I  despise  the  middling  mounte- 
bank's mediocrity  in  every  thing  but  his  Income. 

We  are  here  going  to  fight  a  little,  next  month,  if  the 
Huns  don't  cross  the  Po,  and  probably  if  they  do :  I 
can't  say  more  now.  If  anything  happens,  you  have 
matter  for  a  posthumous  work,  and  Moore  has  my 
memoirs  in  MSS. ;  so  pray  be  civil.  Depend  upon  it, 
there  will  be  savage  work,  if  once  they  begin  here.  The 
French  courage  proceeds  from  vanity,  the  German  from 
phlegm,  the  Turkish  from  fanaticism  and  opium,  the 
Spanish  from  pride,  the  English  from  coolness,  the 
Dutch  from  obstinacy,  the  Russian  from  insensibility, 

connected,  etc.,  in  1716-18.  Of  both  books  the  story  is  told  that  the 
bookseller,  to  whom  he  offered  the  MS.,  wished  that  he  had  "put 
"  more  humour  "  into  the  work. 

I .  The  twenty-one  drawings  for  Don  Juan  were  by  R.  Westall, 
R.A.  They  were  engraved  by  C.  Heath,  and  published  by  the 
Findens  (London,  1820),  in  three  forms,  and  at  three  prices  : 
fcp.  8vo,  £i  los.  Off.  ;  8vo,  £2  zs.  od.  ;  410,^3  3J.  <*/. 

1820.]  LADY   C.    LAMB   AT   ALMACK'S.  69 

but  the  Italian  from  anger ;  so  you'll  see  that  they  will 
spare  nothing. 

What  you  say  of  Lady  Caroline  Lamb's  "  Juan  "  at 
the  Masquerade  *  don't  surprise  me  :  I  only  wonder  that 
she  went  so  far  as  "the  Theatre"  for  "the  Devils" 
having  them  so  much  more  natural  at  home ;  or  if  they 
were  busy,  she  might  have  borrowed  the  *,  her  Mother's 
— Lady  Besborough  to  wit — the  *  *  of  the  last  half 


822. — To  John  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  August  31s!  1820. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  pray  you  to  make  haste  with  the  title 
deeds ;  otherwise  there  will  be  a  half  year's  interest  lost, 
and  the  funds  are  falling  daily.  See  what  you  do  by 
your  confounded  delays.  Pray,  expedite,  dispatch. 

You  have  never  sent  me  Counsel's  opinion  on  an 
appeal,  as  promised.  I  am  in  favour  of  the  appeal,  if  it 
shows  a  glimpse  of  ultimate  success.  The  deeds  you 
sent  me  in  the  winter  cannot  be  signed  for  lack  of 
English  witnesses. 

With  my  best  remembrances  to  all  your  family, 
believe  me, 

Yours  very  truly  and  affectionately, 


I.  The  Morning  Chronicle  for  Friday,  August  I,  1820,  describes 
Lady  C.  Lamb's  appearance  at  a  masquerade  at  Almack's  :  "  Lady 
1  Caroline  Lamb  appeared,  for  the  first  time,  in  the  character  of 
'Don  Giovanni,  but  unfortunately  there  were  too  many  Devils 
'  provided  for  the  climax.  There  seemed  to  be  a  whole  legion  of 
'  them,  principal  and  subordinate  ;  and  so  little  inclined  were  they 
'  '  to  do  their  spiriting  gent ly,'  that  (notwithstanding  they  had  been 
'repeatedly  drilled  by  the  Don  in  private),  they  appeared  deter  - 
'  mined  to  carry  the  whole  crowd  off  to  Tartarus  by  a  coup  de  main.'" 


823. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  August  31,  1820. 

D — n  your  mezzo  cammin 1 — you  should  say  "  the 
"  prime  of  life,"  a  much  more  consolatory  phrase.  Besides, 
it  is  not  correct.  I  was  born  in  1788,  and  consequently 
am  but  thirty-two.  You  are  mistaken  on  another  point. 
The  "  Sequin  Box  "  2  never  came  into  requisition,  nor  is 
it  likely  to  do  so.  It  were  better  that  it  had,  for  then 
a  man  is  not  bound,  you  know.  As  to  reform,  I  did 
reform — what  would  you  have  ?  "  Rebellion  lay  in  his 
"  way,  and  he  found  it."  I  verily  believe  that  nor  you, 
nor  any  man  of  poetical  temperament,  can  avoid  a  strong 
passion  of  some  kind.  It  is  the  poetry  of  life.  What 
should  I  have  known  or  written,  had  I  been  a  quiet, 
mercantile  politician,  or  a  lord  in  waiting  ?  A  man  must 
travel,  and  turmoil,  or  there  is  no  existence.  Besides,  I 
only  meant  to  be  a  Cavalier  Servente,  and  had  no  idea 
it  would  turn  out  a  romance,  in  the  Anglo  fashion. 

However,  I  suspect  I  know  a  thing  or  two  of  Italy — 
more  than  Lady  Morgan  has  picked  up  in  her  posting. 
What  do  Englishmen  know  of  Italians  beyond  their 
museums  and  saloons — and  some  hack  *  *,  en  passant  ? 
Now,  I  have  lived  in  the  heart  of  their  houses,  in  parts 
of  Italy  freshest  and  least  influenced  by  strangers, — have 
seen  and  become  (pars  magna  fui)  a  portion  of  their 

1.  "I  had  congratulated  him  upon  arriving  at  what  Dante  calls 
"  the  mezzo  cammin  of  life,  the  age  of  thirty-three  "  (Moore). 

"  Nel  mezzo  del  cammin  di  nostra  vita." 

Dante,  Inferno,  Canto  I.  stanza  5. 

2.  Moore  notes,  in  his  Diary  for  October  9,  1819  (Memoirs,  etc., 
vol.  Hi.  p.  27),  "Lord  B.,  Scott  says,  getting  fond  of  money;  he 
"  keeps  a  box,  into  which  he  occasionally  puts  sequins  ;  he  has  now 
"  collected  about  300,  and  his  great  delight,  Scott  tells  me,  is  to 
"open  the  box  and  contemplate  his  store."     Probably  Moore  had 
suggested  that  at  some  stage  in  his  relations  with  Countess  Guiccioli 
the  "  Sequin-Box"  might  prove  useful. 

1 820.]          HOBY  ON  THE  QUEEN.  71 

hopes,  and  fears,  and  passions,  and  am  almost  inoculated 
into  a  family.  This  is  to  see  men  and  things  as  they 

You  say  that  I  called  you  "  quiet "  l — I  don't  recollect 
any  thing  of  the  sort.  On  the  contrary,  you  are  always 
in  scrapes. 

What  think  you  of  the  Queen  ?  I  hear  Mr.  Hoby 
says,  "  that  it  makes  him  weep  to  see  her,  she  reminds 
"  him  so  much  of  Jane  Shore." 

Mr.  Hoby  the  bootmaker's  heart  is  quite  sore, 

For  seeing  the  Queen  makes  him  think  of  Jane  Shore ; 

And,  in  fact,    *    * 

Pray  excuse  this  ribaldry.  What  is  your  poem  about? 
Write  and  tell  me  all  about  it  and  you. 

Yours,  etc. 

P.S. — Did  you  write  the  lively  quiz  on  Peter  Bell  ?  2 
It  has  wit  enough  to  be  yours,  and  almost  too  much  to 
be  any  body  else's  now  going.  It  was  in  Galignani  the 
other  day  or  week. 

824. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  September  7,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — In  correcting  the  proofs  you  must 
refer  to  the  Manuscript,  because  there  are  in  it  various 
readings.  Pray  attend  to  this,  and  choose  what  Gifford 
thinks  best.  Let  me  know  what  he  thinks  of  the  whole. 

You  speak  of  Lady  Noel's  illness :    she  is  not   of 

1.  "I  had  mistaken  the  concluding  words  of  his  letter  of  the  Qth 
"of  June"  (Moore). 

2.  The  Fancy :   A  Selection  from  the  Poetical  Remains  of  Peter 
Corcoran  (1820),    was  by  John    Hamilton   Reynolds,    for   whom, 
see  Letters,  vol.  iii.  p.  45,  note  \. 


those  who  die : — the  amiable  only  do ;  and  those  whose 
death  would  do  good  live.  Whenever  she  is  pleased  to 
return,  it  may  be  presumed  that  she  will  take  her  "  divin- 
"ing  rod"  x  along  with  her;  it  may  be  of  use  to  her  at 
home,  as  well  as  to  the  "  rich  man  "  of  the  Evangelists. 

Pray  do  not  let  the  papers  paragraph  me  back  to 
England :  they  may  say  what  they  please — any  loathsome 
abuse — but  that.  Contradict  it.2 

My  last  letters  will  have  taught  you  to  expect  an 
explosion  here :  it  was  primed  and  loaded,  but  they 
hesitated  to  fire  the  train.  One  of  the  Cities  shirked 
from  the  league.  I  cannot  write  more  at  large  for  a 
thousand  reasons.  Our  "puir  kill  folk  "  offered  to  strike, 
and  to  raise  the  first  banner.  But  Bologna  paused — and 
now  'tis  Autumn,  and  the  season  half  over.  "  Oh  Jerusa- 
"  salem,  Jerusalem  ! "  the  Huns  are  on  the  Po ;  but  if  once 
they  pass  it  on  their  march  to  Naples,  all  Italy  will  rise 
behind  them :  the  Dogs — the  Wolves — may  they  perish 
like  the  Host  of  Sennacherib  !  If  you  want  to  publish 
the  PropJiecy  of  Dante,  you  never  will  have  a  better 

Thanks  for  books — but  as  yet  no  Monastery  of 
Walter  Scott's,  the  ONLY  book  except  Edinburgh  and 
Quarterly  which  I  desire  to  see.  Why  do  you  send  me 
so  much  trash  upon  Italy — such  tears,  etc.,  which  I  know 
must  be  false  ?  Matthews  is  good — very  good  :  all  the 
rest  are  like  Sotheby's  "  Good"  or  like  Sotheby  himself, 

1 .  Lady  Noel  used  the  divining-rod  to  discover  water. 

2.  "We  rejoice  to  learn  that  Lord  Byron  yesterday  arrived  in 
"  town  from  Italy.    The  noble  lord  has  finished  a  tragedy,  which  we 
"  should  hope  will  be  brought  out  at  Drury  Lane  theatre,  before  Mr. 
"  Kean's  departure  for  America." — Morning  Chronicle,  August  18, 
1820.     "  Tell   me,"   writes   Mrs.    Piozzi   from    Penzance  to   Miss 
Willoughby,  August  25,  1820,  "  what  wonders  Lord  Byron  is  come 
"home  to  do,  for  I  see  his  arrival  in  the  paper"  (Autobiography, 
f'c.,  of  Mrs.  Piozzi,  vol.  ii.  p.  456). 


that  old  rotten  Medlar  of  Rhyme.     The  Queen — how  is 
it  ?  prospers  She  ? 

825. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Septt  8t!?  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — You  will  please  to  publish  the 
enclosed  note x  withoiit  altering  a  word,  and  to  inform  the 
author,  that  I  will  answer  personally  any  offence  to  him. 
He  is  a  cursed  impudent  liar, — you  shall  not  alter  or 
omit  a  syllable  :  publish  the  note  at  the  end  of  the  play, 
and  answer  this. 


P.S. — You  sometimes  take  the  liberty  of  omitting 
what  I  send  for  publication  :  if  you  do  so  in  this  instance, 
I  will  never  speak  to  you  again  as  long  as  I  breathe. 

826. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  Sept?  lo1!?  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — Ecco  Advocate  Fossati's  letter. 
No  paper  has  nor  will  be  signed.  Pray  draw  on  me  for 
the  Napoleons,  for  I  have  no  mode  of  remitting  them 
otherwise ;  Missiaglia  would  empower  some  one  here  to 
receive  them  for  you,  as  it  is  not  a  piazza  bancale. 

I  regret  that  you  have  such  a  bad  opinion  of  Shiloh ; 2 

1.  The  note,  printed  at  the  end  of  Marino  Faliero,  attacks  the 
author  of  Sketches  Descriptive  of  Italy,  etc.,  who  had  said  (vol.  iv. 
pp.    159,    160,  note},   "I  repeatedly  declined  an  introduction"  to 
Byron  "while  in  Italy."     Byron  characterizes  the  statement  as  a 
"disingenuous  and  gratuitously  impertinent  assertion."     He  after- 
wards desired  Murray  to  cancel  the  note,  on  learning  that  the  author 
was  a  woman  (see  p.  84,  note  i). 

2.  "  Shiloh  "  is  Shelley,  who  published  The  Revolt  of  Islam  in  1818, 
and  The  Cenci :  a  Tragedy  in  Five  Acts  in  1819.    The  charges  made 


you  used  to  have  a  good  one.  Surely  he  has  talent  and 
honour,  but  is  crazy  against  religion  and  morality.  His 
tragedy  is  sad  work;  but  the  subject  renders  it  so. 
His  Islam  had  much  poetry.  You  seem  lately  to  have 
got  some  notion  against  him. 

Clare  writes  me  the  most  insolent  letters  about 
Allegra ;  see  what  a  man  gets  by  taking  care  of  natural 
children  !  Were  it  not  for  the  poor  little  child's  sake,  I 
am  almost  tempted  to  send  her  back  to  her  atheistical 
mother,  but  that  would  be  too  bad ;  you  cannot  conceive 

against  Shelley  in  the  spring  of  1820,  which  had  altered  Hoppner's 

good  opinion  of  the  poet,  were  those  made  by  Elise  and  Paolo  Foggi. 

Elise,  described  by  Miss  Clairmont  as  "  a  very  superior  Swiss  woman 

"  of  about  thirty,  a  mother  herself"  (Dowden's  Life  of  Shelley ;  vol. 

ii.  p.  190,  note),  had  nursed  Mrs.  Shelley's  children,  and  Allegra, 

whom  she  accompanied  to  Venice  in  1818.     Returning  to  Shelley's 

service,  she  married  his  Italian  servant,  Paolo  Foggi,  a  rascal  who 

was  afterwards  dismissed  for  misconduct.     In  1820  Foggi,  backed 

by  his  wife,   began  to   revenge  himself  by  accusing    Shelley  of 

abominable  crimes.     When  Shelley  came  to  stay  with  Byron  at 

Ravenna  in  August,  1821,  he  learnt  from  Byron  what  some  of  the 

accusations  were.    Writing  to  his  wife,  August  7,  1821,  Shelley  tells 

her  the  story  which  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hoppner  believed  on  the  authority 

of  Elise  :  "  Elise  says  that  Claire  was  my  mistress.  .  .  .  She  then 

'  proceeds  to  say  that  Claire  was  with  child  by  me  ;  that  I  gave  her 

'  the  most  violent  medicine  to  procure  abortion  ;    that  this  not 

'  succeeding,  she  was  brought  to  bed,  and  that  I  immediately  tore 

'  the  child  from  her  and  sent  it  to  the  Foundling  Hospital.  ...  In 

'  addition,  she  says  that  both  I  and  Claire  treated  you  in  the  most 

'  shameful  manner  ;  that  I  neglected  and  beat  you,  and  that  Claire 

'  never  let  a  day  pass  without  offering  you  insults  of  the  most  violent 

'kind,  in  which  she  was  abetted  by  me"  (ibid.,  p.  423).     Mary 

Shelley's  indignant  defence  of  her  husband,  written  to  Mrs.  Hoppner, 

was  sent  to  Shelley  to  be  copied,  and  forwarded.    (For  the  letter,  see 

ibid.,  pp.  425-427.)     Mrs.  Shelley  wished  that  Byron  should  see  it. 

Shelley  therefore  gave  it  to  Byron,  who  "engaged  to  send  it  with 

"his  own  comments   to  the   Hoppners."     The  letter  was  found 

among  Byron's  papers  at  his  death.     On  this  fact,  together  with  the 

late  Lady  Shelley's  recollections  of  Mary  Shelley's  account  of  a 

subsequent  conversation  with  the  Hoppners,  Professor  Dowden  (ibid., 

p.  429)  founds  the  charge  that  Byron  never  sent  the  letter.    It  seems, 

however,  not  impossible  that  the  letter  was  sent,  and,  at  Byron's 

request,  returned.     As  the  answer  to  a  charge  closely  affecting  the 

mother  of  Allegra,  it  would  be  natural  that  he  should  wish  to  keep 

the  document. 

1820.]  BEDLAM    BEHAVIOUR.  75 

the  excess  of  her  insolence,  and  I  know  not  why,  for  I 
have  been  at  great  care  and  expense,  —  taking  a  house  in 
the  country  on  purpose  for  her.  She  has  two  maids  and 
every  possible  attention.  If  Clare  thinks  that  she  shall 
ever  interfere  with  the  child's  morals  or  education,  she 
mistakes  ;  she  never  shall.  The  girl  shall  be  a  Christian 
and  a  married  woman,  if  possible.  As  to  seeing  her,  she 
may  see  her  —  under  proper  restrictions  ;  but  she  is  not 
to  throw  every  thing  into  confusion  with  her  Bedlam 
behaviour.  To  express  it  delicately,  I  think  Madame 
Clare  is  a  damned  bitch.  What  think  you  ? 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 

827.  —  To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Sept.  n,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY,  —  Here  is  another  historical  note  for 
you.  I  want  to  be  as  near  truth  as  the  Drama  can  be. 

Last  post  I  sent  you  a  note  fierce  as  Faliero  himself, 
in  answer  to  a  trashy  tourist,  who  pretends  that  he  could 
have  been  introduced  to  me.  Let  me  have  a  proof  of  it, 
that  I  may  cut  its  lava  into  some  shape. 

What  Gifford  says  is  very  consolatory  (of  the  first 
act).  "  English,  sterling  genuine  English"  is  a  desidera- 
tum amongst  you,  and  I  am  glad  that  I  have  got  so 
much  left  ;  though  heaven  knows  how  I  retain  it  :  I  hear 
none  but  from  my  Valet,  and  his  is  Nottinghamshire  : 
and  I  see  none  but  in  your  new  publications,  and  theirs 
is  no  language  at  all,  but  jargon.  Even  your  "  New 
"  Jerusalem  "  is  terribly  stilted  and  affected,  with  "  very, 
"  very  "  —  so  soft  and  pamby. 

Oh  !  if  ever  I  do  come  amongst  you  again,  I  will 
give  you  such  a  Baviad  and  Mczviad  !  not  as  good  as 


the  old,  but  even  better  merited.  There  never  was  such 
a  Set  as  your  ragamitffins  (I  mean  not  yours  only,  but 
every  body's).  What  with  the  Cockneys,  and  the  Lakers, 
and  the  followers  of  Scott,  and  Moore,  and  Byron,  you 
are  in  the  very  uttermost  decline  and  degradation  of 
literature.  I  can't  think  of  it  without  all  the  remorse  of 
a  murderer.  I  wish  that  Johnson  were  alive  again  to 
crush  them ! 

I  have  as  yet  only  had  the  first  and  second  acts,  and 
no  opinion  upon  the  second. 

828.— To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Sept.  14,  1820. 

What  ?  not  a  line.     Well,  have  it  your  own  way. 

I  wish  you  would  inform  Perry,  that  his  stupid  para- 
graph is  the  cause  of  all  my  newspapers  being  stopped 
in  Paris.  The  fools  believe  me  in  your  infernal  country, 
and  have  not  sent  on  their  Gazettes,  so  that  I  know 
nothing  of  your  beastly  trial  of  the  Queen. 

I  cannot  avail  myself  of  Mr.  Gifford's  remarks, 
because  I  have  received  none,  except  on  the  first  act. 


P.S. — Do,  pray,  beg  the  Editors  of  papers  to  say 
anything  blackguard  they  please;  but  not  to  put  me 
amongst  their  arrivals :  they  do  me  more  mischief  by 
such  nonsense  than  all  their  abuse  can  do. 

829. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Sept.  21,  1820. 

So  you  are  at  your  old  tricks  again.  This  is  the 
second  packet  I  have  received  unaccompanied  by  a 

1 820.]      REPORTED  RETURN  TO  LONDON.          77 

single  line  of  good,  bad,  or  indifferent.  It  is  strange 
that  you  have  never  forwarded  any  further  observations 
of  GirTord's :  how  am  I  to  alter  or  amend,  if  I  hear  no 
further  ?  or  does  this  silence  mean  that  it  is  well  enough 
as  it  is,  or  too  bad  to  be  repaired  ?  If  the  last,  why  do 
you  not  say  so  at  once,  instead  of  playing  pretty,  since 
you  know  that  soon  or  late  you  must  out  with  the  truth. 


P.S. — My  Sister  tells  me  that  you  sent  to  her  to 
enquire  where  I  was,  believing  in  my  arrival  "  driving  a 
11  curricle"  etc.,  etc.,  into  palace  yard  :  do  you  think  me  a 
coxcomb  or  a  madman,  to  be  capable  of  such  an  exhibi- 
tion? My  Sister  knew  me  better,  and  told  you  that 
could  not  be  true :  you  might  as  well  have  thought  me 
entering  on  "  a  pale  horse,"  like  Death  in  the  Revela- 

830. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Sept.  23,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Get  from  Mr.  Hobhouse,  and  send 
me  a  proof  (with  the  Latin)  of  my  Hints  from  H.,  etc. : 
it  has  now  the  "  nonum  prematur  in  annum  "  complete  for 
its  production,  being  written  at  Athens  in  iBn.  I 
have  a  notion  that,  with  some  omissions  of  names  and 
passages,  it  will  do ;  and  I  could  put  my  late  observations 
for  Pope  among  the  notes,  with  the  date  of  1820,  and  so 
on.  As  far  as  versification  goes,  it  is  good;  and,  on 
looking  back  to  what  I  wrote  about  that  period,  I  am 
astonished  to  see  how  little  I  have  trained  on.  I  wrote 
better  then  than  now ;  but  that  comes  from  my  having 
fallen  into  the  atrocious  bad  state  of  the  times — partly. 


It  has  been  kept  too,  nine  years ;  nobody  keeps  their 
piece  nine  years  now-a-days,  except  Douglas  K. ;  he 
kept  his  nine  years  and  then  restored  her  to  the  public. 
If  I  can  trim  it  for  present  publication,  what  with  the 
other  things  you  have  of  mine,  you  will  have  a  volume  or 
two  of  variety  at  least:  for  there  will  be  all  measures, 
styles,  and  topics,  whether  good  or  no.  I  am  anxious  to 
hear  what  Gifford  thinks  of  the  tragedy;  pray  let  me 
know.  I  really  do  not  know  what  to  think  myself. 

If  the  Germans  pass  the  Po,  they  will  be  treated  to  a 
Mass  out  of  the  Cardinal  de  Retz's  Breviary}-    Galley 

I.  Jean  Fra^ois  Paul  de  Gondi,  Cardinal  de  Retz  (1614-1679), 
as  Archbishop  of  Paris,  was  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Fronde  (1649- 
52),  and  received  his  cardinal's  hat  from  Anne  of  Austria.   After  the 
collapse  of  the  insurrection,  he  was  imprisoned  at  Nantes.    Escaping 
from  prison,  he  lived  in  exile,  and  only  returned  when  he  had  been 
deprived  of  his  archbishopric.     He  was,  however,  given,  in  com- 
pensation for  the  loss  of  his  see,  the  Abbey  of  St.  Denis,  where  he 
died  in  1679.     During  the  latter  part  of  his  turbulent  life  he  lived 
in  retirement  at  Commercy  and  other  places,  absorbed  in  writing  his 
Mhnoires  and  paying  his  debts.     Madame  de  Sevigne  called  him 
'le  heros  du  Breviaire,"  as  contrasted  with  Turenne,  "le  heros  de 
'  1'epee."  Writing  to  Madame  de  Grignan,  August  21,  1675  (Lettres, 
ed.  1818,  tome  iii.  p.  416),  she  says,  "  Vous  parlez  si  dignement  du 
'  Cardinal  de  Retz  et  de  sa  retraite,  que,  pour  cela  seul,  vous  seriez 
'  digne  de  son  estime  et  de  son  amitie.  .  .  .  Ce  que  vous  dites  de 
'M.  Turenne  merite  d'entrer  dans  son  panegyrique  .  .  .  Depuis 
'la  mort  du  heros  de  la  guerre,  celui  du  breviaire  s'est  retire  a 
1  Commerci." 

Byron  probably  means  that,  if  the  Austrians  crossed  the  Po,  they 
would  be  met  by  a  popular  insurrection  and  the  dagger.  The 
Cardinal,  in  his  Memoires  (ed.  Geneva,  1777,  torn.  ii.  p.  122),  thus 
explains  the  origin  of  the  allusion  :  ' '  Tout  le  monde  etoit  dans  la 
'  defiance,  et  je  puis  dire  sans  exageration,  que  sans  meme  excepter 
'  les  conseillers,  il  n'y  avoit  pas  vingt  hommes  dans  le  palais  qui 
'ne  fussent  armes  de  poignards.  Pour  moi  je  n'en  avois  point 
'  voulu  porter  ;  M.  de  Brissac  m'en  fit  prendre  un  par  force,  un  jour 
'ou  il  paroissoit  qu'on  pourroit  s'echauffer  plus  qu'a  1'ordinaire. 
'  De  telles  armes,  qui  me  convenoient  peu,  me  causerent  un  chagrin 
'  qui  me  fut  des  plus  sensibles.  M.  de  Beaufort,  qui  etoit  un  peu 
'lourd  et  etourdi  de  son  naturel,  voyant  la  garde  du  stilet  dont 
'  le  bout  paroissoit  un  peu  hors  de  ma  poche,  le  montra  a  Arnaud,  a 
'  la  Moussaye  et  a  des  Roches,  Capitaine  des  gardes  de  M.  le  prince, 
'  en  leur  disant :  Voila  le  breviare  de  M.  le  Coadjuteur  ;  j'entendis 
'  la  raillerie,  mais  a  dire  vrai,  je  ne  la  soutins  pas  de  bon  coeur." 

1820.]  ITALIAN    TESTIMONY.  79 

Knight's  a  fool,  and  could  not  understand  this — Frere 
will :  it  is  as  pretty  a  conceit  as  you  would  wish  to  see 
upon  a  Summer's  day. 

Nobody  here  believes  a  word  of  the  evidence  against 
the  Queen :  the  very  mob  cry  shame  against  their 
countrymen,  and  say,  that  for  half  the  money  spent  upon 
the  trial,  any  testimony  whatever  may  be  brought  out  of 
Italy.1  This  you  may  rely  upon  as  fact :  I  told  you  as 
much  before.  As  to  what  travellers  report,  what  are 
travellers?  Now  I  have  lived  among  the  Italians — not 
Florenced,  and  Romed,  and  Galleried,  and  Conversationed 
it  for  a  few  months,  and  then  home  again— but  been  of 
their  families,  and  friendships,  and  feuds,  and  loves,  and 
councils,  and  correspondence,  in  a  part  of  Italy  least 
known  to  foreigners;  and  have  been  amongst  them  of 
all  classes,  from  the  Conte  to  the  Contadino;  and  you 
may  be  sure  of  what  I  say  to  you. 


I.  Among  the  Italian  witnesses,  collected  by  the  "Milan  Com- 
"  mission,"  and  examined  for  the  Bill  against  the  queen,  were 
Teodoro  Majocchi,  a  livery  servant  of  the  princess ;  Gaetano 
Paturzo,  a  Neapolitan  sailor ;  Vincenzo  Gargiulo,  a  sailor  of 
Messina  ;  Francesco  Birollo,  a  Piedmontese  cook ;  Pietro  Cuchi, 
agent  of  the  Albergo  Grande  at  Trieste ;  Giuseppe  Bianchi,  door- 
porter  of  the  Grande  Bretagne  at  Venice ;  Paolo  Kaggazoni,  a 
mason  employed  at  the  Villa  d'Este ;  Paolo  Oggioni,  an  under- 
cook  ;  Girolamo  Mejani,  employed  at  the  Villa  d'Este  as  head- 
gardener  ;  Luigi  Galdini,  Alessandro  Finetti,  Domenico  Brusa, 
Giovanni  Lucini,  workmen  employed  at  the  Villa  d'Este ;  Carlo 
Rancatti  and  Giuseppe  Restelli,  respectively  confectioner  and  groom 
in  the  princess's  service  ;  Giuseppe  Sacchi,  a  courier. 

Other  witnesses  for  the  Bill  were  Barbara  Kress  (or  Krantz), 
chambermaid  of  the  post  inn  at  Carlsruhe,  and  Louise  Demont,  a 
Swiss  maid  in  the  service  of  the  princess. 

The  only  English  witnesses  examined  for  the  Bill  were  Captain 
Pechell,  R.N.,  who  commanded  the  Clorinde>  which  conveyed  the 
princess  from  Civita  Vecchia  to  Genoa,  and  Captain  Briggs,  R.N., 
of  the  Leviathan.  Neither  witness  gave  any  evidence  directly  in 
support  of  the  case  against  the  queen. 


831. — To  John  Murray. 

Sept'  28"?  1820. 

MR.  J.  MURRAY, — Can  you  keep  a  Secret?  not  you  : 

you  would  rather  keep  a  w e,  I  believe,  of  the  two, 

although  a  moral  man  and  "all  that,  Egad,"  as  Bayes 

However,  I  request  and  recommend  to  you  to  keep 
the  enclosed  one,1  viz.  to  give  no  copies^  to  permit  no 
publication — else  you  and  I  will  be  two.  It  was  written 
nearly  three  years  ago  upon  the  doublefaced  fellow :  its 
argument — in  consequence  of  a  letter  exposing  some  of 
his  usual  practices.  You  may  show  it  to  Gifford, 
Hobhouse,  D.  Kinnaird,  and  any  two  or  three  of  your 
own  Admiralty  favourites;  but  don't  betray  //  or  me; 
else  you  are  the  worst  of  men. 

Is  it  like  ?  if  not,  it  has  no  merit.  Does  he  deserve 
it?  if  not,  burn  it.  He  wrote  to  M.  (so  M.  says)  the 
other  day,  saying  on  some  occasion,  "  what  a  fortunate 
"  fellow  you  are !  surely  you  were  born  with  a  rose  in 
"  your  lips,  and  a  Nightingale  singing  on  the  bed-top."  2 
M.  sent  me  this  extract  as  an  instance  of  the  old  Serpent's 
sentimental  twaddle.  I  replied,  that  I  believed  that 
"he  (the  twaddler)  was  born  with  a  Nettle  in  his  *, 
"  and  a  Carrion  Crow  croaking  on  the  bolster,"  a  parody 
somewhat  wwdelicate;  but  such  trash  puts  one  stupid, 
besides  the  Cant  of  it  in  a  fellow  who  hates  every  body. 

Is  this  good  ?  tell  me,  and  I  will  send  you  one  still 
better  of  that  blackguard  Brougham ;  there  is  a  batch  of 

1.  The  lines  enclosed  were  those  on  Rogers — 

"Nose  and  chin  would  shame  a  knocker,"  etc.,  etc., 
— first  published  in  Fraser's  Magazine  for  January,  1833,  p.  82.    See 
Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  202,  note  4. 

2.  Moore,  in  his  Diary  for  August  6,  1820,  has  noted  this  sentence 
(Memoirs,  etc.,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  136). 

1820.]  EQUAL   TO   MANFRED.  8 1 

832. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Sept.  28,  1820. 

D?  MY,— I  thought  that  I  had  told  you  long  ago, 
that  it  never  was  intended  nor  written  with  any  view  to 
the  Stage.1  I  have  said  so  in  the  preface  too.  It  is  too 
long  and  too  regular  for  your  stage.  The  persons 
too  few,  and  the  unity  too  much  observed.  It  is  more 
like  a  play  of  Alfieri's  than  of  your  stage  (I  say  this 
humbly  in  speaking  of  that  great  Man);  but  there  is 
poetry,  and  it  is  equal  to  Manfred,  though  I  know  not 
what  esteem  is  held  of  Manfred. 

I  have  now  been  nearly  as  long  out  of  England  as  I 
was  there  during  the  time  when  I  saw  you  frequently. 
I  came  home  July  i4th,  1811,  and  left  again  April  25th, 
1816  :  so  that  Sept-  28th,  1820,  brings  me  within  a  very 
few  months  of  the  same  duration  of  time  of  my  stay  and 
my  absence.  In  course,  I  can  know  nothing  of  the 
public  taste  and  feelings,  but  from  what  I  glean  from 
letters,  etc.  Both  seem  to  be  as  bad  as  possible. 

I  thought  Anastasius  excellent:  did  I  not  say  so? 
Matthews's  Diary 2  most  excellent :  it,  and  Forsyth,3  and 
parts  of  Hobhouse,  are  all  we  have  of  truth  or  sense  upon 
Italy.  The  letter  to  Julia4  very  good  indeed.  I  do  not 

1.  Mrs.  Piozzi  heard  at  Penzance  of  Byron's  forthcoming  play. 
Writing  to  Dr.  Gray,  September  I,  1820,  she  says,  "  Lord  Byron 
"  is  said  to  be  bringing  out  a  tragedy ;  unlucky,  if  Mr.  Kean  is 
"leaving  England  for  America.     They  seem  to  be  kindred  souls, 
"delighting  in  distortion,  and  mistaking  it  for  pathos"  (Autobio- 
graphy, Letters,  etc.,  of  Mrs.  Piozzi,  vol.  ii.  p.  275). 

2.  The  Diary   of  an  Invalid,  by   Henry   Matthews,  brother  of 
Byron's  friend,  C.  S.  Matthews.     A  second  edition  was  published 
in  1820. 

3.  Remarks  on  Antiquities,  Arts,  and  Letters,  during  an  excursion 
in  Italy,  in  the  years  1802  and  1803,  by  Joseph  Forsyth,  was  pub- 
lished in  1813. 

4.  Henry   Luttrell   (17657-1851),  a  natural  son  of  the  second 
Lord  Carhampton,  and  always  a  poor  man,  made  himself  a  remark- 
able position  m  society  by  his  brilliant  wit.     "  Mr.  Luttrell,"  wrote 

VOL.  V.  G 


despise  Mrs.  Heman;  but  if  she  knit  blue  stockings 
instead  of  wearing  them,  it  would  be  better.  You  are 
taken  in  by  that  false  stilted  trashy  style,  which  is  a 
mixture  of  all  the  styles  of  the  day,  which  are  all  bom- 
bastic (I  don't  except  my  own — no  one  has  done  more 
through  negligence  to  corrupt  the  language);  but  it  is 
neither  English  nor  poetry.  Time  will  show. 

I  am  sorry  Gifford  has  made  no  further  remarks 
beyond  the  first  act :  does  he  think  all  the  English 
equally  sterling,  as  he  thought  the  first  ?  You  did  right 
to  send  the  proofs  :  I  was  a  fool ;  but  I  do  really  detest 
the  sight  of  proofs :  it  is  an  absurdity,  but  comes  from 

You  can  steal  the  two  Juans  into  the  world  quietly, 
tagged  to  the  others.  The  play  as  you  will — the  Dante 

Lady  Granville  {Letters,  vol.  i.  p.  26),  in  October,  1811,  "I  like 
"  better  every  hour.  He  has  that  don  du  del  of  never  being  de  trap, 
" and  I  never  met  with  so  independent  a  person."  "It  is  hardly 
"possible,"  says  Greville  (Memoirs,  vol.  i.  p.  9),  "to  live  with  a 
"more  agreeable  man  than  Luttrell."  Both,  however,  thought 
that,  in  general  society,  he  reserved  himself  for  epigrammatic  say- 
ings, and  did  not  shine  in  unlaboured  talk  (see  also  Greville 
Memoirs,  vol.  jvi.  pp.  433,  434).  His  Advice  to  Julia,  a  Letter  in 
Rhyme,  appeared  in  1820.  Of  his  Crockford  House,  and  A  Rhymer 
in  Rome  (1826),  a  brother-wit,  Joseph  Jekyll  (Letters,  p.  171),  says, 
"  My  friend  Luttrell,  who  is  too  good-natured  for  a  satirist,  has 
"published  a  poem  on  the  modern  Greeks  of  Crockford's  gambling 
"club,  and  another  on  the  modern  Romans,  //  e'er  it  les  vers  de 
"  socittt  assez  joliment ;  but  neither  of  these  is  so  good  as  his  Letters 
"  to  Julia." 

"Of  course,"  said  Byron  to  Lady  Blessington  (Conversations, 
p.  I2l),  "you  know  Luttrell.  He  is  a  most  agreeable  member  of 
"society,  the  best  sayer  of  good  things,  and  the  most  epigrammatic 
"conversationist  I  ever  met ;  there  is  a  terseness,  and  wit,  mingled 
"with  fancy,  in  his  observations,  that  no  one  else  possesses,  and  no 
"  one  so  peculiarly  understands  the  apropos.  His  Advice  to  Julia  is 
"pointed,  witty,  and  full  of  observation,  showing  in  every  line  a 
"knowledge  of  society,  and  a  tact  rarely  met  with.  Then,  unlike 
"all,  or  most  other  wits,  Luttrell  is  never  obtrusive,  even  the 
"  choicest  bans  mots  are  only  brought  forth  when  perfectly  applic- 
"  able,  and  then  are  given  in  a  tone  of  good  breeding  which  enhances 
"their  value." 

1 820.]         A  VOLUME  OF  NONSENSE.  83 

too ;  but  the  Puld  I  am  proud  of :  it  is  superb ;  you 
have  no  such  translation.  It  is  the  best  thing  I  ever  did 
in  my  life.  I  wrote  the  play,  from  beginning  to  end, 
and  not  a  single  scene  without  interruption,  and  being 
obliged  to  break  off  in  the  middle ;  for  I  had  my  hands 
full,  and  my  head,  too,  just  then ;  so  it  can  be  no  great 
shakes — I  mean  the  play,  and  the  head  too,  if  you  like. 


P.S. — Send  me  proofs  of  "  the  Hints : "  get  them  from 

P.S. — Politics  here  still  savage  and  uncertain:  how- 
ever, we  are  all  in  our  "  bandaliers,"  to  join  the  "  High- 
"  landers  if  they  cross  the  Forth,"  i.e.  to  crush  the  Austrians 
if  they  pass  the  Po.  The  rascals  ! — and  that  Dog  Liver- 
pool, to  say  their  subjects  were  happy  !  what  a  liar !  If 
ever  I  come  back,  I'll  work  some  of  these  ministers. 


You  ask  for  a  "  Volume  of  Nonsense  " 
Have  all  of  your  authors  exhausted  their  store  ? 
I  thought  you  had  published  a  good  deal  not  long  since 

And  doubtless  the  Squadron  are  ready  with  more. 
But  on  looking  again,  I  perceive  that  the  Species 
Of  "  Nonsense  "  you  want  must  be  purely  "facetious  ;  " 
And,  as  that  is  the  case,  you  had  best  put  to  press 
Mr.  Sotheby's  tragedies  now  in  M.S.S. 
Some  Syrian  Sally 
From  common-place  Gaily, 
Or,  if  you  prefer  the  bookmaking  of  women, 
Take  a  spick  and  Span  "Sketch"  of  your  feminine  He-Man. 


I.   This  note  is  scribbled  on  the  back  of  the  preceding. 


Why  do  you  ask  me  for  opinions  of  your  ragamuffins  ? 
You  see  what  you  get  by  it ;  but  recollect,  I  never  give 
opinions  till  required. 

Sept.  29* 

I  open  my  letter  to  say,  that  on  reading  more  of  the 
4  volumes  on  Italy,1  where  the  Author  says  "  declined  an 
"introduction,"  I  perceive  (horresco  referens)  that  it  is 
written  by  a  WOMAN  ! ! !  In  that  case  you  must  sup- 
press my  note  and  answer,  and  all  I  have  said  about  the 
book  and  the  writer.  I  never  dreamed  of  it  till  now,  in 
my  extreme  wrath  at  that  precious  note.  I  can  only  say 
that  I  am  sorry  that  a  Lady  should  say  anything  of  the 
kind.  What  I  would  have  said  to  [one  of  the  other 
sex]  you  know  already.  Her  book  too  (as  a  She  book) 
is  not  a  bad  one ;  but  she  evidently  don't  know  the 
Italians,  or  rather  don't  like  them,  and  forgets  the  causes 
of  their  misery  and  profligacy  (Matthews  and  Forsyth 
are  your  men  for  truth  and  tact),  and  has  gone  over 
Italy  in  company — always  a  bad  plan.  You  must  be 
alone  with  people  to  know  them  well.  Ask  her,  who  was 
the  "descendant  of  Lady  M.  W.  Montague"  and  by 
whom  ?  By  Algarotti  ? 

I  suspect  that,  in  Marino  Faliero,  you  and  yours 
won't  like  the  politics ;  which  are  perilous  to  you  in  these 
times ;  but  recollect  that  it  is  not  a  political  play,  and 
that  I  was  obliged  to  put  into  the  mouths  of  the  Cha- 
racters the  sentiments  upon  which  they  acted.  I  hate 
all  things  written  like  Pizarro?  to  represent  France, 

1.  Sketches  descriptive  of  Italy,  in  the  Years  1816,   1817,  with  a 
brief  Account  of  Travels  in  various  Parts  of  France  and  Switzerland^ 
by  Miss  Jane  Waldie  (afterwards  Mrs.  Watts),  4  vols.  1820. 

2.  Sheridan's  Pizarro  was  produced   at  Drury  Lane,   May  24, 
1 799.     The  scene  is  laid  in  Peru  ;  but  the  motive  of  the  play,  which 
is  founded  on  Kotzebue's  Spaniards  in  Peru,  is  the  prospect  of  a 
French  invasion  of  England. 

1820.]  WILD   JUSTICE.  85 

England,  and  so  forth  :  all  I  have  done  is  meant  to  be 
purely  Venetian,  even  to  the  very  prophecy  of  its  present 

Your  Angles  in  general  know  little  of  the  Italians, 
who  detest  them  for  their  numbers  and  their  GENOA 
treachery.  Besides,  the  English  travellers  have  not  been 
composed  of  the  best  Company  :  how  could  they  ? — out 
of  ioo,ooo;  how  many  gentlemen  were  there,  or  honest 

Mitchell's  Aristophaftes  is  excellent :  send  me  the  rest 
of  it.1 

I  think  very  small  beer  of  Mr.  Goliffe,  and  his  dull 
book.  Here  and  there  some  good  things  though,  which 
might  have  been  better. 

These  fools  will  force  me  to  write  a  book  about  Italy 
myself,  to  give  them  "  the  loud  lie."  They  prate  about 
assassination  :  what  is  it  but  the  origin  of  duelling — and 
"  a  wild  Justice?  as  Lord  Bacon  calls  it  ?  2  It  is  the 
fount  of  the  modern  point  of  honour,  in  what  the  laws 
can't  or  won't  reach.  Every  man  is  liable  to  it  more  or 
less,  according  to  circumstances  or  place.  For  instance, 
I  am  living  here  exposed  to  it  daily,  for  I  have  happened 
to  make  a  powerful  and  unprincipled  man  my  enemy ; 
and  I  never  sleep  the  worse  for  it,  or  ride  in  less  solitary 
places,  because  precaution  is  useless,  and  one  thinks  of 
it  as  of  a  disease  which  may  or  may  not  strike.  It  is 

1.  Thomas  Mitchell  (1783-1845)  published  the  first  volume  of  his 
translation  of  The  Comedies  of  Aristophanes  in  1820 ;   the  second 
volume  appeared  in  1822.    Frere's  review  of  vol.  i.  in  the  Quarterly 
Review  (vol.  xxiii.  pp.  474-505)  is  published  in  his  Works,  vol.  ii. 
pp.  178-214).     Mitchell  dined  with  Hunt  at  Horsemonger  Gaol,  in 
company  with  Byron   and  Moore,  in  June,   1813.      "Poor   Lord 

'Byron  !  "  he  wrote  to  Murray,  in  1824  (Memoir  of  John  Murray, 
vol.  i.  p.  449).  "No  person's  death  has  ever  yet  had  the  effect 
"upon  me  which  his  had." 

2.  "  Revenge  is  a  kind  of  wild  justice."     Bacon's  Essays,  Essay 
iv.  "Of  Revenge." 


true  that  there  are  those  here,  who,  if  he  did,  would 
"live  to  think  on't;"  but  that  would  not  awake  my 
bones  :  I  should  be  sorry  if  it  would,  were  they  once  at 

833. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  8bre-  i°-  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — Your  letters  and  papers  came 
very  safely,  though  slowly,  missing  one  post. 

The  Shiloh  story  is  true  no  doubt,  though  Elise  is  but 
a  sort  of  Queen's  evidence.  You  remember  how  eager 
she  was  to  return  to  them,  and  then  she  goes  away  and 
abuses  them.  Of  the  facts,  however,  there  can  be  little 
doubt;  it  is  just  like  them.  You  may  be  sure  that  I 
keep  your  counsel. 

I  have  not  remitted  the  30  Napoleons  (or  what  was 
it?),  till  I  hear  that  Missiaglia  has  received  his  safely, 
when  I  shall  do  so  by  the  like  channel. 

What  you  say  of  the  Queen's  affair  is  very  just  and 
true ;  but  the  event  seems  not  very  easy  to  anticipate. 

I  enclose  an  epistle  from  Shiloh.1 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


834. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  8bre  6°,  1820. 

DEAR  MY, — You  will  have  now  received  all  the  acts, 
corrected,  of  the  M\anno\  F\alierd\.  What  you  say  of  the 
"Bet  of  100  guineas,"  made  by  some  one  who  says  that 
he  saw  me  last  week,  reminds  me  of  what  happened  in 
1810.  You  can  easily  ascertain  the  fact,  and  it  is  an 
odd  one. 

I.  Probably  the  letter  from  Shelley  printed  in  Appendix  I. 

1 820.]        SHADOWS   OF    THE   DEAD    AND    ABSENT.  87 

In  the  latter  end  of  1811,  I  met  one  evening  at  the 
Alfred  my  old  School  and  form-fellow,  (for  we  were 
within  two  of  each  other — he  the  higher,  though  both 
very  near  the  top  of  our  remove,)  Peel,  the  Irish  Secre- 
tary. He  told  me  that,  in  1810,  he  met  me,  as  he 
thought,  in  St.  James's  Street,  but  we  passed  without 
speaking.  He  mentioned  this,  and  it  was  denied  as 
impossible,  I  being  then  in  Turkey.  A  day  or  two  after, 
he  pointed  out  to  his  brother  a  person  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  way ;  "  there,"  said  he,  "  is  the  man  whom 
"  I  took  for  Byron : "  his  brother  instantly  answered, 
"  why,  it  is  Byron,  and  no  one  else."  But  this  is  not 
all :  I  was  seen  by  somebody  to  write  down  my  name 
amongst  the  Enquirers  after  the  King's  health,  then 
attacked  by  insanity.  Now,  at  this  very  period,  as  nearly 
as  I  could  make  out,  I  was  ill  of  a  strong  fever  at  Patras, 
caught  in  the  marshes  near  Olympia,  from  the  Malaria. 
If  I  had  died  there,  this  would  have  been  a  new  Ghost 
Story  for  you.  You  can  easily  make  out  the  accuracy  of 
this  from  Peel  himself,  who  told  it  in  detail.  I  suppose 
you  will  be  of  the  opinion  of  Lucretius,1  who  (denies  the 
immortality  of  the  Soul,  but)  asserts  that  from  the  "  flying 
"  off  of  the  Surfaces  of  bodies  perpetually,  these  surfaces 
"  or  cases,  like  the  Coats  of  an  onion,  are  sometimes 
"  seen  entire  when  they  are  separated  from  it,  so  that  the 
"  shapes  and  shadows  of  both  the  dead  and  absent  are 
"  frequently  beheld." 

I.   "Quse,  quasi  membranae  summo  de  corpore  rerum 
Dereptse,  volitant  ultro,  citroque,  per  auras  : 
Atque  eadem,  nobis  vigilantibus  obvia,  mentes 
Terrificant,  atque  in  somnis,  quum  saepe  figuras 
Contuimur  miras,  simulacraque  luce  carentum, 
Quse  nos  horrifice  languentes  saepe  sopore 
Excierunt :  ne  forte  animas  Acheronte  reamur 
Effugere,  aut  umbras  inter  vivos  volitare,"  etc. 

Lucretius,  De  Rerum  Aratun1,  lib.  iv.  35,  seqq. 


But  if  they  are,  are  their  coats  and  waistcoats  also 
seen  ?  I  do  not  disbelieve  that  we  may  be  two  by  some 
unconscious  process,  to  a  certain  sign ;  but  which  of  these 
two  I  happen  at  present  to  be,  I  leave  you  to  decide.  I 
only  hope  that  father  me  behaves  like  a  Gemman. 

I  wish  you  would  get  Peel  asked  how  far  I  am 
accurate  in  my  recollection  of  what  he  told  me ;  for  I 
don't  like  to  say  such  things  without  authority. 

I  am  not  sure  that  I  was  not  spoken  with ;  but  this 
also  you  can  ascertain.  I  have  written  to  you  such  lots 
that  I  stop. 


P.S. — Send  me  the  proofs  of  the  "  Hints  from  ff.,  etc" 
P.S. — Last  year  (in  June,  1819),  I  met  at  Count 
Mosti's,  at  Ferrara,  an  Italian  who  asked  me  "  if  I  knew 
"  Lord  Byron  ?  "  I  told  him  no  (no  one  knows  himself, 
you  know) :  " then,"  says  he,  "I  do ;  I  met  him  at 
"Naples  the  other  day."  I  pulled  out  my  card  and 
asked  him  if  that  was  the  way  he  spelt  his  name :  and  he 
answered,  yes.  I  suspect  that  it  was  a  blackguard  Navy 
Surgeon,  named  Bury  or  Berry,  who  attended  a  young 
travelling  Madman  about,  named  Graham,  and  passed 
himself  for  a  Lord  at  the  Posthouses :  he  was  a  vulgar 
dog — quite  of  the  Cockpit  order — and  a  precious  repre- 
sentative I  must  have  had  of  him,  if  it  was  even  so ;  but 
I  don't  know.  He  passed  himself  off  as'  a  Gentleman, 
and  squired  about  a  Countess  Zinnani  (of  this  place), 
then  at  Venice,  an  ugly  battered  woman,  of  bad  morals 
even  for  Italy. 

1 820.]         GENUINE   ENGLISH,    RIGHT   VENETIAN.  89 

835. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  8bre  8°,  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY, — Foscolo's  letter  is  exactly  the  thing 
wanted;  ist,  because  he  is  a  man  of  Genius;  and,  next, 
because  he  is  an  Italian,  and  therefore  the  best  Judge  of 
Italics.  Besides, 

"  He's  more  an  antique  Roman  than  a  Dane ; "  * 

that  is,  he  has  more  of  the  antient  Greek  than  of  the 
modern  Italian.  Though,  "somewhat,"  as  Dugald 
Dalgetty  says,  "  too  wild  and  salvage  "  (like  "  Ronald  of 
"the  Mist"),2  'tis  a  wonderful  man;  and  my  friends 
Hobhouse  and  Rose  both  swear  by  him — and  they  are 
good  Judges  of  men  and  of  Italian  humanity. 

"  Here  are  in  all  two  worthy  voices  gained."  3 

Gifford  says  it  is  good  "  sterling  genuine  English,"  and 
Foscolo  says  that  the  characters  are  right  Venetian. 
Shakespeare  and  Otway  had  a  million  of  advantages 
over  me,  besides  the  incalculable  one  of  being  dead  from 
one  to  two  centuries,  and  having  been  both  born  black- 
guards (which  ARE  such  attractions  to  the  Gentle  living 
reader) :  let  me  then  preserve  the  only  one  which  I 
could  possibly  have — that  of  having  been  at  Venice,  and 
entered  more  into  the  local  Spirit  of  it.  I  claim  no 

I  know  what  F.  means  about  Calendaro's  spitting 
at  Bertram  : 4  that 's  national — the  objection,  I  mean. 

1.  "  Horatio.  Never  believe  it : 

I  am  more  an  antique  Roman  than  a  Dane." 

Hamlet,  act  v.  sc.  2. 

2.  Legend  of  Montrose,  chap.  xiii. 

3.  "  Coriolanus.    A  match,   sir. — There  is  in    all    two  worthy 
"voices  begged ;  I  have  your  alms  :  adieu." — Coriolanus,  act  ii.  sc.  3. 

4.  "  Calendaro  (spitting    at  him).     I  die  and  scorn  thee!"- 
Marino  Faliero,  act  v.  sc.  I. 


The  Italians  and  French,  with  those  "  flags  of  Abomina- 
"  tion,"  their  pocket  handkerchiefs,  spit  there,  and  here, 
and  every  where  else — in  your  face  almost,  and  therefore 
object  to  it  on  the  Stage  as  too  familiar.  But  we  who 
spit  nowhere — but  in  a  man's  face  when  we  grow  savage 
— are  not  likely  to  feel  this.  Remember  Massinger,  and 
Kean's  Sir  Giles  Overreach — 

"  Lord  !  thus  I  spit  at  thee  and  thy  Counsel ! " * 

Besides,  Calendaro  does  not  spit  in  Bertram's  face :  he 
spits  at  him,  as  I  have  seen  the  Mussulmans  do  upon  the 
ground  when  they  are  in  a  rage.  Again,  he  does  not  in 
fact  despise  Bertram,  though  he  affects  it — as  we  all  do, 
when  angry  with  one  we  think  our  inferior :  he  is  angry 
at  not  being  allowed  to  die  in  his  own  way  (although  not 
afraid  of  death);  and  recollect,  that  he  suspected  and 
hated  Bertram  from  the  first.  Israel  Bertuccio,  on  the 
other  hand,  is  a  cooler  and  more  concentrated  fellow  : 
he  acts  upon  principle  and  impulse;  Calendaro  upon 
impulse  and  example. 

So  there's  argument  for  you. 

The  Doge  repeats  ; — true,  but  it  is  from  engrossing 
passion,  and  because  he  sees  different  persons,  and  is 
always  obliged  to  recur  to  the  cause  uppermost  in  his 
mind.  His  speeches  are  long; — true,  but  I  wrote  for 
the  Closet^  and  on  the  French  and  Italian  model  rather 
than  yours,  which  I  think  not  very  highly  of,  for  all  your 
old  dramatists,  who  are  long  enough  too,  God  knows  : 
look  into  any  of  them. 

I  wish  you,  too,  to  recollect  one  thing  which  is 
nothing  to  the  reader.  I  never  wrote  nor  copied  an 
entire  Scene  of  that  play ,  without  being  obliged  to  break  oft 

I.  "Sir  Giles  Overreach  "  says  to  "  Lord  Lovel,"  in  A  New  Way 
to  pay  Old  Debts,  act  v.  sc.  I,  "  Lord  !  thus  I  spit  at  thee,  and  at  thy 
"  counsel." 

l820.]  THREE   FRIENDS    IN    NEED.  QI 

— to  break  a  commandment,  to  obey  a  woman's,  and  to 
forget  God's.  Remember  the  drain  of  this  upon  a  man's 
heart  and  brain,  to  say  nothing  of  his  immortal  soul. 
Fact,  I  assure  you.  The  Lady  always  apologized  for  the 
interruption ;  but  you  know  the  answer  a  man  must  make 
when  and  while  he  can.  It  happened  to  be  the  only 
hour  I  had  in  the  four  and  twenty  for  composition,  or 
reading,  and  I  was  obliged  to  divide  even  it.  Such  are 
the  denned  duties  of  a  Cavalier*  Servente  or  Cavalier' 

I  return  you  F[oscolo]'s  letter,  because  it  alludes  also 
to  his  private  affairs.  I  am  sorry  to  see  such  a  man  in 
straits,  because  I  know  what  they  are,  or  what  they  were. 
I  never  met  but  three  men  who  would  have  held  out  a 
finger  to  me  :  one  was  yourself,  the  other  W™  Bankes, 
and  the  third  a  Nobleman  long  ago  dead.  But  of  these  the 
first  was  the  only  one  who  offered  it  while  I  really  wanted 
it;  the  second  from  good  will — but  I  was  not  in  need  of 
Bankes' s  aid,  and  would  not  have  accepted  it  if  I  had 
(though  I  love  and  esteem  him) ;  and  the  third x 

So  you  see  that  I  have  seen  some  strange  things  in 
my  time.  As  for  your  own  offer,  it  was  in  1815,  when  I 
was  in  actual  uncertainty  of  five  pounds.  I  rejected  it ; 
but  I  have  not  forgotten  it,  although  you  probably 

You  are  to  publish  when  and  how  you  please  ;  but  I 
thought  you  and  Mr.  Hobhouse  had  decided  not  to  print 
the  whole  of  "  Blackwood"  as  being  partly  unproducible  : 
do  as  ye  please  after  consulting  Hobhouse  about  it. 

P.S. — Foscolo's  Ricdarda  was  lent,  with  the  leaves 
uncut,  to  some  Italians  now  in  Villeggiatura,  so  that  I 

I.  The  paragraph  is  left  thus  imperfect  in  the  original,  Byron 
having  carefully  erased  three  lines  of  writing. 


have  had  no  opportunity  of  hearing  their  opinion,  or  of 
reading  it.  They  seized  on  it  as  Foscolo's,  and  on 
account  of  the  beauty  of  the  paper  and  printing,  directly. 
If  I  find  it  takes,  I  will  reprint  it  here.  The  Italians 
think  as  highly  of  Foscolo  as  they  can  of  any  man, 
divided  and  miserable  as  they  are,  and  with  neither 
leisure  at  present  to  read,  nor  head  nor  heart  to  judge  of 
anything  but  extracts  from  French  newspapers  and  the 
Lugano  Gazette. 

We  are  all  looking  at  one  another,  like  wolves  on 
their  prey  in  pursuit,  only  waiting  for  the  first  faller  on, 
to  do  unutterable  things.  They  are  a  great  world  in 
Chaos,  or  Angels  in  Hell,  which  you  please ;  but  out  of 
Chaos  came  Paradise,  and  out  of  hell — I  don't  know 
what ;  but  the  Devil  went  in  there,  and  he  was  a  fine 
fellow  once,  you  know. 

You  need  never  favour  me  with  any  periodical  pub- 
lications, excepting  the  Edinburgh,  Quarterly,  and  an 
occasional  Blackwood,  or  now  and  then  a  Monthly 
Review ;  for  the  rest  I  do  not  feel  curiosity  enough  to 
look  beyond  their  covers. 

To  be  sure  I  took  in  the  British  Roberts  finely ;  he 
fell  precisely  into  the  glaring  trap  laid  for  him :  it  was 
inconceivable  how  he  could  be  so  absurd  as  to  think  us 
serious  with  him. 

Recollect,  that  if  you  put  my  name  to  Don  yuan  in 
these  canting  days,  any  lawyer  might  oppose  my  Guardian 
right  of  my  daughter  in  Chancery,  on  the  plea  of  its 
containing  the  parody ;  such  are  the  perils  of  a  foolish 
jest.  I  was  not  aware  of  this  at  the  time,  but  you  will 
find  it  correct,  I  believe ;  and  you  may  be  sure  that  the 
Noels  would  not  let  it  slip.  Now  I  prefer  my  child  to 
a  poem  at  any  time,  and  so  should  you,  as  having  half 
a  dozen.  Let  me  know  your  notions. 

1820.]  HIS  DAUGHTER'S  NAME.  93 

If  you  turn  over  the  earlier  pages  of  the  Huntingdon] l 
peerage  story,  you  will  see  how  common  a  name  Ada 
was  in  the  early  Plantagenet  days.  I  found  it  in  my 
own  pedigree  in  the  reign  of  John  and  Henry,  and  gave 
it  to  my  daughter.  It  was  also  the  name  of  Charlemagne's 
sister.  It  is  in  an  early  chapter  of  Genesis,  as  the  name 
of  the  wife  of  Lameth  (sic) :  and  I  suppose  Ada  is  the 
feminine  of  Adam.  It  is  short,  ancient,  vocalic,  and 
had  been  in  my  family ;  for  which  reason  I  gave  it  to 
my  daughter. 

836. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  8bre  12°,  1820. 

D?  MURRAY, — By  land  and  Sea  Carriage  a  consider- 
able quantity  of  books  have  arrived ;  and  I  am  obliged 
and  grateful.  But  Media  de  fonte  leporum  surgit  amari 
aliqTiid,  etc.,  etc. ;  which,  being  interpreted,  means, 

I'm  thankful  for  your  books,  dear  Murray ; 
But  why  not  send  Scott's  Monastery  ? 

the  only  book  in  four  living  volumes  I  would  give  a 
baiocco  to  see — abating  the  rest  by  the  same  author, 
and  an  occasional  Edinburgh  and  Quarterly,  as  brief 
Chroniclers  of  the  times.  Instead  of  this,  here  are 
Johnny  Keats's  p — ss  a  bed  poetry,2  and  three  novels  by 
God  knows  whom,  except  that  there  is  Peg  Holford's 
name  3  to  one  of  them — a  Spinster  whom  I  thought  we 

1.  Henry  Nugent  Bell  published  his  Huntingdon  Peerage  in  1820 
— an  account  of  the  family,  and  of  the  revival  of  the  title  in  Hans 
Francis  Hastings,  eleventh  Earl  of  Huntingdon.     Two  ancestresses 
(p.  4)  of  the  name  of  Ada  are  mentioned  in  the  thirteenth  century. 

2.  John  Keats  published  Poems  (1817),  Endymion  (1818),  and  in 
1820  Lamia,  Isabella,  The  Eve  of  St.  Agnes,  and  other  Poems. 

3.  Miss  Margaret  Holford  (1778-1852)  published,  in  1820,  War- 
beck  of  Wolfenstein. 


had  sent  back  to  her  spinning.  Crayon 1  is  very  good ; 
Hogg's  Tales  rough,2  but  RACY,  and  welcome. 

Lord  Huntingdon's  blackguard  portrait  may  serve 
for  a  sign  to  his  "  Ashby  de  la  Zouche  "  Alehouse  : 3  is  it 
to  such  a  drunken,  half-pay  looking  raff  that  the  Chival- 
rous Moira  is  to  yield  a  portion  of  his  titles  ?  into  what 
a  puddle  has  stagnated  the  noble  blood  of  the  Hastings'  ? 
And  the  bog-trotting  barrister's  advertisement  of  himself 
and  causes  !  !  Upon  my  word,  the  house  and  the  courts 
have  made  a  pair  of  precious  acquisitions  ?  I  have 
seen  worse  peers  than  this  fellow,  but  then  they  were 
made,  not  begotten  (these  Lords  are  opposites  to  the  Lord 
in  all  respects) ;  but,  however  stupid,  however  idle  and 
profligate,  all  the  peers  by  inheritance  had  something  of 
the  gentleman  look  about  them :  only  the  lawyers  and 
the  bankers  "promoted  into  Silver  fish"  looked  like 
ragamuffins  till  this  new  foundling  came  amongst  them. 

Books  of  travels  are  expensive,  and  I  don't  want 
them,  having  travelled  already ;  besides,  they  lie.  Thank 
the  Author  of  the  Profligate f  a  comedy,  for  his  (or  her) 
present.  Pray  send  me  no  more  poetry  but  what  is  rare 
and  decidedly  good.  There  is  such  a  trash  of  Keats  and 
the  like  upon  my  tables,  that  I  am  ashamed  to  look  at 
them.  I  say  nothing  against  your  parsons,  your  Smedleys  5 

1.  Washington  Irving  published,  in  1820,  under  the  nom  de  plume 
of  Geoffrey  Crayon,  Gent1.1 ,  vol.  i.  of  The  Sketch-Book.    Later  in  the 
same  year  Murray  brought  out  the  book  in  two  volumes,  vol.  i. 
being  a  second  edition,  and  vol.  ii.  a  new  volume. 

2.  Probably  Hogg's  Winter  Evening  Tales  (1820).     For  James 
Hogg,  see  Lettei-s,  vol.  iii.  p.  115,  note  I. 

3.  The  Huntingdon  Arms,  at  Ashby-de-la-Zouche,  was  within  a 
few  paces  of  the  Castle  {Huntingdon  Peerage,  Investigation  of  the 
Claim,  p.  263). 

4.  The  Profligate,  a  Comedy  (1820,  410)  was  by  George  Watson, 
afterwards  Taylor,  the  author  of  England  Preserved,  an  Historical 
Play  (in  verse),  1795,  and  Equanimity  in  Death  (a  poem),  1813. 

5.  The  Rev.  Edward  Smedley  (1788-1836),  editor  from  1822  of 
the  Encyclopedia  Metropolitana,  was  a  voluminous  writer  of  prose 

1 820.]  BURIAL-PLACES   OF  THE   DOGES.  95 

and  your  Crolys  : 1  it  is  all  very  fine ;  but  pray  dispense  me 
from  the  pleasure,  as  also  from  Mrs.  Hemans.  Instead 
of  poetry  if  you  will  favour  me  with  a  few  Soda  powders, 
I  shall  be  delighted;  but  all  prose  (bating  travels  and 
novels  NOT  by  Scott)  is  welcome,  especially  Scott's  tales 
of  my  Landlord^  and  so  on. 

In  the  notes  to  Marino  Faliero,  it  may  be  as  well  to 
say  that  " Benintende"  was  not  really  of  the  ten,  but 
merely  Grand  Chancellor,  a  separate  office  (although 
important) :  it  was  an  arbitrary  alteration  of  mine.  The 
Doges  too  were  all  buried  in  St.  Mark's  before  Faliero  : 
it  is  singular  that  when  his  immediate  predecessor,  Andrea 
Dandolo,  died,  the  ten  made  a  law  that  all  the  future 
doges  should  be  buried  with  their  families,  in  their  own 
chtirches, — one  would  think  by  a  kind  of  presentiment.  So 
that  all  that  is  said  of  his  Ancestral  Doges,  as  buried  at 
Saint  John's  and  Paul's,  is  altered  from  the  fact,  they 
being  in  Saint  Mark's.  Make  a  Note  of  this,  and  put 
Editor  as  the  subscription  to  it. 

As  I  make  such  pretensions  to  accuracy,  I  should  not 

and  poetry.  He  had  recently  published  two  volumes  of  verse, 
Religio  Clerici,  a  Churchman's  Epistle  (1818),  and  A  Churchman's 
Second  Epistle  (1819).  The  poem  was  published  anonymously. 

In  a  letter  to  Byron,  dated  March  9  (1819),  Lord  Holland  says, 
'  The  poem  of  Religio  Clerici,  falsely  said  to  be  Crabbe's,  is  the 
'  work  of  a  Mr.  Smedley.  The  despair  produced  by  Methodists 
'  on  a  dying  man,  and  the  picture  of  the  parish  priest  walking  to 
'  church,  are  like  Crabbe  ;  but  everything  else  is  much  inferior,  and 
'  the  principles  are  so  narrow  and  intolerant  that  one  would  have 
'  been  sorry  to  have  found  that  such  a  man  as  Crabbe  was  capable 
'either  of  holding  or  assuming  them." 

I.  The  Rev.  George  Croly  (1780-1860)  wrote  largely  for  Black- 
woo(fs  Magazine  and  the  Literary  Gazette,  besides  publishing  poems, 
two  novels  (Salathiel,  1829,  and  Marston,  1846),  theological  works, 
a  play,  and  the  Life  and  Times  of  George  the  Fourth  (1830).  In  his 
chief  poems  he  imitated  Byron  ;  Childe  Harold  is  the  model  of  Paris 
in  1815  (1817),  and  Don  Juan  of  The  Modern  Orlando  (1846). 
Byron  preferred  Croly's  vigour  to  the  feebleness  of  many  of  his  con- 
temporaries ;  and  Croly  seems,  according  to  Byron,  to  have  held  a 
still  higher  opinion  of  his  own  merits  (see  p.  117)- 


like  to  be  twitted  even  with  such  trifles  on  that  score. 
Of  the  play  they  may  say  what  they  please,  but  not  so 
of  my  costume  and  dram,  pers.,  they  having  been  real 

I  omitted  Foscolo  in  my  list  of  living  Venetian 
-worthies,  in  the  Notes,  considering  him  as  an  Italian  in 
general,  and  not  a  mere  provincial  like  the  rest ;  and  as 
an  Italian  I  have  spoken  of  him  in  the  preface  to  Canto 
4th  of  Childe  Harold. 

The  French  translation  of  us  ! ! !  Oime  !  Oime  I — 
and  the  German ;  but  I  don't  understand  the  latter  nor 
his  long  dissertation  at  the  end  about  the  Fausts. 
Excuse  haste.  Of  politics  it  is  not  safe  to  speak,  but 
nothing  is  decided  as  yet. 

I  should  recommend  your  not  publishing  the  prose: 
it  is  too  late  for  the  letter  to  Roberts,  and  that  to  Black- 
wood  is  too  egoistical;  and  Hobhouse  don't  like  it — 
except  the  part  about  Pope,  which  is  truth  and  very  good. 

I  am  in  a  very  fierce  humour  at  not  having  Scott's 
Monastery.1  You  are  too  liberal  in  quantity,  and  some- 
what careless  of  the  quality,  of  your  missives.  All  the 
Quarterlies  (4  in  number)  I  had  had  before  from  you, 
and  two  of  the  Edinburghs ;  but  no  matter;  we  shall 
have  new  ones  by  and  bye.  No  more  Keats,  I  entreat : 
— flay  him  alive ;  if  some  of  you  don't,  I  must  skin  him 
myself:  there  is  no  bearing  the  drivelling  idiotism  of  the 

I  don't  feel  inclined  to  care  further  about  Don  Juan. 
What  do  you  think  a  very  pretty  Italian  lady  said  to  me 
the  other  day  ?  She  had  read  it  in  the  French,  and  paid 
me  some  compliments,  with  due  DRAWBACKS,  upon 
it.  I  answered  that  what  she  said  was  true,  but  that  I 

I.  Ivanhoe,  The  Monastery,  and  The  Abbot  were  all  published 
in  1820. 




suspected  it  would  live  longer  than  Childe  Harold.  "  Ah 
"  but  (said  She)  /  would  rather  have  the  fame  of  Childe 
"  Harold  for  THREE  YEARS  than  an  IMMORTALITY  of  Don 
"Juan!"  The  truth  is  that  if  is  TOO  TRUE,  and  the 
women  hate  every  thing  which  strips  off  the  tinsel  of 
Sentiment;  and  they  are  right,  as  it  would  rob  them 
of  their  weapons.  I  never  knew  a  woman  who  did  not 
hate  De  Grammont's  memoirs  for  the  same  reason. 
Even  Lady  Oxford  used  to  abuse  them. 

Thorwaldsen  is  in  Poland,  I  believe:  the  bust  is  at 
Rome  still,  as  it  has  been  paid  for  these  4  years.  It 
should  have  been  sent,  but  I  have  no  remedy  till  he 

Rose's  work1  I  never  received:  it  was  seized  at 
Venice.  Such  is  the  liberality  of  the  Huns,  with  their 
two  hundred  thousand  men,  that  they  dare  not  let  such  a 
volume  as  his  circulate. 

837. — To  John  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  8br.e  12?  1820. 

D?  SIR, — I  can  enter  into  no  appeal  without  Counsel's 
opinion :  this  was  promised  and  has  not  been  sent. 
I  would  still  much  rather  sell  the  Manor,  at  any  price, 
than  enter  into  a  new  and  hopeless  litigation. 

Your  delay  (which  seems  a  purposed  and  unwarrant- 
able one)  in  completing  the  Irish  Mortgage  surprizes  and 
distresses  me;  you  will  finish  by  causing  me  to  lose 
many  thousand  pounds.  You  may  delay  as  you  please, 
but  the  mortgage  must  be  completed ;  for  I  would  rather 
sell  out  at  any  loss  than  trust  to  the  infamous  bubble  of 
the  British  funds,  into  which  (had  I  been  upon  the  spot) 
I  could  never  have  entered. 

I.  William  Stewart  Rose's  Letters  from  the  North  of  Italy  (1819). 
VOL.  V.  H 


It  is  also  surprizing  that  you  have  never  sent  in  your 
account  to  Mr.  Kinnaird :  if  it  is  not  sent,  how  can  we 
ever  come  to  any  final  settlement  ? 

In  expectation  of  an  answer  on  these  points, 

I  remain,  yours  very  truly, 


838. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner.1 

Ravenna,  13*  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — By  the  boat  of  a  certain 
Bonaldo,  bound  for  Venice,  I  forward  to  you  certain 
Novels  of  Mrs.  Opie  and  others,  for  Mrs.  Hoppner  and 
you  as  you  desired.  Amongst  the  rest  there  is  a  German 
translation  of  Manfred^  with  a  plaguy  long  dissertation 
at  the  end  of  it ;  it  would  be  out  of  all  measure  and 
conscience  to  ask  you  to  translate  the  whole ;  but,  if  you 
could  give  me  a  short  sketch  of  it,  I  should  thank  you, 
or  if  you  would  make  somebody  do  the  whole  into 
Italian^  it  would  do  as  well ;  and  I  would  willingly  pay 
some  poor  Italian  German  Scholar  for  his  trouble.  My 
own  papers  are  at  last  come  from  Galignani.  With 
many  thanks  for  yours, 

I  am,  yours  very  truly, 


P.S. — I  remit  by  Missiaglia  30  Napoleons,  is  that 
the  sum  ? 

839.— To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  8bre  16°,  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY, — The  Abbot  has  just  arrived :  many 
thanks ;  as  also  for  the  Monastery — when  you  send  it!  /  ! 

I.  From  The  Archivist,  April,  1889,  where  the  letter  is  printed 
in  facsimile  to  face  p.  12. 

l820.j  SCOTTISH   ANCESTRY.  99 

The  Abbot  will  have  a  more  than  ordinary  interest  for 
me ;  for  an  ancestor  of  mine  by  the  mother's  side,  Sir 
J.  Gordon  of  Gight,  the  handsomest  of  his  day,  died  on 
a  Scaffold  at  Aberdeen  for  his  loyalty  to  Mary,  of  whom 
he  was  an  imputed  paramour  as  well  as  her  relation.1  His 
fate  was  much  commented  on  in  the  Chronicles  of  the 
times.  If  I  mistake  not,  he  had  something  to  do  with 
her  escape  from  Loch  Leven,  or  with  her  captivity  there. 
But  this  you  will  know  better  than  I. 

I  recollect  Loch  Leven  as  it  were  but  yesterday:  I 
saw  it  in  my  way  to  England  in  1798,  being  then  ten 
years  of  age.  My  Mother  (who  was  as  haughty  as 
Lucifer  with  her  descent  from  the  Stuarts,  and  her  right 
line,  from  the  old  Gordons,  not  the  Seyton  Gordons,  as 
she  disdainfully  termed  the  Ducal  branch,)  told  me  the 
Story,  always  reminding  me  how  superior  her  Gordons 
were  to  the  Southron  Byrons,  notwithstanding  our  Nor- 
man, and  always  direct  masculine  descent,2  which  has 
never  lapsed  into  a  female,  as  my  mother's  Gordons  had 
done  in  her  own  person. 

I  have  written  to  you  so  often  lately,  that  the  brevity 
of  this  will  be  welcome. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


1.  For  Sir  J.  Gordon,  see  p.  106,  note  I. 

2.  It  is  possible  that  Mrs.  Byron  may  have  known  the  blot  on  the 
Byron  pedigree,  and  the  illegitimacy  of  the  family  through  which 
her  son  claimed  Norman  descent.     Sir  John  Byron  "with  the  great 
"  beard,"  grandfather  of  the  first  Lord  Byron,  and  grantee  of  the 
Priory  of  Newstead,  had  no  legitimate  heir.     His  natural  son,  John 
Byron,  who  succeeded  to  the  property  by  deed  of  gift,  was  therefore 
the  real  founder  of  Byron's  family.     Whether  Byron  knew  this 
illegitimacy  or  not  is  uncertain. 

100          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

840. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  8bre  17°,  1820. 

D?  MY, — Enclosed  is  the  dedication  of  Marino 
Faliero  to  Goethe.  Query  ?  is  his  title  Baron  or  not  ?  * 
I  think  yes.  Let  me  know  your  opinion,  and  so  forth. 


P.S. — Let  me  know  what  Mr.  Hobhouse  and  you 
have  decided  about  the  two  prose  letters  and  their  pub- 

I  enclose  you  an  Italian  abstract  of  the  German 
translator  of  Manfred's  appendix,  in  which  you  will  per- 
ceive quoted  what  Goethe  says  of  the  whole  body  of 
English  poetry  (and  not  of  one  in  particular).  On  this 
the  dedication  is  founded,  as  you  will  perceive,  though 
I  had  thought  of  it  before,  for  I  look  upon  him  as  a 
Great  Man. 


SIR, — In  the  Appendix  to  an  English  work  lately 
translated  into  German  and  published  at  Leipsic,  a 
judgment  of  yours  upon  English  poetry  is  quoted  as 
follows :  "  That  in  English  poetry,  great  genius,  universal 
"  power,  a  feeling  of  profundity,  with  sufficient  tenderness 
"  and  force,  are  to  be  found ;  but  that  altogether  tJiese  do 
"  not  constitute  poets?  etc.,  etc. 

I  regret  to  see  a  great  man  falling  into  a  great 
mistake.  This  opinion  of  yours  only  proves  that  the 

I.  Goethe  was  ennobled,  having  the  Von  prefixed  to  his  name, 
but  never  received  the  title  of  Baron. 

1 820.]  A    DEDICATION.  IOI 

"  Dictionary  of  Ten  Thousand  living  English  Authors  "  x 
has  not  been  translated  into  German.  You  will  have 
read,  in  your  friend  Schlegel's  version,  the  dialogue  in 
Macbeth — 

"  There  are  ten  thousand! 

Macbeth.     Geese,  villain? 

Answer.  Authors,  sir."  2 

Now,  of  these  "  ten  thousand  authors,"  there  are  actually 
nineteen  hundred  and  eighty-seven  poets,  all  alive  at 
this  moment,  whatever  their  works  may  be,  as  their 
booksellers  well  know ;  and  amongst  these  there  are 
several  who  possess  a  far  greater  reputation  than  mine, 
although  considerably  less  than  yours.  It  is  owing  to 
this  neglect  on  the  part  of  your  German  translators  that 
you  are  not  aware  of  the  works  of  William  Wordsworth, 
who  has  a  baronet  in  London  3  who  draws  him  frontis- 
pieces and  leads  him  about  to  dinners  and  to  the  play ; 
and  a  Lord  in  the  country,4  who  gave  him  a  place  in  the 
Excise — and  a  cover  at  his  table.  You  do  not  know 
perhaps  that  this  Gentleman  is  the  greatest  of  all  poets 
past — present  and  to  come — besides  which  he  has  written 
an  "  Opus  Magnum  "  in  prose — during  the  late  election 
for  Westmoreland.5  His  principal  publication  is  entitled 
"  Peter  Bell"  which  he  had  withheld  from  the  public  for 
"  one  and  twenty  years  " — to  the  irreparable  loss  of  all  those 
who  died  in  the  interim,  and  will  have  no  opportunity  of 

1.  A  Biographical  Dictionary  of  Living  Authors  of  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland^  etc.,  London,  1816,  8vo. 

2.  "  Macbeth.     Where  gott'st  thou  that  goose  look  ? 

Servant.     There  is  ten  thousand — 

Macbeth.  Geese,  villain  ? 

Servant.     Soldiers,  sir." 

Macbeth,  act  v.  sc.  3. 

3.  Sir  George  Beaumont.      See  Professor   W.   Knight,  Life  of 
Wordsworth,  vol.  ii.  (Works,  vol.  x.)  p.  56. 

4.  Lord  Lonsdale  (ibid.,  p.  209). 

5.  Two  Addresses  to  the  Freeholders  of  Westmoreland,  1818. 

IO2          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

reading  it  before  the  resurrection.  There  is  also  another 
named  Southey,  who  is  more  than  a  poet,  being  actually 
poet  Laureate, — a  post  which  corresponds  with  what  we 
call  in  Italy  Poeta  Cessareo,  and  which  you  call  in  German 
— I  know  not  what;  but  as  you  have  a  "  Caesar" — pro- 
bably you  have  a  name  for  it.  In  England  there  is  no 
Caesar — only  the  Poet. 

I  mention  these  poets  by  way  of  sample  to  enlighten 
you.  They  form  but  two  bricks  of  our  Babel,  (WINDSOR 
bricks,  by  the  way,)  but  may  serve  for  a  specimen  of  the 

It  is,  moreover,  asserted  that  "  the  predominant 
"character  of  the  whole  body  of  the  present  English 
"  poetry  is  a  disgust  and  contempt  for  life."  But  I  rather 
suspect  that  by  one  single  work  of  prose,  you  yourself, 
have  excited  a  greater  contempt  for  life  than  all  the 
English  volumes  of  poesy  that  ever  were  written. 
Madame  de  Stael  says,  that  "Werther  has  occasioned 
"  more  suicides  than  the  most  beautiful  woman ; "  and  I 
really  believe  that  he  has  put  more  individuals  out  of 
this  world  than  Napoleon  himself,  except  in  the  way  of 
his  profession.  Perhaps,  Illustrious  Sir,  the  acrimonious 
judgment  passed  by  a  celebrated  northern  journal l  upon 
you  in  particular,  and  the  Germans  in  general,  has  rather 
indisposed  you  towards  English  poetry  as  well  as  criti- 
cism. But  you  must  not  regard  our  critics,  who  are  at 
bottom  good-natured  fellows,  considering  their  two  pro- 
fessions— taking  up  the  law  in  court,  and  laying  it  down 
out  of  it.  No  one  can  more  lament  their  hasty  and 
unfair  judgment,  in  your  particular,  than  I  do ;  and 
I  so  expressed  myself  to  your  friend  Schlegel,  in  1816, 
at  Coppet. 

I.  See  an  article  on  Goethe's  Aus  Meinem  Leben,  etc.,  in  the 
Edinburgh  Review  for  June,  1816,  vol.  xxvi.  pp.  304-337. 

1820.]  THE  GREAT  GOETHE.  103 

In  behalf  of  my  "  ten  thousand  "  living  brethren,  and 
of  myself,  I  have  thus  far  taken  notice  of  an  opinion 
expressed  with  regard  to  "English  poetry"  in  general, 
and  which  merited  notice,  because  it  was  YOURS. 

My  principal  object  in  addressing  you  was  to  testify 
my  sincere  respect  and  admiration  of  a  man,  who,  f"~ 
half  a  century,  has  led  the  literature  of  a  great  nation, 
and  will  go  down  to  posterity  as  the  first  literary  Character 
of  his  Age. 

You  have  been  fortunate,  Sir,  not  only  in  the  writings 
which  have  illustrated  your  name,  but  in  the  name  itself, 
as  being  sufficiently  musical  for  the  articulation  of  pos- 
terity. In  this  you  have  the  advantage  of  some  of  your 
countrymen,  whose  names  would  perhaps  be  immortal 
also — if  any  body  could  pronounce  them. 

It  may,  perhaps,  be  supposed,  by  this  apparent  tone 
of  levity,  that  I  am  wanting  in  intentional  respect  towards 
you ;  but  this  will  be  a  mistake  :  I  am  always  flippant  in 
prose.  Considering  you,  as  I  really  and  warmly  do,  in 
common  with  all  your  own,  and  with  most  other  nations, 
to  be  by  far  the  first  literary  Character  which  has  existed 
in  Europe  since  the  death  of  Voltaire,  I  felt,  and  feel, 
desirous  to  inscribe  to  you  the  following  work, — not  as 
being  either  a  tragedy  or  a  poem,  (for  I  cannot  pronounce 
upon  its  pretensions  to  be  either  one  or  the  other,  or  both, 
or  neither,)  but  as  a  mark  of  esteem  and  admiration  from 
a  foreigner  to  the  man  who  has  been  hailed  in  Germany 


I  have  the  honour  to  be, 

With  the  truest  respect, 

Your  most  obedient  and 

Very  humble  servant, 


104          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

Ravenna,  8bre  14°,  1820. 

P.S. — I  perceive  that  in  Germany,  as  well  as  in  Italy, 
there  is  a  great  struggle  about  what  they  call  "  Classical" 
and  " Romantic" — terms  which  were  not  subjects  of 
classification  in  England,  at  least  when  I  left  it  four  or 
five  years  ago.  Some  of  the  English  Scribblers,  it  is 
true,  abused  Pope  and  Swift,  but  the  reason  was  that 
they  themselves  did  not  know  how  to  write  either  prose 
or  verse ;  but  nobody  thought  them  worth  making  a  sect 
of.  Perhaps  there  may  be  something  of  the  kind  sprung 
up  lately,  but  I  have  not  heard  much  about  it,  and  it 
would  be  such  bad  taste  that  I  shall  be  very  sorry  to 
believe  it. 

841. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  October  17,  1820. 

You  owe  me  two  letters — pay  them.  I  want  to  know 
what  you  are  about.  The  summer  is  over,  and  you  will 
be  back  to  Paris.  Apropos  of  Paris,  it  was  not  Sophia 
Gat/,  but  Sophia  Gay — the  English  word  Gay — who  was 
my  correspondent.1  Can  you  tell  who  she  is,  as  you  did 
of  the  defunct  *  *  ? 

Have   you   gone    on    with    your   poem?      I   have 

I.  "I  had  mistaken  the  name  of  the  lady  he  inquired  after,  and 
"  reported  her  to  him  as  dead.  But,  on  the  receipt  of  the  above 
"letter,  I  discovered  that  his  correspondent  was  Madame  Sophie 
"Gay,  mother  of  the  celebrated  poetess  and  beauty,  Mademoiselle 
"Delphine  Gay"  (Moore). 

Sophie  Nichault  de  la  Valette  (1776-1852),  novelist,  dramatist, 
musician,  and  verse-writer,  married,  in  1799,  as  her  second  husband, 
M.  Gay.  Her  salon  was  the  resort  of  all  that  was  most  brilliant  in 
French  society  under  the  Empire.  Among  her  novels,  which  began 
with  Laure  tPEstell  (1802),  the  most  successful  was  Leonie  de  Mont- 
braise  (1813).  But,  of  all  her  numerous  works,  it  was  said  that  her 
daughter  Delphine,  afterwards  Madame  de  Girardin  (1804-1855), 
was  the  most  brilliant. 

1 820.]  A   SUSPECT.  105 

received  the  French  of  mine.  Only  think  of  being  tra- 
duced into  a  foreign  language  in  such  an  abominable 
travesty  !  It  is  useless  to  rail,  but  one  can't  help  it. 

Have  you  got  my  Memoir  copied  ? l  I  have  begun  a 
continuation.  Shall  I  send  it  you,  as  far  as  it  is  gone  ? 

I  can't  say  any  thing  to  you  about  Italy,  for  the 
Government  here  look  upon  me  with  a  suspicious  eye, 
as  I  am  well  informed.  Pretty  fellows ! — as  if  I,  a 
solitary  stranger,  could  do  any  mischief.  It  is  because  I 
am  fond  of  rifle  and  pistol  shooting,  I  believe ;  for  they 
took  the  alarm  at  the  quantity  of  cartridges  I  consumed, 
— the  wiseacres ! 

You  don't  deserve  a  long  letter — nor  a  letter  at  all — 
for  your  silence.  You  have  got  a  new  Bourbon,2  it 
seems,  whom  they  have  christened  Dieu-donn'e  ; — perhaps 
the  honour  of  the  present  may  be  disputed.  Did  you 
write  the  good  lines  on ,  the  Laker  ?  *  *  *  * 

The  Queen  has  made  a  pretty  theme  for  the  journals. 
Was  there  ever  such  evidence  published  ?  Why  it  is 
worse  than  Littles  Poems  or  Don  Juan.  If  you  don't 
write  soon,  I  will  "  make  you  a  speech." 

Yours,  etc. 

1.  Moore,  in  his  Diary  for  May  7,  1820,  writes,  "  Williams  dined 
"  with  us  ;  he  has  begun  copying  out  Lord  B.'s  'Memoirs'  for  me, 
"  as  I  fear  the  original  papers  may  become  worn  out  by  passing 
"  through  so  many  hands  "  (Memoirs,  etc.,  of  Thomas  Moore,  vol. 
iit.  p.  1 1 6). 

2.  Henri  Charles  Marie  Ferdinand  Dieudonne  d'Artois,  Due  de 
Bordeaux  and  Comte  de  Chambord  (1820-1883),  was  the  posthumous 
son  of  the  Due  de  Berri  assassinated  by  Louvel.     In  1830,  when  his 
grandfather  Charles  X.  abdicated  in  his  favour,  he  went  into  exile. 
In  1843   he   claimed   the   throne  of  France,  assuming  the  title  of 
Henri  V.     After  his  marriage  (1846)  with  Marie  Therese  Beatrix, 
daughter  of  the  Duke  of  Modena,  by  whom  he  had  no  children,  he 
settled  at  Frohsdorf,  near  Vienna.     In  1873  the  Comte   de  Paris 
recognized   his  right   to   the  French   crown,  and   thus  united   the 
legitimists.     But  his  refusal  to  accept  the  tricolor  in  place  of  the 
white  standard  of  the  Bourbons  destroyed  the  hopes  of  the  royalist 

106          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

842. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  8bre  25°,  1820. 

D?  MORAY, — Pray  forward  the  enclosed  to  Lady 
Byron  :  it  is  on  business. 

In  thanking  you  for  the  Abbot,  I  made  four  grand 
mistakes.  Sir  John  Gordon  l  was  not  of  Gight,  but  of 
Bogagicht,  and  a  Son  of  Huntley's.  He  suffered,  not  for 
his  loyalty,  but  in  an  insurrection.  He  had  nothing  to 
do  with  Loch  Leven,  having  been  dead  some  time  at  the 
period  of  the  Queen's  confinement.  And  I  am 
not  sure  that  he  was  the  Queen's  paramour  or  no ;  for 
Robertson  does  not  allude  to  this,  though  Walter  Scott 
does,  in  the  list  she  gives  of  her  admirers  (as  unfortunate) 
at  the  close  of  the  Abbot. 

I.  In  The  Abbot  (chap,  xxxvii.),  Mary,  standing  by  the  dying 

George  Douglas  at  the  battle  of  Langside,  says,  "  Look — look  at 

'  him  well,  thus  has  it  been  with  all  who  loved  Mary  Stuart ! — The 

'  royalty  of  Francis,  the  wit  of  Chastelar,  the  power  and  gallantry 

'of  the  gay  Gordon,  the  melody  of  Rizzio,  the  portly  form  and 

'  youthful  grace  of  Darnley,  the  bold  address  and  courtly  manners 

'  of  Bothwell — and  now  the  deep-devoted  passion  of  the  noble 

'  Douglas — nought  could  save  them — they  looked  on  the  wretched 

'  Mary,  and  to  have  loved  her  was  crime  enough  to  deserve  early 

'death!"     In  1562,  one  year  after  Mary  landed  in  Scotland,  Sir 

John  Gordon,  a  younger  son  of  the  Earl  of  Huntly,  killed  Lord 

Ogilvie  in  a  fray.     Mary  refused  to  pardon  Gordon,  and  her  refusal 

caused  Lord  Huntly  to  march  on  Aberdeen.     The  Gordons  were 

defeated ;  Lord  Huntly  was  killed ;   Sir  John  Gordon  beheaded ; 

and  two  of  his  brothers,  condemned  to  death,  were  eventually 

pardoned.     The  younger,  Adam,  became  the  famous  "  Edom  o' 

"  Gordon."    There  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  Mary  ever  saw  Sir 

John  Gordon,  much  less  that  he  was  her  favoured  lover. 

The  Gordons  of  Gight,  though  descended  from  the  Earl  of 
Huntly,  were  then  in  the  third  generation  from  the  founder  of 
their  branch  of  the  family.  John  Gordon,  second  son  of  the  fourth 
Laird  of  Gight,  and  great-grandson  of  Huntly,  was  hanged  in 
February,  1592,  for  the  murder  of  the  Earl  of  Moray ;  but  his 
brother  William,  Laird  of  Gight  from  1576  to  1605  (J.  M.  Bullock, 
Tragic  Adventures  of  Byron's  Ancestors,  in  the  Aberdeen  Free  Press, 
November  n,  18,  25,  1898),  though  responsible  for  "at  least  five 
"  murders,"  died  in  his  bed. 

1820.]  A   LONG   LINE   OF   ANCESTORS.  107 

I  must  have  made  all  these  mistakes  in  recollecting 
my  Mother's  account  of  the  matter,  although  she  was 
more  accurate  than  I  am,  being  precise  upon  points  of 
genealogy,  like  all  the  Aristocratical  Scotch.  She  had 
a  long  list  of  ancestors,  like  Sir  Lucius  OTrigger's,1 
most  of  whom  are  to  be  found  in  the  old  Scotch  Chro- 
nicles, Spalding,  etc.,  in  arms  and  doing  mischief.  I 
remember  well  passing  Loch  Leven,  as  well  as  the 
Queen's  Ferry :  we  were  on  our  way  to  England  in  1798. 

Why  do  the  papers  call  Hobhouse  young  ?  he  is  a 
year  and  a  half  older  than  I  am ;  and  I  was  thirty-two 
last  January. 

Of  Italy  I  can  say  nothing  by  the  post :  we  are  in 
instant  expectation  of  the  Barbarians  passing  the  Po; 
and  then  there  will  be  a  war  of  fury  and  extermination. 

Pray  write  sometimes ;  the  communications  will  not 
long  be  open. 


P.S. — Send  me  the  Monastery  and  some  Soda  powders. 

You  had  better  not  publish  Blackwood  and  the 
Roberts  prose,  except  what  regards  Pope ; — you  have  let 
the  time  slip  by. 

843. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  9bre  4°,  1820. 

I  have  received  from  Mr.  Galignani  the  enclosed 
letters,  duplicates  and  receipts,  which  will  explain  them- 
selves.2 As  the  poems  are  your  property  by  purchase, 

1.  In  The  Rivals,  act  iii.  sc.  4,  Sir  Lucius  OTrigger  says,  "Ah, 
"  my  little  friend  !     If  I  had  Blunderbuss  Hall  here,  I  could  show 
"you  a  range  of  ancestry,  in  the  O'Trigger  line,  that  would  furnish 
"  the  new  room  ;  every  one  of  whom  had  killed  his  man  !  " 

2.  Galignani  had  asked  Byron  to  grant  him  such  legal  right  over 

I08          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

right,  and  justice,  all  matters  of  publication,  etc.,  etc., 
are  for  you  to  decide  upon.  I  know  not  how  far  my 
compliance  with  Mr.  G.'s  request  might  be  legal,  and 
I  doubt  that  it  would  not  be  honest.  In  case  you  choose 
to  arrange  with  him,  I  enclose  the  permits  to  you,  and 
in  so  doing  I  wash  my  hands  of  the  business  altogether. 
I  sign  them  merely  to  enable  you  to  exert  the  power 
you  justly  possess  more  properly.  I  will  have  nothing 
to  do  with  it  further,  except,  in  my  answer  to  Mr. 
Galignani,  to  state  that  the  letters,  etc.,  etc.,  are  sent 
to  you,  and  the  causes  thereof. 

If  you  can  check  those  foreign  Pirates,  do ;  if  not, 
put  the  permissive  papers  in  the  fire :  /  can  have  no 
view  nor  object  whatever,  but  to  secure  to  you  your 


P.S.— There  will  be  shortly  "the  Devil  to  pay"  Jure; 
and,  as  there  is  no  saying  that  I  may  not  form  an  Item 
in  his  bill,  I  shall  not  now  write  at  greater  length :  you 
have  not  answered  my  late  letters ;  and  you  have  acted 
foolishly,  as  you  will  find  out  some  day. 

P.S. — I  have  read  part  of  the  Quarterly  just  arrived  : 
Mr.  Bowles *  shall  be  answered ;  he  is  not  quite  correct 
in  his  statement  about  E\tiglis/i\  JB\ards\  and  S\eotc/i\ 

those  poems  of  which  he  had  hitherto  been  the  sole  publisher  in 
France,  as  would  prevent  piracy. 

I.  Byron  refers  to  Disraeli's  article  on  Pope,  suggested  by  Spence's 
Anecdotes  of  Books  and  Men,  which  appeared  in  the  Quarterly  Review 
for  July,  1820  (pp.  400-434).  The  reviewer  quotes  on  p.  425  a 
passage  from  Bowles's  Invariable  Principles  of  Poetry  (1819),  in 
which  Bowles  describes  his  correction  of  Byron's  mistake  in  English 
Bards,  and  Scotch  Reviewers,  line  360 — 

"  When  first  Madeira  trembled  to  a  kiss." 

(See  Poems,  vol.  i.  p.  325,  and  Byron's  note.  See  also  Appendix 
III.  for  Byron's  controversy  with  Bowles.) 


R\evicwers\.  They  support  Pope,  I  see,  in  the  Quarterly  J- 
Let  them  continue  to  do  so :  it  is  a  Sin,  and  a  Shame, 
and  a  damnation  to  think  that  Pope  !  I  should  require 
it — but  he  does.  Those  miserable  mountebanks  of  the 
day,  the  poets,  disgrace  themselves  and  deny  God,  in 
running  down  Pope,  the  most  faultless  of  Poets,  and 
almost  of  men. 

The  Edinburgh  praises  Jack  Keats  or  Ketch,  or 
whatever  his  names  are :  why,  his  is  the  *  of  Poetry — 
something  like  the  pleasure  an  Italian  fiddler  extracted 
out  of  being  suspended  daily  by  a  Street  Walker  in 
Drury  Lane.  This  went  on  for  some  weeks :  at  last 
the  Girl  went  to  get  a  pint  of  Gin — met  another, 
chatted  too  long,  and  Cornelli  was  hanged  outright  before 
she  returned.  Such  like  is  the  trash  they  praise,  and 
such  will  be  the  end  of  the  *  *  poesy  of  this  miser- 
able Self-polluter  of  the  human  Mind. 

W.  Scott's  Monastery  just  arrived :  many  thanks  for 
that  Grand  Desideratum  of  the  last  Six  Months. 

P.S. — You  have  cut  up  old  Edgeworth,2  it  seems, 
amongst  you.  You  are  right :  he  was  a  bore.  I  met 
the  whole  batch — Mr.,  Mrs.,  and  Miss — at  a  blue  break- 
fast of  Lady  Davy's  in  Blue  Square ;  and  he  proved 
but  bad,  in  taste  and  tact  and  decent  breeding.  He 
began  by  saying  that  Parr  (Dr.  Parr)  had  attacked  him, 

t.  "It  is  with  pain  we  have  so  long  witnessed  the  attacks  on  the 
'  moral  and  poetical  character  of  this  great  poet  by  the  last  two  of  his 
'  editors.  Warton,  who  first  entered  the  list,  though  not  unwilling 
'  to  wound,  exhibits  occasionally  some  of  the  courtesy  of  the  ancient 
'  chivalry  ;  but  his  successor,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Bowles,  pushes  the  con- 
'  test  <J  Foutrance,  with  the  appearance,  though  not  with  the  reality, 
'  of  personal  hostility.  It  had  been  more  honourable  in  this  gentle- 
'  man,  with  his  known  prejudices  against  this  class  of  poetry,  in 
{ which  Pope  will  always  remain  unrivalled,  to  have  declined  the 
'  office  of  editor,  than  to  attempt  to  spread  among  new  generations  of 
'  readers  the  most  unfavourable  and  the  most  unjust  impressions  of 
'  the  Poet  and  of  the  Man." — Quarterly  Review,  vol.  xxiii.  p.  407. 

2.  In  the  Quarterly  Review  for  July,  1820,  pp.  510-549. 

110          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

and  that  he  (the  father  of  Miss  E.)  had  cut  him  up  in 
his  answer.  Now,  Parr  would  have  annihilated  him; 
and  if  he  had  not,  why  tell  us  (a  long  story)  ivho  wanted 
to  breakfast?  I  saw  them  different  times  in  different 
parties,  and  I  thought  him  a  very  tiresome  coarse  old 
Irish  half-and-half  Gentleman,  and  her  a  pleasant  reserved 
old  woman—  ************ 

844. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  November  5,  1820. 

Thanks  for  your  letter,  which  hath  come  somewhat 
costively ;  but  better  late  than  never.  Of  it  anon. 
Mr.  Galignani,  of  the  Press,  hath,  it  seems,  been  sup- 
planted and  sub-pirated  by  another  Parisian  publisher, 
who  has  audaciously  printed  an  edition  of  L.  B.'s  works, 
at  the  ultra-liberal  price  of  ten  francs  and  (as  Galignani 
piteously  observes)  eight  francs  only  for  booksellers  ! 
horresco  referens.  Think  of  a  man's  whole  works  pro- 
ducing so  little  ! 

Galignani  sends  me,  post  haste,  a  permission  for  him, 
from  me,  to  publish,  etc.,  etc.,  which  permit  I  have  signed 
and  sent  to  Mr.  Murray  of  Albemarle  Street.  Will  you 
explain  to  G.  that  I  have  no  right  to  dispose  of  Murray's 
works  without  his  leave  ?  and  therefore  I  must  refer  him 
to  M.  to  get  the  permit  out  of  his  claws — no  easy  matter, 
I  suspect.  I  have  written  to  G.  to  say  as  much ;  but  a 
word  of  mouth  from  a  "great  brother  author"  would 
convince  him  that  I  could  not  honestly  have  complied 
with  his  wish,  though  I  might  legally.  What  I  could  do 
I  have  done,  viz.  signed  the  warrant  and  sent  it  to 
Murray.  Let  the  dogs  divide  the  carcass,  if  it  is  killed 
to  their  liking. 

I  am  glad  of  your  epigram.     It  is  odd  that  we  should 

1 820.]      SPREAD   OF   THE   SPANISH   REVOLUTION.  Ill 

both  let  our  wits  run  away  with  our  sentiments;  for  I 
am  sure  that  we  are  both  Queen's  men  at  bottom.1  But 
there  is  no  resisting  a  clinch — it  is  so  clever !  Apropos 
of  that — we  have  a  "  diphthong  "  also  in  this  part  of  the 
world — not  a  Greek^  but  a  Spanish  one — do  you  under- 
stand me  ? — which  is  about  to  blow  up  the  whole  alpha- 
bet. It  was  first  pronounced  at  Naples,  and  is  spreading ; 
but  we  are  nearer  the  barbarians,  who  are  in  great  force 
on  the  Po,  and  will  pass  it,  with  the  first  legitimate 

There  will  be  the  devil  to  pay,  and  there  is  no  saying 
who  will  or  who  will  not  be  set  down  in  his  bill.  If 
"  honour  should  come  unlooked  for "  2  to  any  of  your 
acquaintance,  make  a  Melody  of  it,  that  his  ghost,  like 
poor  Yorick's,  may  have  the  satisfaction  of  being  plain- 
tively pitied — or  still  more  nobly  commemorated,  like 
"  Oh  breathe  not  his  name."  3  In  case  you  should  not 
think  him  worth  it,  here  is  a  Chant  for  you  instead — 

When  a  man  hath  no  freedom  to  fight  for  at  home, 
Let  him  combat  for  that  of  his  neighbours ; 

Let  him  think  of  the  glories  of  Greece  and  of  Rome, 
And  get  knock'd  on  the  head  for  his  labours. 

1.  Moore  was  a  supporter  of  the   Queen.     In  his  Diary  for 
November  n,  1820  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.   168),  he  writes, 
"  The  decision  of  the  House  of  Lords  against  the  Queen  occupying 
"every  one's  mind  and  tongue.     What  a  barefaced  defiance  of  all 
"  law  and  justice,  and  what  precious  scoundrels  there  are  in  the 
"  high  places  of  the  world  !  " 

2.  Henry  IV.,  Part  I.  act  v.  sc.  3.     Compare  Pope's  Temple  of 
Fame,  line  $13. 

3.  Moore's  song,  of  which  the  first  stanza  runs  as  follows  : — 

"  O  breathe  not  his  name,  let  it  sleep  in  the  shade, 
Where  cold  and  unhonour'd  his  relics  are  laid  ; 
Sad,  silent,  and  dark  be  the  tears  that  we  shed, 
As  the  night-dew  that  falls  on  the  grass  o'er  his  head  ;  " 

appeared  in  No.  i.  of  the  Irish  Melodies, 

112          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

To  do  good  to  mankind  is  the  chivalrous  plan, 

And  is  always  as  nobly  requited ; 
Then  battle  for  freedom  wherever  you  can, 

And,  if  not  shot  or  hang'd,  you'll  get  knighted. 

So  you  have  gotten  the  letter  of  "  Epigrams  " — I  am 
glad  of  it.  You  will  not  be  so,  for  I  shall  send  you  more. 
Here  is  one  I  wrote  for  the  endorsement  of  "  the  Deed 
"  of  Separation  "  in  1816;  but  the  lawyers  objected  to  it, 
as  superfluous.  It  was  written  as  we  were  getting  up  the 
signing  and  sealing.  *  *  has  the  original. 

Endorsement  to  tJie  Deed  of  Separation^  in  tJie  April 
of  1816. 

A  year  ago  you  swore,  fond  she  ! 

"  To  love,  to  honour,"  and  so  forth : 
Such  was  the  vow  you  pledged  to  me, 

And  here's  exactly  what  'tis  worth. 

For  the  anniversary  of  January  2,  1821,  I  have  a 
small  grateful  anticipation,  which,  in  case  of  accident,  I 

To  Penelope ;  January  2,  1821. 

This  day,  of  all  our  days,  has  done 

The  worst  for  me  and  you : — 
'Tis  just  six  years  since  we  were  one, 

And  Jive  since  we  were  two. 

Pray  excuse  all  this  nonsense ;  for  I  must  talk  non- 
sense just  now,  for  fear  of  wandering  to  more  serious 
topics,  which,  in  the  present  state  of  things,  is  not  safe 
by  a  foreign  post. 

I  told  you  in  my  last,  that  I  had  been  going  on  with 


the  "Memoirs,"  and  have  got  as  far  as  twelve  more 
sheets.  But  I  suspect  they  will  be  interrupted.  In  that 
case  I  will  send  them  on  by  post,  though  I  feel  remorse 
at  making  a  friend  pay  so  much  for  postage,  for  we  can't 
frank  here  beyond  the  frontier. 

I  shall  be  glad  to  hear  of  the  event  of  the  Queen's 
concern.  As  to  the  ultimate  effect,  the  most  inevitable 
one  to  you  and  me  (if  they  and  we  live  so  long)  will  be 
that  the  Miss  Moores  and  Miss  Byrons  will  present  us 
with  a  great  variety  of  grandchildren  by  different  fathers. 

Pray,  where  did  you  get  hold  of  Goethe's  Florentine 
husband-killing  story  ?  Upon  such  matters,  in  general,  I 
may  say,  with  Beau  Clincher,  in  reply  to  Errand's  wife — 

"  Oh  the  villain,  he  hath  murdered  my  poor  Timothy  ! 

"  Clincher.  Damn  your  Timothy ! — I  tell  you,  woman, 
"your  husband  has  mitrdei-ed  me — he  has  carried  away 
"  my  fine  jubilee  clothes."  1 

So  Bowles  has  been  telling  a  story,  too  ('t  is  in  the 
Quarterly),  about  the  woods  of  "  Madeira,"  and  so  forth. 
I  shall  be  at  Bowles  again,  if  he  is  not  quiet.  He  mis- 
states, or  mistakes,  in  a  point  or  two.  The  paper  is 
finished,  and  so  is  the  letter. 

Yours,  etc. 

845. — To  John  Murray. 

R[avenn]a,  gbre  9°,  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY, — The  talent  you  approve  of  is  an 
amiable  one,  and  as  you  say  might  prove  "a  national 
"  Service,"  but  unfortunately  I  must  be  angry  with  a  man 
before  I  draw  his  real  portrait;  and  I  can't  deal  in 
"generals"  so  that  I  trust  never  to  have  provocation 

I .  Farquhar's  Constant  Couple,  or  a  Trip  to  the  Jubilee,  act  iv. 
sc.  I.  (For  Goethe's  story,  see  his  review  of  Manfred,  Appendix  II. 
p.  504.) 

VOL.  V.  I 

114          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

enough  to  make  a  Gallery,  If  "  the  person  "  had  not  by 
many  little  dirty  sneaking  traits  provoked  it,  I  should 
have  been  silent,  though  I  had  observed  him.  Here 
follows  an  alteration.  Put — 

Devil  with  such  delight  in  damning, 
That  if  at  the  resurrection 
Unto  him  the  free  selection 
Of  his  future  could  be  given, 
'Twould  be  rather  Hell  than  Heaven. 

That  is  to  say,  if  these  two  new  lines  do  not  too  much 
lengthen  out  and  weaken  the  amiability  of  the  original 
thought  and  expression.  You  have  a  discretionary  power 
about  showing :  I  should  think  that  Croker  and  D' Israeli 
would  not  disrelish  a  sight  of  these  light  little  humorous 
things,  and  may  be  indulged  now  and  then. 

D' Israeli  wrote  the  article  on  Spence :  I  know  him 
by  the  mark  in  his  mouth.  I  am  glad  that  the  Quarterly 
has  had  so  much  Classical  honesty  as  to  insert  it :  it  is 
good  and  true. 

Hobhouse  writes  me  a  facetious  letter  about  my 
indolence  and  love  of  Slumber.  It  becomes  him  :  he  is 
in  active  life ;  he  writes  pamphlets  against  Canning,  to 
which  he  does  not  put  his  name ;  he  gets  into  Newgate 
and  into  Parliament — both  honourable  places  of  refuge ; 
and  he  "  greatly  daring  dines "  at  all  the  taverns  (why 
don't  he  set  up  a  tap  room  at  once),  and  then  writes  to 
quiz  my  laziness. 

Why,  I  do  like  one  or  two  vices,  to  be  sure ;  but  I 
can  back  a  horse  and  fire  a  pistol  "  without  winking  or 
"  blinking  "  like  Major  Sturgeon ; l  I  have  fed  at  times  for 

I .  In  Foote's  Mayor  of  Garratt,  act  i.  sc.  I,  Major  Sturgeon  says, 
"  In  a  week  I  could  shoulder,  and  rest,  and  poise,  and  turn  to  the 
"  right,  and  wheel  to  the  left ;  and  in  less  than  a  month  I  could  fire 
"  without  winking  or  blinking." 

1820.]  A   QUARREL   BETWEEN    FRIENDS.  115 

two  months  together  on  sheer  biscuit  and  water  (without 
metaphor) ;  I  can  get  over  seventy  or  eighty  miles  a  day 
riding  post,  and  swim  five  at  a  Stretch,  taking  apiece  before 
and  after,  as  at  Venice,  in  1818,  or  at  least  I  could  do, 
and  have  done  it  ONCE,  and  I  never  was  ten  minutes  in 
my  life  over  a  solitary  dinner. 

Now,  my  friend  Hobhouse,  when  we  were  wayfaring 
men,  used  to  complain  grievously  of  hard  beds  and  sharp 
insects,  while  I  slept  like  a  top,  and  to  awaken  me  with 
his  swearing  at  them :  he  used  to  damn  his  dinners  daily, 
both  quality  and  cookery  and  quantity,  and  reproach 
me  for  a  sort  of  "  brutal "  indifference,  as  he  called  it, 
to  these  particulars;  and  now  he  writes  me  facetious 
sneerings  because  I  do  not  get  up  early  in  a  morning, 
when  there  is  no  occasion — if  there  were,  he  knows  that 
I  was  always  out  of  bed  before  him,  though  it  is  true 
that  my  ablutions  detained  me  longer  in  dressing  than 
his  noble  contempt  of  that  "  oriental  scrupulosity " 

Then  he  is  still  sore  about  "  the  ballad" — he  ! !  why, 
he  lampooned  me  at  Brighton,  in  1808,  about  Jackson 
the  boxer  and  bold  Webster,  etc. :  in  1809,  he  turned 
the  death  of  my  friend  E?  Long  into  ridicule  and  rhyme, 
because  his  name  was  susceptible  of  a.  pun  ;  and,  although 
he  saw  that  I  was  distressed  at  it,  before  I  left  England 
in  1816,  he  wrote  rhymes  upon  D.  Kinnaird,  you,  and 
myself;  and  at  Venice  he  parodied  the  lines  "  Though 
"  the  day  of  my  destiny's  over  "  1  in  a  comfortable  quizzing 
way  :  and  now  he  harps  on  my  ballad  about  his  election  ! 
Pray  tell  him  all  this,  for  I  will  have  no  underhand  work 
with  my  "  old  Cronies."  If  he  can  deny  the  facts,  let 
him.  I  maintain  that  he  is  more  carnivorously  and 
carnally  sensual  than  I  am,  though  I  am  bad  enough  too 
I.  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  73,  note  I. 

Il6          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

for  that  matter ;  but  not  in  eating  and  haranguing  at  the 
Crown  and  Anchor,  where  I  never  was  but  twice — and 
those  were  at  "  Whore's  Hops  "  when  I  was  a  younker  in 
my  teens ;  and,  Egad,  I  think  them  the  most  respectable 
meetings  of  the  two.  But  he  is  a  little  wroth  that  I 
would  not  come  over  to  the  Queetis  trial :  lazy,  quotha  ! 
it  is  so  true  that  he  should  be  ashamed  of  asserting  it. 
He  counsels  me  not  to  "  get  into  a  Scrape ; "  but,  as 
Beau  Clincher  says,  "How  melancholy  are  Newgate 
"  reflections  ! "  *  To  be  sure,  his  advice  is  worth  following ; 
for  experience  teacheth :  he  has  been  in  a  dozen  within 
these  last  two  years.  /  pronounce  me  tJie  more  temperate 
of  the  two. 

Have  you  gotten  The  Hints  yet  ? 

I  know  Henry  Matthews :  he  is  the  image,  to  the 
very  voice,  of  his  brother  Charles,  only  darker :  his  laugh 
his  in  particular.  The  first  time  I  ever  met  him  was  in 
Scrope  Davies's  rooms  after  his  brother's  death,  and  I 
nearly  dropped,  thinking  that  it  was  his  Ghost.  I  have 
also  dined  with  him  in  his  rooms  at  King's  College. 
Hobhouse  once  purposed  a  similar  memoir;  but  I  am 
afraid  that  the  letters  of  Charles's  correspondence  with  me 
(which  are  at  Whitton  with  my  other  papers)  would  hardly 
do  for  the  public  :  for  our  lives  were  not  over  strict,  and 
our  letters  somewhat  lax  upon  most  subjects. 

His  Superiority  over  all  his  cotemporaries  was  quite 
indisputable  and  acknowledged :  none  of  us  ever  thought 
of  being  at  all  near  Matthews;  and  yet  there  were 
some  high  men  of  his  standing — Bankes,  Bob  Milnes, 
Hobhouse,  Bailey,  and  many  others — without  numbering 
the  mere  Academical  men,  of  whom  we  hear  little  out 
of  the  University,  and  whom  he  beat  hollow  on  their 
own  Ground. 

I.    The  Constant  Ccnipk,  act  v.  sc.  2. 

1820.]  THE   POETRY   OF    KEATS.  Iiy 

His  gaining  the  Downing  Fellowship  was  the  com- 
pletest  thing  of  the  kind  ever  known.  He  carried  off 
both  declamation  prizes  :  in  short,  he  did  whatever  he 
chose.  He  was  three  or  four  years  my  Senior,  but  I 
lived  a  good  deal  with  him  latterly,  and  with  his  friends. 
He  wrote  to  me  the  very  day  of  his  death  (I  believe),  or 
at  least  a  day  before,  if  not  the  very  day.  He  meant 
to  have  stood  for  the  University  Membership.  He  was 
a  very  odd  and  humourous  fellow  besides,  and  spared 
nobody :  for  instance,  walking  out  in  Newstead  Garden, 
he  stopped  at  Boatswain's  monument  inscribed  "  Here 
"  lies  Boatswain,  a  Dog,"  etc.,  and  then  observing  a  blank 
marble  tablet  on  the  other  side,  "  So  (says  he)  there  is 
"  room  for  another  friend,  and  I  propose  that  the  Inscrip- 
"  tion  be  '  Here  lies  H — bh — se,  a  Pig,' "  etc.  You  may  as 
well  not  let  this  transpire  to  the  worthy  member,  lest  he 
regard  neither  his  dead  friend  nor  his  living  one,  with 
his  wonted  Suavity. 

Rose's  lines  must  be  at  his  own  option :  /can  have  no 
objection  to  their  publication.  Pray  salute  him  from  me. 

Mr.  Keats,  whose  poetry  you  enquire  after,  appears 
to  me  what  I  have  already  said  :  such  writing  is  a  sort  of 
mental  *  *  *  * — *  *******  his  Imagination.  I  don't 
mean  he  is  indecent^  but  viciously  soliciting  his  own  ideas 
into  a  state,  which  is  neither  poetry'  nor  any  thing  else 
but  a  Bedlam  vision  produced  by  raw  pork  and  opium. 
Barry  Cornwall  would  write  well,  if  he  would  let  himself. 
Croly  is  superior  to  many,  but  seems  to  think  himself 
inferior  to  Nobody. 

Last  week  I  sent  you  a  correspondence  with  Galig- 
nani,  and  some  documents  on  your  property.  You  have 
now,  I  think,  an  opportunity  of  cfiecking,  or  at  least 
limiting,  those  French  re-publications.  You  may  let  all 
your  authors  publish  what  they  please  against  me  or 

Il8          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

mine  ;  a  publisher  is  not,  and  cannot  be,  responsible  for 
all  the  works  that  issue  from  his  printer's. 

The  "  White  Lady  of  Avenel  "  is  not  quite  so  good 
as  a  real  well-aiithenticated  ^  Donna  bianca")  White  Lady 
of  Colalto?  or  spectre  in  the  Marca  Trivigiana,  who  has 
been  repeatedly  seen  :  there  is  a  man  (a  huntsman)  now 
alive  who  saw  her  also.  Hoppner  could  tell  you  all 
about  her,  and  so  can  Rose  perhaps.  I  myself  have  no 
doubt  of  the  fact,  historical  and  spectral.  She  always 
appeared  on  particular  occasions,  before  the  deaths  of 
the  family,  etc.,  etc.  I  heard  M?  Benzoni  say,  that  she 
knew  a  Gentleman  who  had  seen  her  cross  his  room  at 
Colalto  Castle.  Hoppner  saw  and  spoke  with  the 
Huntsman  who  met  her  at  the  Chase,  and  never  hunted 
afterwards.  She  was  a  Girl  attendant,  who,  one  day 
dressing  the  hair  of  a  Countess  Colalto,  was  seen  by  her 
mistress  to  smile  upon  her  husband  in  the  Glass.  The 
Countess  had  her  shut  up  in  the  wall  at  the  Castle,  like 
Constance  de  Beverley.  Ever  after,  she  haunted  them 
and  all  the  Colaltos.  She  is  described  as  very  beautiful 
and  fair.  It  is  well  authenticated. 


846. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Qbre  1 8°,  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY,—  The  death  of  Waite  2  is  a  shock  to 
the — teeth,  as  well  as  to  the  feelings  of  all  who  knew 

I.  The  White  Lady  of  Avenel,  in  Scott's  Monastery ;  mixed  much 
and  capriciously  in  the  affairs  of  the  world.  The  "fair  Christine," 
the  victim  of  a  jealous  mistress,  whose  story  Rogers  told  in  his  Italy 
("Coll'alto  "),  seems  a  more  legitimate  ghost.  Like  Constance  de 
Beverley  in  Marmion  (Canto  II.  stanzas  xx.-xxxiii.),  she  was 
immured  alive  in  the  wall. 

2.  The  fashionable  dentist  of  2,  Old  Burlington  Street.  "  Went," 
says  Lord  Byron,  "  to  Waite's.  Teeth  are  all  right  and  white  ;  but 

1820.]      DENTISTS,    BARBERS,   AND   WELLINGTON.  119 

him.  Good  God,  he  and  Blake l  both  gone  !  I  left  them 
both  in  the  most  robust  health,  and  little  thought  of  the 
national  loss  in  so  short  a  time  as  five  years.  They  were 
both  as  much  superior  to  Wellington  in  rational  great- 
ness, as  he  who  preserves  the  hair  and  the  teeth  is 
preferable  to  the  "  bloody  blustering  booby  "  who  gains 
a  name  by  breaking  heads  and  knocking  out  grinders. 
Who  succeeds  him  ?  where  is  tooth  powder  ?  mild  and 
yet  efficacious — where  is  tincture?  where  are  cleansing 
roots  and  brushes  now  to  be  obtained?  Pray  obtain 
what  information  you  can  upon  these  "  Tusculan  ques- 
"  tions  : "  my  jaws  ache  to  think  on't.  Poor  fellows  !  I 
anticipated  seeing  both  again ;  and  yet  they  are  gone  to 
that  place  where  both  teeth  and  hair  last  longer  than 
they  do  in  this  life.  I  have  seen  a  thousand  graves 
opened,  and  always  perceived,  that,  whatever  was  gone, 
the  teeth  and  hair  remained  of  those  who  had  died  with 
them.  Is  not  this  odd  ?  they  go  the  very  first  things  in 
youth,  and  yet  last  the  longest  in  the  dust,  if  people  will 
but  die  to  preserve  them  !  It  is  a  queer  life,  and  a  queer 
death,  that  of  mortals. 

I  knew  that  Waite  had  married,  but  little  thought 
that  the  other  decease  was  so  soon  to  overtake  him. 
Then  he  was  such  a  delight,  such  a  Coxcomb,  such  a 
Jewel  of  a  Man  !  There  is  a  taylor  at  Bologna  so  like  him, 
and  also  at  the  top  of  his  profession.  Do  not  neglect 
this  commission :  who  or  what  can  replace  him  ?  what 
says  the  public  ? 

"he  says  that  I  grind  them  in  my  sleep,  and  chip  the  edges." — 
Journal,  February  19,  1814  (Letters,  vol.  ii.  p.  387). 

I.         "  Write  but  like  Wordsworth — live  beside  a  lake, 
And  keep  your  bushy  locks  a  year  from  Blake." 

"As  famous  a  tonsor  as  Licinus  himself,  and  better  paid,  and 
"may,  like  him,  be  one  day  a  senator,  having  a  better  qualifica- 
"  tion  than  one  half  of  the  heads  he  crops,  viz. — Independence." — 
Hints  from  Horace,  1.  476,  Byron's  note ;  see  Poems,  vol.  i.  p.  422. 

120          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

I  remand  you  the  preface.  Don't  forget  that  the 
Italian  extract  from  the  Chronicle  must  be  translated. 
With  regard  to  what  you  say  of  retouching  the  Juans  and 
the  Hints ,  it  is  all  very  well ;  but  I  can't  furbish.  I  am 
like  the  tyger  (in  poesy),  if  I  miss  my  first  Spring,  I  go 
growling  back  to  my  Jungle.  There  is  no  second.  I 
can't  correct;  I  can't,  and  I  won't.  Nobody  ever 
succeeds  in  it,  great  or  small.  Tasso  remade  the  whole 
of  his  Jerusalem ;  but  who  ever  reads  that  version  ?  All 
the  world  goes  to  the  first  Pope  added  to  tlie  "  Rape  of 
" the  Lock"  but  did  not  reduce  it.  You  must  take  my 
things  as  they  happen  to  be  :  if  they  are  not  likely  to 
suit,  reduce  their  estimate  then  accordingly.  I  would 
rather  give  them  away  than  hack  and  hew  them.  I  don't 
say  that  you  are  not  right :  I  merely  assert  that  I  cannot 
better  them.  I  must  either  "  make  a  spoon,  or  spoil  a 
"  horn."  And  there's  an  end. 

The  parcel  of  the  second  of  June,  with  the  late  Edge- 
worth  and  so  forth,  has  never  arrived  :  parcels  of  a  later 
date  have,  of  which  I  have  given  you  my  opinions  in 
late  letters.  I  remit  you  what  I  think  a  Catholic  curi- 
osity— the  Pope's  brief,  authenticating  the  body  of  Saint 
Francis  of  Assisi,  a  town  on  the  road  to  Rome. 

Yours  ever, 

P.S. — Of  the  praises  of  that  little  dirty  blackguard 
Keates  in  the  Edinburgh,  I  shall  observe  as  Johnson  did 
when  Sheridan  the  actor  got  a  pension :  "  What !  has  he 
"  got  a  pension  ?  Then  it  is  time  that  I  should  give  up 
"  mine  !  "  *  Nobody  could  be  prouder  of  the  praises  of  the 

I.  "Johnson,  who  thought  slightingly  of  Sheridan's  art,  upon 
"hearing  that  he  was  also  pensioned,  exclaimed,  'What!  have 
"they  given  him  a  pension?  Then  it  is  time  for  me  to  give  up 
"mine!'  Whether  this  proceeded  from  a  momentary  indignation, 

1 820.]  A   CRICKET   MATCH    WITH    BOWLES.  121 

Edinburgh  than  I  was,  or  more  alive  to  their  censure,  as  I 
showed  in  E\tiglish~\  B\ards\  andS(cotcJi\  R\eviewers\.  At 
present  all  the  men  they  have  ever  praised  are  degraded 
by  that  insane  article.  Why  don't  they  review  and 
praise  "  Solomon's  Guide  to  Health  "  ? x  it  is  better  sense 
and  as  much  poetry  as  Johnny  Keates. 

Bowles  must  be  bowled  down :  'tis  a  sad  match  at 
Cricket,  if  that  fellow  can  get  any  Notches  at  Pope's 
expence.  If  he  once  gets  into  "  Lord's  ground,"  (to  con- 
tinue the  pun,  because  it  is  foolish,)  I  think  I  could  beat 
him  in  one  Innings.  You  did  not  know,  perhaps,  that  I 
was  once  (not  metaphorically,  but  really)  a  good  Cricketer, 
particularly  in  batting,  and  I  played  in  the  Harrow  match 
against  the  Etonians  in  1805,  gaining  more  notches  (as 
one  of  our  chosen  Eleven)  than  any,  except  L?  Ipswich 
and  Brookman,  on  our  side.2 

847. — To  John  Murray.3 

Ravenna,  9bre  19,  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — What  you  said  of  the  late  Charles 
Skinner  Matthews  has  set  me  to  my  recollections ;  but  I 
have  not  been  able  to  turn  up  any  thing  which  would  do 
for  the  purposed  Memoir  of  his  brother, — even  if  he  had 
previously  done  enough  during  his  life  to  sanction  the 
introduction  of  anecdotes  so  merely  personal.  He  was, 

"  as  if  it  were  an  affront  to  his  exalted  merit  that  a  player  should  be 
"  rewarded  in  the  same  manner  with  him,  or  was  the  sudden  effect 
"  of  a  fit  of  peevishness,  it  was  unluckily  said,  and,  indeed,  can- 
"not  be  justified."— BoswelFs  Johnson,  1763,  ed.  G.  B.  Hill,  vol.  i. 
PP-  385.  386. 

1.  Samuel   Solomon  was  notorious  for  his  "Cordial  Balm  of 
"  Gilead."    His  Guide  to  Health,  or  advice  to  both  sexes,  in  twenty- 
two  years  (1795-1817)  passed  into  its  sixty -sixth  edition. 

2.  See  Letters,  vol.  i.  p.  70. 

3.  This  letter  was,  by  an  error  of  judgment,  printed  in  Letters, 
vol.  i.  pp.  150-160.     It  is  now  reprinted  in  its  chronological  place  ; 
but  the  notes  there  given  have  not  been  repeated. 

122          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

however,  a  very  extraordinary  man,  and  would  have  been 
a  great  one.  No  one  ever  succeeded  in  a  more  surpassing 
degree  than  he  did  as  far  as  he  went.  He  was  indolent, 
too;  but  whenever  he  stripped,  he  overthrew  all  an- 
tagonists. His  conquests  will  be  found  registered  at 
Cambridge,  particularly  his  Downing  one,  which  was  hotly 
and  highly  contested,  and  yet  easily  won.  Hobhouse  was 
his  most  intimate  friend,  and  can  tell  you  more  of  him 
than  any  man.  William  Bankes  also  a  great  deal.  I  my- 
self recollect  more  of  his  oddities  than  of  his  academical 
qualities,  for  we  lived  most  together  at  a  very  idle  period 
of  my  life.  When  I  went  up  to  Trinity,  in  1805,  at  the 
age  of  seventeen  and  a  half,  I  was  miserable  and  untoward 
to  a  degree.  I  was  wretched  at  leaving  Harrow,  to  which 
I  had  become  attached  during  the  two  last  years  of  my 
stay  there ;  wretched  at  going  to  Cambridge  instead  of 
Oxford  (there  were  no  rooms  vacant  at  Christchurch) ; 
wretched  from  some  private  domestic  circumstances  of 
different  kinds,  and  consequently  about  as  unsocial  as  a 
wolf  taken  from  the  troop.  So  that,  although  I  knew 
Matthews,  and  met  him  often  then  at  Bankes's,  (who  was 
my  collegiate  pastor,  and  master,  and  patron,)  and  at 
Rhode's,  Milnes's,  Price's,  Dick's,  Macnamara's,  Farrell's, 
Gaily  Knight's,  and  others  of  that  set  of  contemporaries, 
yet  I  was  neither  intimate  with  him  nor  with  any  one 
else,  except  my  old  schoolfellow  Edward  Long  (with 
whom  I  used  to  pass  the  day  in  riding  and  swimming), 
and  William  Bankes,  who  was  good-naturedly  tolerant  of 
my  ferocities. 

It  was  not  till  1807,  after  I  had  been  upwards  of  a 
year  away  from  Cambridge,  to  which  I  had  returned 
again  to  reside  for  my  degree,  that  I  became  one  of 
Matthews's  familiars,  by  means  of  Hobhouse,  who,  after 
hating  me  for  two  years,  because  I  wore  a  white  hat,  and 

1820.]  MATTHEWS    AT   NEWSTEAD.  123 

a  grey  coat,  and  rode  a  grey  horse  (as  he  says  himself), 
took  me  into  his  good  graces  because  I  had  written  some 
poetry.  I  had  always  lived  a  good  deal,  and  got  drunk 
occasionally,  in  their  company — but  now  we  became 
really  friends  in  a  morning.  Matthews,  however,  was 
not  at  this  period  resident  in  College.  I  met  him  chiefly 
in  London,  and  at  uncertain  periods  at  Cambridge. 
Hobhouse,  in  the  mean  time,  did  great  things :  he 
founded  the  Cambridge  "  Whig  Club  "  (which  he  seems 
to  have  forgotten),  and  the  "Amicable  Society,"  which 
was  dissolved  in  consequence  of  the  members  constantly 
quarrelling,  and  made  himself  very  popular  with  "  us 
"  youth,"  and  no  less  formidable  to  all  tutors,  professors, 
and  heads  of  Colleges.  William  Bankes  was  gone ;  while 
he  stayed,  he  ruled  the  roast — or  rather  the  roasting — 
and  was  father  of  all  mischiefs. 

Matthews  and  I,  meeting  in  London,  and  elsewhere, 
became  great  cronies.  He  was  not  good  tempered — nor 
am  I — but  with  a  little  tact  his  temper  was  manageable, 
and  I  thought  him  so  superior  a  man,  that  I  was  willing 
to  sacrifice  something  to  his  humours,  which  were  often, 
at  the  same  time,  amusing  and  provoking.  What  became 
of  his  papers  (and  he  certainly  had  many),  at  the  time  of 
his  death,  was  never  known.  I  mention  this  by  the  way, 
fearing  to  skip  it  over,  and  as  he  wrote  remarkably  well, 
both  in  Latin  and  English.  We  went  down  to  Newstead 
together,  where  I  had  got  a  famous  cellar,  and  Monks' 
dresses  from  a  masquerade  warehouse.  We  were  a  com- 
pany of  some  seven  or  eight,  with  an  occasional  neighbour 
or  so  for  visiters,  and  used  to  sit  up  late  in  our  friars' 
dresses,  drinking  burgundy,  claret,  champagne,  and  what 
not,  out  of  the  skull-crip,  and  all  sorts  of  glasses,  and 
buffooning  all  round  the  house,  in  our  conventual  gar- 
ments. Matthews  always  denominated  me  "  the  Abbot," 

124          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

and  never  called  me  by  any  other  name  in  his  good 
humours,  to  the  day  of  his  death.  The  harmony  of 
these  our  symposia  was  somewhat  interrupted,  a  few 
days  after  our  assembling,  by  Matthews's  threatening  to 
throw  Hobhouse  out  of  a  window,  in  consequence  of  I 
know  not  what  commerce  of  jokes  ending  in  this  epigram. 
Hobhouse  came  to  me  and  said,  that  "  his  respect  and 
"  regard  for  me  as  host  would  not  permit  him  to  call  out 
"  any  of  my  guests,  and  that  he  should  go  to  town  next 
"  morning."  He  did.  It  was  in  vain  that  I  represented 
to  him  that  the  window  was  not  high,  and  that  the  turf 
under  it  was  particularly  soft.  Away  he  went. 

Matthews  and  myself  had  travelled  down  from  London 
together,  talking  all  the  way  incessantly  upon  one  single 
topic.  When  we  got  to  Loughborough,  I  know  not  what 
chasm  had  made  us  diverge  for  a  moment  to  some  other 
subject,  at  which  he  was  indignant.  "  Come,"  said  he, 
"  don't  let  us  break  through — let  us  go  on  as  we  began,  to 
"  our  journey's  end ;  "  and  so  he  continued,  and  was  as 
entertaining  as  ever  to  the  very  end.  He  had  previously 
occupied,  during  my  year's  absence  from  Cambridge,  my 
rooms  in  Trinity,  with  the  furniture ;  and  Jones,  the 
tutor,  in  his  odd  way,  had  said,  on  putting  him  in,  "  Mr. 
"  Matthews,  I  recommend  to  your  attention  not  to  damage 
"  any  of  the  moveables,  for  Lord  Byron,  Sir,  is  a  young  man 
"  of  tumultuous  passions"  Matthews  was  delighted  with 
this ;  and  whenever  anybody  came  to  visit  him,  begged 
them  to  handle  the  very  door  with  caution ;  and  used  to 
repeat  Jones's  admonition  in  his  tone  and  manner. 
There  was  a  large  mirror  in  the  room,  on  which  he 
remarked,  "  that  he  thought  his  friends  were  grown  un- 
"  commonly  assiduous  in  coming  to  see  him,  but  he  soon 
"  discovered  that  they  only  came  to  see  themselves"  Jones's 
phrase  of  <c tumultuous  passions"  and  the  whole  scene, 

1 820.]  MATTHEWS   AND   HOBHOUSE.  125 

had  put  him  into  such  good  humour,  that  I  verily  believe 
that  I  owed  to  it  a  portion  of  his  good  graces. 

When  at  Newstead,  somebody  by  accident  rubbed 
against  one  of  his  white  silk  stockings,  one  day  before 
dinner ;  of  course  the  gentleman  apologised.  "  Sir," 
answered  Matthews,  "it  may  be  all  very  well  for  you, 
"  who  have  a  great  many  silk  stockings,  to  dirty  other 
"  people's ;  but  to  me,  who  have  only  this  one  pair •,  which  I 
"  have  put  on  in  honour  of  the  Abbot  here,  no  apology  can 
"  compensate  for  such  carelessness;  besides,  the  expense  of 
"  washing."  He  had  the  same  sort  of  droll  sardonic  way 
about  every  thing.  A  wild  Irishman,  named  Farrell,  one 
evening  began  to  say  something  at  a  large  supper  at 
Cambridge,  Matthews  roared  out  "  Silence  ! "  and  then, 
pointing  to  Farrell,  cried  out,  in  the  words  of  the  oracle, 
"  Orson  is  endowed  with  reason"  You  may  easily  suppose 
that  Orson  lost  what  reason  he  had  acquired,  on  hearing 
this  compliment.  When  Hobhouse  published  his  volume 
of  poems,  the  Miscellany  (which  Matthews  would  call  the 
"  Miss-sell-any"},  all  that  could  be  drawn  from  him  was, 
that  the  preface  was  "extremely  like  Walsh"  Hob- 
house  thought  this  at  first  a  compliment ;  but  we  never 
could  make  out  what  it  was,  for  all  we  know  of  Walsh 
is  his  Ode  to  King  William,  and  Pope's  epithet  of 
'•'•knowing  Walsh"  When  the  Newstead  party  broke 
up  for  London,  Hobhouse  and  Matthews,  who  were  the 
greatest  friends  possible,  agreed,  for  a  whim,  to  walk 
together  to  town.  They  quarrelled  by  the  way,  and 
actually  walked  the  latter  half  of  the  journey,  occasionally 
passing  and  repassing,  without  speaking.  When  Matthews 
had  got  to  Highgate,  he  had  spent  all  his  money  but 
three-pence  halfpenny,  and  determined  to  spend  that  also 
in  a  pint  of  beer,  which  I  believe  he  was  drinking  before 
a  public-house,  as  Hobhouse  passed  him  (still  without 

126          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

speaking)  for  the  last  time  on  their  route.     They  were 
reconciled  in  London  again. 

One  of  Matthews's  passions  was  "  the  fancy ; "  and  he 
sparred  uncommonly  well.  But  he  always  got  beaten  in 
rows,  or  combats  with  the  bare  fist.  In  swimming,  too, 
he  swam  well ;  but  with  effort  and  labotirt  and  too  high 
out  of  the  water ;  so  that  Scrope  Davies  and  myself,  of 
whom  he  was  therein  somewhat  emulous,  always  told  him 
that  he  would  be  drowned  if  ever  he  came  to  a  difficult 
pass  in  the  water.  He  was  so ;  but  surely  Scrope  and 
myself  would  have  been  most  heartily  glad  that 

"the  Dean  had  lived, 
And  our  prediction  proved  a  lie. " 

His  head  was  uncommonly  handsome,  very  like  what 
Pope's  was  in  his  youth. 

His  voice,  and  laugh,  and  features,  are  strongly  re- 
sembled by  his  brother  Henry's,  if  Henry  be  he  of  King's 
College.  His  passion  for  boxing  was  so  great,  that  he 
actually  wanted  me  to  match  him  with  Dogherty  (whom 
I  had  backed  and  made  the  match  for  against  Tom 
Belcher),  and  I  saw  them  spar  together  at  my  own 
lodgings  with  the  gloves  on.  As  he  was  bent  upon  it,  I 
would  have  backed  Dogherty  to  please  him,  but  the  match 
went  off.  It  was  of  course  to  have  been  a  private  fight, 
in  a  private  room. 

On  one  occasion,  being  too  late  to  go  home  and 
dress,  he  was  equipped  by  a  friend  (Mr.  Baillie,  I  believe,) 
in  a  magnificently  fashionable  and  somewhat  exaggerated 
shirt  and  neckcloth.  He  proceeded  to  the  Opera,  and 
took  his  station  in  Fop's  Alley.  During  the  interval 
between  the  opera  and  the  ballet,  an  acquaintance  took 
his  station  by  him  and  saluted  him  :  "  Come  round,"  said 
Matthews,  "  come  round."  — "  Why  should  I  come 
"  round  ?  "  said  the  other ;  "  you  have  only  to  turn  your 

1 820.]  MATTHEWS   AT   CAMBRIDGE.  127 

"  head — I  am  close  by  you." — "  That  is  exactly  what  I 
"  cannot  do,"  said  Matthews ;  "  don't  you  see  the  state  I  am 
"  in  ?  "  pointing  to  his  buckram  shirt  collar  and  inflexible 
cravat, — and  there  he  stood  with  his  head  always  in  the 
same  perpendicular  position  during  the  whole  spectacle. 

One  evening,  after  dining  together,  as  we  were  going 
to  the  Opera,  I  happened  to  have  a  spare  Opera  ticket 
(as  subscriber  to  a  box),  and  presented  it  to  Matthews. 
"  Now,  sir,"  said  he  to  Hobhouse  afterwards,  "  this  I  call 
"  courteoiis  in  the  Abbot — another  man  would  never  have 
"  thought  that  I  might  do  better  with  half  a  guinea  than 
"  throw  it  to  a  door-keeper ; — but  here  is  a  man  not  only 
"  asks  me  to  dinner,  but  gives  me  a  ticket  for  the  theatre." 
These  were  only  his  oddities,  for  no  man  was  more  liberal, 
or  more  honourable  in  all  his  doings  and  dealings,  than 
Matthews.  He  gave  Hobhouse  and  me,  before  we  set 
out  for  Constantinople,  a  most  splendid  entertainment,  to 
which  we  did  ample  justice.  One  of  his  fancies  was 
dining  at  all  sorts  of  out-of-the-way  places.  Somebody 
popped  upon  him  in  I  know  not  what  coffee-house  in 
the  Strand — and  what  do  you  think  was  the  attraction  ? 
Why,  that  he  paid  a  shilling  (I  think)  to  dine  -with  his  hat 
on.  This  he  called  his  "  hat  house,"  and  used  to  boast 
of  the  comfort  of  being  covered  at  meal  times. 

When  Sir  Henry  Smith  was  expelled  from  Cam- 
bridge for  a  row  with  a  tradesman  named  "Hiron," 
Matthews  solaced  himself  with  shouting  under  Hiron's 
windows  every  evening, 

"  Ah  me  !  what  perils  do  environ 
The  man  who  meddles  with  hot  Hiron" 

He  was  also  of  that  band  of  profane  scoffers  who, 
under  the  auspices  of  *  *  *  *,  used  to  rouse  Lort  Mansel 
(late  Bishop  of  Bristol)  from  his  slumbers  in  the  lodge  of 
Trinity ;  and  when  he  appeared  at  the  window  foaming 

128          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

with  wrath,  and  crying  out,  "  I  know  you,  gentlemen,  I 
"  know  you  ! "  were  wont  to  reply,  "  We  beseech  thee  to 
"  hear  us,  good  Lort !  " — "  Good  Lort  deliver  us  !  "  (Lort 
was  his  Christian  name.)  As  he  was  very  free  in  his 
speculations  upon  all  kinds  of  subjects,  although  by  no 
means  either  dissolute  or  intemperate  in  his  conduct,  and 
as  I  was  no  less  independent,  our  conversation  and  cor- 
respondence used  to  alarm  our  friend  Hobhouse  to  a 
considerable  degree. 

You  must  be  almost  tired  of  my  packets,  which  will 
have  cost  a  mint  of  postage. 

Salute  Gifford  and  all  my  friends. 


?. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  gbre  23°,  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY, — There  have  arrived  the  preface,  the 
translation — the  first  sixteen  pages,  also  from  page  sixty- 
five  to  ninety-six;  but  no  intermediate  sheets  from  ye.  six- 
teenth to  sixty-fifth  page.  I  apprize  you  of  this,  in  case 
any  such  should  have  been  sent. 

I  hope  that  the  printer  will  perfectly  understand 
where  to  insert  some  three  or  four  additional  lines,  which 
Mr.  Gifford  has  had  the  goodness  to  copy  out  in  his  own 

The  translation  is  extremely  well  done,  and  I  beg  to 
present  my  thanks  and  respects  to  Mr.  Cohen  for  his 
time  and  trouble.  The  old  Chronicle  Style  is  far  better 
done  than  I  could  have  done  it :  some  of  the  old  words 
are  past  the  understanding  even  of  the  present  Italians. 
Perhaps  if  Foscolo  was  to  cast  a  glance  over  it,  he  could 
rectify  such,  or  confirm  them. 

Your  two  volume  won't  do  :  the  first  is  very  well,  but 

1 8  20.] 



the  second  must  be  anonymous,  and  the  first  with  the 
name,  which  would  make  a  confusion  or  an  identity,  both 
of  which  ought  to  be  avoided.  You  had  better  put  the 
Doge,  Dante,  etc.,  into  one  volume,  and  bring  out  the 
other  soon  afterwards,  but  not  on  the  same  day. 

The  Hints,  Hobhouse  says,  will  require  a  good  deal 
of  slashing,  to  suit  the  times,  which  will  be  a  work  of 
time,  for  I  don't  feel  at  all  laborious  just  now.  What- 
ever effect  they  are  to  have  would  perhaps  be  greater  in 
a  separate  form,  and  they  also  must  have  my  name  to 
them.  Now,  if  you  publish  them  in  the  same  volume 
with  "Don  jfuan"  they  identify  Don  yuan  as  mine, 
which  I  don't  think  worth  a  Chancery  Suit  about  my 
daughter's  guardianship ;  as  in  your  present  code  a  face- 
tious poem  is  sufficient  to  take  away  a  man's  rights  over 
his  family. 

I  regret  to  hear  that  the  Queen  has  been  so  treated 
on  the  second  reading  of  her  bill. 

Of  the  state  of  things  here  it  would  be  difficult  and 
not  very  prudent  to  speak  at  large,  the  Huns  opening  all 
letters :  I  wonder  if  they  can  read  them  when  they  have 
opened  them  ?  if  so,  they  may  see,  in  my  most  legible 
hand,  that  I  think  them  damned  scoundrels  and  bar- 
barians, their  emperor  a  fool,  and  themselves  more  fools 
than  he ;  all  which  they  may  send  to  Vienna,  for  anything 
I  care.  They  have  got  themselves  masters  of  the  Papal 
police,  and  are  bullying  away  j  but  some  day  or  other 
they  will  pay  for  it  all.  It  may  not  be  very  soon,  because 
these  unhappy  Italians  have  no  union  nor  consistency 
among  themselves ;  but  I  suppose  Providence  will  get 
tired  of  them  at  last,  and  show  that  God  is  not  an 

Ever  yours  truly, 

VOL.  V.  K 

130          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

P.S. — I  enclosed  a  letter  to  you  for  Lady  B.  on 
business  some  time  ago  :  did  you  receive  and  forward  it  ? 
Adopt  Mr.  Gifford's  alterations  in  the  proofs. 

849. — To  John  Hanson. 

Ravenna,  9ble  30°.  1820. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  have  received  your  letter  with  Coun- 
sel's opinion  upon  the  Appeal.1  You  had  better  then 
enter  the  Appeal  immediately  not  to  lose  further  time. 

Mr.  Kinnaird  acted  by  my  directions  about  Col. 
Leigh's  bond.2 

Let  me  hope  that  the  Blessington  Mortgage  will 
proceed  without  further  delays. 

You  have  my  full  directions  to  proceed  in  making 
Mr.  Claughton  fulfil  his  payments. 

I  do  not  know  whether  it  will  be  best  to  send  a 
Courier  to  Ravenna  with  the  deeds,  or  to  send  them  by 
the  post.  Consult  weight  and  security,  and  adopt  the 
mode  which  will  be  most  speedy. 

The  Scotch  deeds  directions  I  do  not  understand,  not- 
withstanding all  the  pencil  marks ;  but  I  will  try  to  sign 
them  correctly. 

My  "rough  rebukes,"  as  you  call  them,  have  been 
excited  by  the  not  very  smooth  delays,  which  have  inter- 
vened. What  can  a  man  say  at  such  a  distance  to  you 
gentlemen  of  the  law  ?  You  best  know  how  far  they  are 

I  shall  be  very  glad  to  hear  any  good  news,  and,  with 
respects  and  remembrances  to  Charles  and  all  your  family, 
I  am,  yours  very  truly  and  faithfully, 


1.  I.e.  in  the  Rochdale  lawsuit.     (See  p.  62,  note  2.) 

2.  Byron  had  advanced  money  to  Colonel  Leigh,  and  now  made 
the  loan  a  gift  by  directing  the  bond  to  be  cancelled. 

l820.]  DISCRETIONARY   POWER.  131 

850. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  Dec.  9,  1820. 

Besides  this  letter,  you  will  receive  three  packets, 
containing,  in  all,  18  more  sheets  of  Memoranda,  which, 
I  fear,  will  cost  you  more  in  postage l  than  they  will  ever 
produce  by  being  printed  in  the  next  century.  Instead 
of  waiting  so  long,  if  you  could  make  any  thing  of  them 
now  in  the  way  of  reversion,  (that  is,  after  my  death,)  I 
should  be  very  glad, — as,  with  all  due  regard  to  your 
progeny,  I  prefer  you  to  your  grandchildren.  Would  not 
Longman  or  Murray  advance  you  a  certain  sum  Jtow, 
pledging  themselves  not  to  have  them  published  till  after 
my  decease,  think  you  ? — and  what  say  you  ? 

Over  these  latter  sheets  I  would  leave  you  a  dis- 
cretionary power ; 2  because  they  contain,  perhaps,  a 
thing  or  two  which  is  too  sincere  for  the  public.  If  I 
consent  to  your  disposing  of  their  reversion  now,  where 
would  be  the  harm  ?  Tastes  may  change.  I  would,  in 
your  case,  make  my  essay  to  dispose  of  them,  not  publish, 
now ;  and  if  you  (as  is  most  likely)  survive  me,  add  what 
you  please  from  your  own  knowledge;  and,  above  a//, 
contradict  any  thing,  if  I  have  wu-stated ;  for  my  first 
object  is  the  truth,  even  at  my  own  expense. 

I  have  some  knowledge  of  your  countryman  Muley 
Moloch,3  the  lecturer.  He  wrote  to  me  several  letters 

1.  "  Forty-six  francs  and  a  half,"  according  to  Moore's  Diary  for 
December  22,  1820  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  182). 

2.  "  The  power  here  meant  is  that  of  omitting  passages  that  might 
"  be  thought  objectionable.     He  afterwards  gave  me  this,  as  well  as 
"  every  other  right,  over  the  whole  of  the  manuscript "  (Moore). 

3.  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  416,  note  \.     Mulock  was  at  this  time 
lecturing  on  English  literature  in  Paris.     Moore  attended  three  of 
the   lectures.      November  6,    1820  :    "  Took   Bessy   in   to   attend 
"  Mulock's   first   lecture  on   English  literature ;  flumen  verborum 
" guttula  mentis"  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  166).     November  17, 
1820:    "Went  in  with  Bessy  to  Mulock's  lecture.     Absurd  and 
"  false  from  beginning  to  end.      Dryden  was  no  poet  ;  Butler  had 


upon  Christianity,  to  convert  me ;  and,  if  I  had  not  been 
a  Christian  already,  I  should  probably  have  been  now, 
in  consequence.  I  thought  there  was  something  of  wild 
talent  in  him,  mixed  with  a  due  leaven  of  absurdity, — as 
there  must  be  in  all  talent,  let  loose  upon  the  world, 
without  a  martingale. 

The  ministers  seem  still  to  persecute  the  Queen 
*  *  *  .  b^  they  won>f  gO  out}  the  sons  of  b — es>  Damn 

Reform — I  want  a  place — what  say  you  ?  You  must 
applaud  the  honesty  of  the  declaration,  whatever  you 
may  think  of  the  intention. 

I  have  quantities  of  paper  in  England,  original  and 
translated — tragedy,  etc.,  etc.,  and  am  now  copying  out  a 
fifth  canto  of  Don  Juan,  149  stanzas.  So  that  there  will 
be  near  three  thin  Albemarle,  or  two  thick  volumes  of  all 
sorts  of  my  Muses.  I  mean  to  plunge  thick,  too,  into 
the  contest  upon  Pope,  and  to  lay  about  me  like  a  dragon 
till  I  make  manure  of  Bowles  for  the  top  of  Parnassus. 

These  rogues  are  right — we  do  laugh  at  fathers — eh  ? 
— don't  we  ?  l  You  shall  see — you  shall  see  what  things 

"  no  originality  ;  and  Locke  was  '  of  the  school  of  the  devil,1  both 
"in  his  philosophy,  politics,  and  Christianity"  (ibid.,  p.  169). 
December  n,  1820  :  "  Went  into  town  to  Mulock's  lecture.  Find 
"  that  he  praised  me  in  his  discourse  on  the  living  poets,  the  other 
"day,  exceedingly;  set  me  at  the  head  of  them  all,  near  Lord 
"  Byron,  who,  he  says,  is  the  only  person  in  the  world  who  seems 
"  to  have  any  proper  notion  of  religion  !  In  alluding  to  Lalla 
"  Rookh,  he  said,  'As  for  his  Persian  poem  (I  forget  the  name  of 
"it),  I  really  never  could  read  it.'  The  lecture  to-day  upon  evan- 
"  gelical  literature  and  religion  in  general  ;  mere  verbiage  "  (ibid., 
p.  1 78).  Mulock's  faith  in  Byron's  religious  feeling  was  not  shaken 
by  Cain.  His  letter  to  the  Morning  Post  and  "  Lines  to  Lord 
"  Byron  "  therefore  seem  worth  quoting.  See  Appendix  IV. 

I.  "  He  here  alludes  to  a  humorous  article,  of  which  I  had  told 
"  him,  in  Blackwood's  Magazine,  where  the  poets  of  the  day  were  all 
"  grouped  together  in  a  variety  of  fantastic  shapes,  with  '  Lord  Byron 
"  and  little  Moore  laughing  behind,  as  if  they  would  split,'  at  the 
"rest  of  the  fraternity  "  (Moore).  The  quotation  is  from  "  Shuffle- 
"  botham's  Dream  "  (Blackwood's  Edinburgh.  Magazine  for  October, 
1820,  pp.  3-7). 

1820.]  MURDER   OF   DEL  PINTO.  133 

I'll  say,  an'  it  pleases  Providence  to  leave  us  leisure. 
But  in  these  parts  they  are  all  going  to  war ;  and  there  is 
to  be  liberty,  and  a  row,  and  a  constitution — when  they 
can  get  them.  But  I  won't  talk  politics — it  is  low.  Let 
us  talk  of  the  Queen,  and  her  bath,  and  her  bottle — that's 
the  only  motley  nowadays. 

If  there  are  any  acquaintances  of  mine,  salute  them. 
The  priests  here  are  trying  to  persecute  me, — but  no 

Yours,  etc. 

851. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  Dec.  9,  1820. 

I  open  my  letter  to  tell  you  a  fact,1  which  will  show 
the  state  of  this  country  better  than  I  can.  The  com- 
mandant of  the  troops  is  now  lying  dead  in  my  house. 
He  was  shot  at  a  little  past  eight  o'clock,  about  two 
hundred  paces  from  my  door.2  I  was  putting  on  my 
great-coat  to  visit  Madame  la  Contessa  G.  when  I  heard 
the  shot.  On  coming  into  the  hall,  I  found  all  my 
servants  on  the  balcony,  exclaiming  that  a  man  was 
murdered.  I  immediately  ran  down,  calling  on  Tita 
(the  bravest  of  them)  to  follow  me.  The  rest  wanted  to 

1.  "  The  other  evening  ('twas  on  Friday  last) — 

This  is  a  fact,  and  no  poetic  fable — 
Just  as  my  great  coat  was  about  me  cast, 

My  hat  and  gloves  still  lying  on  the  table, 
I  heard  a  shot — 'twas  eight  o'clock  scarce  past — 

And  running  out  as  fast  as  I  was  able, 
I  found  the  military  commandant 
Stretch'd  in  the  street,  and  able  scarce  to  pant." 

Don  yuan,  Canto  V.  stanza  xxxiii. 
The  commandant's  name  was  Del  Pinto  (Moore's  Life,  p.  472). 

2.  From  information  given  to  Mr.  Richard  Edgcumbe  by  Sante 
Savini,  who  was  living  at  Ravenna  at  the  time,  the  murder  took 
place  at  the  corner  of  the  street  leading  out  of  the  present  Via 
Cavour  to  the  Church  of  San  Vitale. 

134          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

hinder  us  from  going,  as  it  is  the  custom  for  every  body 
here,  it  seems,  to  nm  away  from  "  the  stricken  deer." 

However,  down  we  ran,  and  found  him  lying  on  his 
back,  almost,  if  not  quite,  dead,  with  five  wounds ;  one 
in  the  heart,  two  in  the  stomach,  one  in  the  finger,  and 
the  other  in  the  arm.  Some  soldiers  cocked  their  guns, 
and  wanted  to  hinder  me  from  passing.  However,  we 
passed,  and  I  found  Diego,  the  adjutant,  crying  over  him 
like  a  child — a  surgeon,  who  said  nothing  of  his  pro- 
fession— a  priest,  sobbing  a  frightened  prayer — and  the 
commandant,  all  this  time,  on  his  back,  on  the  hard,  cold 
pavement,  without  light  or  assistance,  or  any  thing  around 
him  but  confusion  and  dismay. 

As  nobody  could,  or  would,  do  any  thing  but  howl 
and  pray,  and  as  no  one  would  stir  a  finger  to  move  him, 
for  fear  of  consequences,  I  lost  my  patience — made  my 
servant  and  a  couple  of  the  mob  take  up  the  body — sent 
off  two  soldiers  to  the  guard — despatched  Diego  to  the 
Cardinal  with  the  news,  and  had  the  commandant  carried 
upstairs  into  my  own  quarter.1  But  it  was  too  late,  he 
was  gone — not  at  all  disfigured — bled  inwardly — not 
above  an  ounce  or  two  came  out. 

I  had  him  partly  stripped — made  the  surgeon  examine 
him,  and  examined  him  myself.  He  had  been  shot  by 
cut  balls  or  slugs.  I  felt  one  of  the  slugs,  which  had 
gone  through  him,  all  but  the  skin.  Everybody  con- 
jectures why  he  was  killed,  but  no  one  knows  how.  The 
gun  was  found  close  by  him — an  old  gun,  half  filed  down. 

He  only  said,  0  Dio  !  and  Gesu  !  two  or  three  times, 

I.  "  Poor  fellow  !  for  some  reason,  surely  bad, 

They  had  slain  him  with  five  slugs,  and  left  him  there 
To  perish  on  the  pavement :  so  I  had 

Him  borne  into  the  house,  and  up  the  stair, 
And  stripp'd  and  look'd  to,"  etc. 

Don  Juan,  Canto  V.  stanza  xxxiv. 

1 820.]  A   QUEER   PEOPLE.  135 

and  appeared  to  have  suffered  very  little.  Poor  fellow  ! 
he  was  a  brave  officer,  but  had  made  himself  much  dis- 
liked by  the  people.  I  knew  him  personally,  and  had 
met  with  him  often  at  conversazioni  and  elsewhere.  My 
house  is  full  of  soldiers,  dragoons,  doctors,  priests,  and 
all  kinds  of  persons, — though  I  have  now  cleared  it, 
and  clapt  sentinels  at  the  doors.  To-morrow  the  body 
is  to  be  moved.  The  town  is  in  the  greatest  confusion, 
as  you  may  suppose. 

You  are  to  know  that,  if  I  had  not  had  the  body 
moved,  they  would  have  left  him  there  till  morning  in 
the  street,  for  fear  of  consequences.  I  would  not  choose 
to  let  even  a  dog  die  in  such  a  manner,  without  succour : — 
and,  as  for  consequences,  I  care  for  none  in  a  duty. 

Yours,  etc. 

P.S. — The  lieutenant  on  duty  by  the  body  is  smoking 
his  pipe  with  great  composure. — A  queer  people  this. 

852. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  D"?  9^  1820. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  intended  to  have  written  to  you 
at  some  length  by  this  post,  but  as  the  Military  Com- 
mandant is  now  lying  dead  in  my  house,  on  Fletcher's 
bed,  I  have  other  things  to  think  of. 

He  was  shot  at  8  o'Clock  this  evening  about  two 
hundred  paces  from  our  door.  I  was  putting  on  my 
great  Coat  to  pay  a  visit  to  the  Countess  G.,  when  I 
heard  a  shot,  and  on  going  into  the  hall,  found  all  my 
servants  on  the  balcony  exclaiming  that  "a  Man  was 
"murdered."  As  it  is  the  custom  here  to  let  people 
fight  it  through,  they  wanted  to  hinder  me  from  going 
out ;  but  I  ran  down  into  the  Street :  Tita,  the  bravest 
of  them,  followed  me ;  and  we  made  our  way  to  the 

136          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

Commandant,  who  was  lying  on  his  back,  with  five  wounds, 
of  which  three  in  the  body — one  in  the  heart.  There 
were  about  him  Diego,  his  Adjutant,  crying  like  a  Child ; 
a  priest  howling ;  a  Surgeon  who  dared  not  touch  him ; 
two  or  three  confused  and  frightened  Soldiers;  one  or 
two  of  the  boldest  of  the  mob ;  and  the  Street  dark  as 
pitch,  with  the  people  flying  in  all  directions.  As  Diego 
could  only  cry  and  wring  his  hands,  and  the  Priest  could 
only  pray,  and  nobody  seemed  able  or  willing  to  do  any- 
thing except  exclaim,  shake  and  stare,  I  made  my  Servant 
and  one  of  the  mob  take  up  the  body ;  sent  off  Diego 
crying  to  the  Cardinal,  the  Soldiers  for  the  Guard ;  and 
had  the  Commandant  conveyed  up  Stairs  to  my  own 
quarters.  But  he  was  quite  gone.  I  made  the  Surgeon 
examine  him,  and  examined  him  myself.  He  had  bled 
inwardly,  and  very  little  external  blood  was  apparent. 
One  of  the  Slugs  had  gone  quite  through — all  but  the 
Skin :  I  felt  it  myself.  Two  more  shots  in  the  body,  one 
in  a  finger,  and  another  in  the  arm.  His  face  not  at  all 
disfigured :  he  seems  asleep,  but  is  growing  livid.  The 
Assassin  has  not  been  taken ;  but  the  gun  was  found — a 
gun  filed  down  to  half  the  barrel. 

He  said  nothing  but  O  Dio  I  and  0  Gesu  two  or 
three  times. 

The  house  was  filled  at  last  with  Soldiers,  officers, 
police,  and  military ;  but  they  are  clearing  away — all  but 
the  Sentinels,  and  the  body  is  to  be  removed  tomorrow. 
It  seems  that,  if  I  had  not  had  him  taken  into  my  house, 
he  might  have  lain  in  the  Streets  till  morning ;  as  here 
nobody  meddles  with  such  things,  for  fear  of  the  con- 
sequences— either  of  public  suspicion,  or  private  revenge 
on  the  part  of  the  Slayers.  They  may  do  as  they  please : 
I  shall  never  be  deterred  from  a  duty  of  humanity  by  all 
the  assassins  of  Italy,  and  that  is  a  wide  word. 

1820.]         A  LETTER  FROM  ROGERS.  137 

He  was  a  brave  officer,  but  an  unpopular  man.  The 
whole  town  is  in  confusion. 

You  may  judge  better  of  things  here  by  this  detail, 
than  by  anything  which  I  could  add  on  the  Subject: 
communicate  this  letter  to  Hobhouse  and  Douglas  K?, 
and  believe  me 

Yours  ever  truly, 

P.S. — The  poor  Man's  wife  is  not  yet  aware  of  his 
death  :  they  are  to  break  it  to  her  in  the  morning. 

The  Lieutenant,  who  is  watching  the  body,  is  smoak- 
ing  with  the  greatest  Sangfroid:  a  strange  people. 

853. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra    iQbre  ,o?    ig2o> 

D?  M., — I  wrote  to  you  by  last  post.  Acknow- 
ledge that  and  this  letter,  which  you  are  requested  to 
forward  immediately. 

Yours  truly, 

P.S.— I  have  finished  fifth  Canto  of  D.  J. ;  l  143 
Stanzas.  So  prepare. 

854. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  lobrf  14?  1820. 

DEAR  MORAY, — As  it  is  a  month  since  I  have  had 
any  packets  of  proofs,  I  suppose  some  must  have  mis- 
carried. Today  I  had  a  letter  from  Rogers? 

1.  Canto  V.  of  Don  Juan,  begun  October  1 6,  1820,  was  published 
with  Cantos  III.,  IV.,  at  the  end  of  1821,  anonymously. 

2.  The  following  is  the  letter  from  Rogers.     By  his  allusion  to 
an  "  Eastern  Tale,"  he  refers  to  an  unpublished  portion  of  Vathfk, 

138          THE  PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

The  fifth  Canto  of  D.  J.  is  now  under  copy :  it  con- 
sists of  151  Stanzas.  I  want  to  know  what  the  devil  you 
mean  to  do  ? 

which  Beckford  had  read  to  him  at  Fonthill,  and  the  loan  of  which 
Byron  asked  in  his  letter  to  Rogers  of  March  3,  1818  (Letters, 
vol.  iv.  p.  209,  note  l).  "Kalilah  and  his  sister"  are  among  the 
persons  whom  Vathek  and  Nouronihar  meet  in  the  Halls  of  Eblis, 
and  the  history  of  Kalilah  and  Zulkais,  as  Beckford  told  Redding, 
was  among  the  episodes  written  for  insertion  in  Vathek  (see  Dr. 
Garnett's  Introduction  to  Vathek,  ed.  1893,  p.  v.) : — 

"  London,  NoV  23,  1820. 

"  MY  DEAR  BYRON, — In  the  78th  year  of  the  Hegyra — 1120  years 

'  and  some  odd  months  ago — I  received  a  very  delightful  letter  from 

'  Venice  to  which  I  have  written  at  least  fifty  answers, — answers 

'  regularly  consigned  with  a  Psha  !  to  that  element  to  which  Virgil 

'  and  Tasso  condemned  things  of  a  little  more  value.     I  am  now 

'  however  (under  the  influence  of  a  yellow  fog)  resolved  to  inflict 

"upon  you  whatever  comes  first.     Moore  might  have  told  you  of 

"still  more  serious  designs  against  your  peace  last  year.     I  had 

' '  taken  out  my  pass-book  and  said  goodbye  to  my  friends,  when  the 

"sea  suddenly  struck  me  as  unnavigable,  the  Alps  as  impassable, 

"and  a  bilious  fit  came  on  that  nothing  could  remove  but  calomel 

'and  nitrous  acid.    Next  year  however  I  am  determined  to  find 

'  you  out,  co&te  gue  cozite,  and  pour  into  your  ear  a  thousand  things 

'  I  cannot   write.     Your   commission  with  regard  to   certain  un- 

'  imaginable  fancies  in  the  shape  of  an  Eastern  Tale,  the  Loves  of 

'  Kalilah  and  Zulkais,  I  executed  most  faithfully — would  I  could 

'  say  successfully  ;  he  hesitated,  half  consented  and  concluded  with 

'  saying  that  he  hoped  they  would  induce  you  to  venture  within  the 

'  walls  of  his  Abbey — the  place  of  their  birth,  and  from  which  they 

'had  never  wandered.     His  daughter  is  now  on  her  way  to  the 

'  Rospigliosi  Palace  at  Rome,  and  I  have  half  promised  to  eat  my 

'  Christmas  dinner  with  her  there  in  the  hall  of  the  Aurora — but 

'  alas  !     Last  night  I  had  a  long  conversation   on  a  sofa  with   a 

"person  you  must  remember  well — Lady  W"  Russell.     It  was  at 

"  the  eleventh  hour.     How  were  you  employed  at  that  moment,  for 

"she  was  speaking  of  you?     London  saw  all  the  Poets  this  year — 

"but  two, — Moore  and  another.     Campbell  is  just  now  at  Bonn  on 

"the  Rhine.     Wordsworth  returned  last  week  from  a  journey  up 

"that  noble  river  to  Switzerland  and  the  Italian  Lakes.     Southey 

"  is  printing  a  Poem  and  a  Life  ;   Scott,  his  Kcnilworth    Castle. 

"  What  Moore  is  about  you  may  know  better  than  I  do  ;  I  hope  he 

"  will  soon  be  as  free  as  air.     Frere  is  gone  by  sea  to  Malta  with  a 

'sick  wife.     An  article  in  the  last  Quarterly  on  Mitchell's  Aristo- 

1  phanes  is  his.     Lord  Holland  is  again  on  his  crutches,  but  as  gay 

'as  ever.     He  desires   to   be   most   kindly   remembered   to   you. 

'  What  is  to  become  of  Naples  ?  of  England  ?    Of  the  last  you  know 

'  at  least  as  much  as  we  do.    Whether  the  Ministers  go  out — whether 

1 820.]          RISK  OF  A  MASSACRE.  139 

By  last  post  I  wrote  to  you,  detailing  the  murder  of 
the  Commandant  here.  I  picked  him  up  shot  in  the 
Street  at  8  in  the  Evening;  and  perceiving  that  his 
adjutant  and  the  Soldiers  about  him  had  lost  their  heads 
completely  with  rage  and  alarm,  I  carried  him  to  my 
house,  where  he  lay  a  corpse  till  next  day,  when  they 
removed  him.  Did  you  receive  this  my  letter?  They 
thought  a  row  was  coming — and  indeed  it  was  likely — in 
which  the  Soldiers  would  have  been  massacred.  As  I 
am  well  with  the  Liberals  of  the  Country,  it  was  another 
reason  for  me  to  succour  them;  for  I  thought  that,  in 
case  of  a  tumult,  I  could,  by  my  personal  influence  with 
some  of  the  popular  Chiefs,  protect  these  surrounded 
soldiers,  who  are  but  five  or  six  hundred  against  five  and 
twenty  thousand  :  and  you  see,  few  as  they  are,  that  they 
keep  picking  them  off  daily.  It  is  as  dangerous  for  that, 
as  ever  it  was  in  the  middle  ages.  They  are  a  fierce 
people,  and  at  present  roused ;  and  the  end  no  one  can 

As  you  don't  deserve  a  longer  letter,  nor  any  letter  at 
all,  I  conclude. 


'  the  Queen  is  to  have  a  palace  or  a  vote  of  censure — whether  the 
'  King  is  ill  or  well — comfortable  or  miserable,  dying  or  love-sick — I 
'  know  no  more  than  old  Ali  blockaded  in  his  tower.  Farewell, 
'  my  dear  Byron  ;  very  soon  I  shall  write  again,  for  I  have  no  more 
'  right  to  a  letter  from  you  than  to  the  crown  of  Persia.  Farewell, 
'  and  believe  me  to  be 

"  Ever  yours  very  affectionately, 


"The  report  of  your  being  seen  in  a  curricle  in  Parliament  Street 
'  produced  as  great  a  sensation  as  her  Majesty's  first  appearance, 
'  and  I  am  very  sure  you  would  have  been  as  warmly  welcomed. 
'  The  world  is  on  tiptoe  to  see  you  in  any  shape.  In  the  mean 
'  time  a  forgery  or  two  is  issuing  from  the  press  to  gratify  the  most 
'  impatient." 

140          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

P.S. — The  Officers  came  in  a  body  to  thank  me,  etc., 
etc. ;  but  they  might  as  well  have  let  it  alone ;  for,  in  the 
first  place,  it  was  but  for  a  common  act  of  decency,  and, 
in  the  next,  their  coming  may  put  me  in  odium  with  the 
liberals ;  and,  in  that  case,  it  would  do  them  no  good, 
nor  me  either. 

The  other  night  (since  the  assassination),  Fletcher  was 
stopped  three  times  in  the  Street ;  but,  on  perceiving  who 
he  was,  they  apologized  and  bade  him  pass  on:  the 
querists  were  probably  on  the  look  out  for  Somebody ; 
they  are  very  indefatigable  in  such  researches. 

Send  me  proofs  of  tJie  Hints ;  that  I  may  correct  them 
or  alter.  You  are  losing  (like  a  Goose)  the  best  time 
for  publishing  the  Dante  and  the  Tragedy :  now  is  the 
moment  for  Italian  subjects. 

855. — To  Francis  Hodgson. 

Ravenna,  22,  1820. 

MY  DEAR  HODGSON, — My  sister  tells  me  that  you 
desire  to  hear  from  me.  I  have  not  written  to  you  since 
I  left  England,  nearly  five  years  ago.  I  have  no  excuse 
for  this  silence  except  laziness,  which  is  none.  Where  I 
am  my  date  will  tell  you ;  what  I  have  been  doing  would 
but  little  interest  you,  as  it  regards  another  country 
and  another  people,  and  would  be  almost  speaking 
another  language,  for  my  own  is  not  quite  so  familiar  to 
me  as  it  used  to  be. 

We  have  here  the  sepulchre  of  Dante  and  the  forest 
of  Dryden  and  Boccaccio,  all  in  very  poetical  preserva- 
tion. I  ride  and  write,  and  have  here  some  Italian 
friends  and  connections  of  both  sexes,  horses  and  dogs, 
and  the  usual  means  and  appliances  of  life,  which  passes 
chequered  as  usual  (and  with  all)  with  good  and  evil. 

1820.]  St)ME   OLD    FRIENDS.  141 

Few  English  pass  by  this  place,  and  none  remain,  which 
renders  it  a  much  more  eligible  residence  for  a  man  who 
would  rather  see  them  in  England  than  out  of  it ;  they 
are  best  at  home ;  for  out  of  it  they  but  raise  the  price  of 
the  necessaries  and  vices  of  other  countries,  and  carry 
little  back  to  their  own,  except  such  things  as  you  have 
lately  seen  and  heard  of  in  the  Queen's  trial. 

Your  friend  Denman  *  is  making  a  figure.  I  am  glad 
of  it ;  he  had  all  the  auguries  of  a  superior  man  about 
him  before  I  left  the  country.  Hobhouse  is  a  Radical, 
and  is  doing  great  things  in  that  somewhat  violent  line  of 
politics.  His  intellect  will  bear  him  out ;  but,  though  I 
do  not  disapprove  of  his  cause,  I  by  no  means  envy  him 
his  company.  Our  friend  Scrope  2  is  dished,  diddled,  and 
done  up ;  what  he  is  our  mutual  friends  have  written  to 
me  somewhat  more  coldly  than  I  think  our  former  con- 
nections with  him  warrant :  but  where  he  is  I  know  not, 
for  neither  they  nor  he  have  informed  me.  Remember 
me  to  Harry  Drury.  He  wrote  to  me  a  year  ago  to 
subscribe  to  the  Harrow  New  School  erection ; 3  but 
my  name  has  not  now  value  enough  to  be  placed  among 

1.  Thomas  Denman  (1779-1854),  created  (1834)  first  Lord  Denman, 
and  Lord  Chief  Justice  (1832),  defended  the  queen  as  her  solicitor- 
general,  though  his  unfortunate  peroration,  alluding  to  the  story  of 
the  woman  taken  in  adultery,  gave  rise  to  the  epigram — 

"  Most  gracious  queen,  we  thee  implore 
To  go  away  and  sin  no  more ; 
Or,  if  that  effort  be  too  great, 
To  go  away  at  any  rate." 

A  brilliant  scholar,  Denman  had  been  a  member  of  a  "social  club 
"or  circle,"  to  which  Hodgson,  Drury,  Bland,  Merivale,  and  others 

2.  For  Scrope  Davies,  see  Letters,  vol.  i.  p.  165,  note  2.     Ruined 
at  play,  he  had  escaped  to  the  Continent. 

3.  In  1819  and  1820,  at  a  cost  of  upwards  of  ^5000,  a  new  wing, 
containing  speech-room,  class-rooms,  and  library,  was  added  to  the 
old    School.— Harrow  School  (1898),   edited  by  E.  W.  Howson 
and  G.  T.  Warner,  p.  33. 

142          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

my  old  schoolfellows,  and  as  to  the  trifle  which  can  come 
from  a  solitary  subscriber,  that  is  not  worth  mentioning. 
Some  zealous  politicians  wrote  to  me  to  come  over  to 
the  Queen's  trial ;  it  was  a  business  with  which  I  should 
have  been  sorry  to  have  had  anything  to  do ;  in  which 
they  who  voted  her  guilty  cut  but  a  dirty  figure.  .  .  . 
Such  a  coroner's  inquest  upon  criminal  conversation  has 
nothing  very  alluring  in  it,  and  I  was  obliged  to  her  for 
personal  civilities  (when  in  England),  and  would  there- 
fore rather  avoid  sitting  in  judgment  upon  her,  either  for 
guilt  or  innocence,  as  it  is  an  ungracious  office. 

Murray  sent  me  your  Friends,  which  I  thought 
very  good  and  classical.  The  scoundrels  of  scribblers 
are  trying  to  run  down  Pope,  but  I  hope  in  vain.  It  is 
my  intention  to  take  up  the  cudgels  in  that  controversy, 
and  to  do  my  best  to  keep  the  Swan  of  Thames  in  his 
true  place.  This  comes  of  Southey  and  Wordsworth  and 
such  renegade  rascals  with  their  systems.  I  hope  you 
will  not  be  silent ;  it  is  the  common  concern  of  all  men 
of  common  sense,  imagination,  and  a  musical  ear.  I 
have  already  written  somewhat  thereto  and  shall  do 
more,  and  will  not  strike  soft  blows  in  a  battle.  You 
will  have  seen  that  the  Quarterly  has  had  the  sense  and 
spirit  to  support  Pope  in  an  article  upon  Bowles;  it 
is  a  good  beginning.  I  do  not  know  the  author  of  that 
article,  but  I  suspect  Israeli,  an  indefatigable  and  an  able 
writer.  What  are  you  about — poetry?  I  direct  to 
Bakewell,  but  I  do  not  know  for  certain.  To  save  you 
a  double  letter,  I  close  this  with  the  present  sheet. 

Yours  ever, 

1820.]  A   PROJECTED   NEWSPAPER.  143 

856. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  Dec.  25,  1820. 

You  will  or  ought  to  have  received  the  packet  and 
letters  which  I  remitted  to  your  address  a  fortnight  ago 
(or  it  may  be  more  days),  and  I  shall  be  glad  of  an 
answer,  as,  in  these  times  and  places,  packets  per  post 
are  in  some  risk  of  not  reaching  their  destination. 

I  have  been  thinking  of  a  project  for  you  and  me,  in 
case  we  both  get  to  London  again,  which  (if  a  Neapolitan 
war  don't  suscitate)  may  be  calculated  as  possible  for  one 
of  us  about  the  spring  of  1821.  I  presume  that  you,  too, 
will  be  back  by  that  time,  or  never ;  but  on  that  you  will 
give  me  some  index.  The  project,  then,  is  for  you  and 
me  to  set  up  jointly  a  newspaper^ — nothing  more  nor  less 
— weekly,  or  so,  with  some  improvement  or  modifications 
upon  the  plan  of  the  present  scoundrels,  who  degrade 
that  department,— but  a  newspaper,  which  we  will  edite  in 
due  form,  and,  nevertheless,  with  some  attention. 

There  must  always  be  in  it  a  piece  of  poesy  from  one 
or  other  of  us  two,  leaving  room,  however,  for  such 
dilettanti  rhymers  as  may  be  deemed  worthy  of  appearing 
in  the  same  column :  but  this  must  be  a  sine  q^^a  non  ; 
and  also  as  much  prose  as  we  can  compass.  We  will 
take  an  office — our  names  not  announced,  but  suspected — 
and,  by  the  blessing  of  Providence,  give  the  age  some 
new  lights  upon  policy,  poesy,  biography,  criticism, 
morality,  theology,  and  all  other  ism,  ality,  and  ology 

I.  Moore,  in  his  Diary,  January  12,  1821,  says,  "A  letter  from 
' '  Lord  Byron  yesterday ;  in  which  he  tells  me  of  his  intention  to 
"  visit  England  next  spring,  and  proposes  (as  a  means  of  paying  my 
"debts)  that  he  and  I  should  set  up  a  newspaper  together  on  his 
"arrival  there"  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  189;  see  also  ibid.,  p. 
285).  In  1812  Moore  had  made  the  same  proposal  to  Byron. 

144          THE   PALAZZO  GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

Why,  man,  if  we  were  to  take  to  this  in  good 
earnest,  your  debts  would  be  paid  off  in  a  twelvemonth, 
and,  by  dint  of  a  little  diligence  and  practice,  I  doubt 
not  that  we  could  distance  the  common-place  black- 
guards who  have  so  long  disgraced  common  sense  and 
the  common  reader.  They  have  no  merit  but  practice 
and  impudence,  both  of  which  we  may  acquire ;  and,  as 
for  talent  and  culture,  the  devil's  in't  if  such  proofs  as 
we  have  given  of  both  can't  furnish  out  something  better 
than  the  "funeral  baked  meats"  which  have  coldly  set 
forth  the  breakfast  table  of  all  Great  Britain  for  so  many 
years.  Now,  what  think  you?  Let  me  know;  and 
recollect  that,  if  we  take  to  such  an  enterprise,  we  must 
do  so  in  good  earnest.  Here  is  a  hint, — do  you  make  it 
a  plan.  We  will  modify  it  into  as  literary  and  classical  a 
concern  as  you  please,  only  let  us  put  out  our  powers 
upon  it,  and  it  will  most  likely  succeed.  But  you  must 
live  in  London,  and  I  also,  to  bring  it  to  bear,  and  we 
must  keep  it  a  secret. 

As  for  the  living  in  London,  I  would  make  that  not 
difficult  to  you  (if  you  would  allow  me),  until  we  could 
see  whether  one  means  or  other  (the  success  of  the  plan, 
for  instance)  would  not  make  it  quite  easy  for  you,  as 
well  as  your  family;  and,  in  any  case,  we  should  have 
some  fun,  composing,  correcting,  supposing,  inspecting, 
and  supping  together  over  our  lucubrations.  If  you 
think  this  worth  a  thought,  let  me  know,  and  I  will  begin 
to  lay  in  a  small  literary  capital  of  composition  for  the 

Yours  ever  affectionately, 

P.S. — If  you  thought  of  a  middle  plan  between  a  Spec- 
tator and  a  newspaper,  why  not  ? — only  not  on  a  Sunday. 



Not  that  Sunday  is  not  an  excellent  day,  but  it  is  engaged 
already.  We  will  call  it  the  "  Tenda  Rossa," *  the  name 
Tassoni  gave  an  answer  of  his  in  a  controversy,  in  allusion 
to  the  delicate  hint  of  Timour  the  Lame,  to  his  enemies, 
by  a  "  Tenda  "  of  that  colour,  before  he  gave  battle.  Or 
we  will  call  it  Git,  or  /  Carbonari,  if  it  so  please  you 
— or  any  other  name  full  of  "  pastime  and  prodigality," 
which  you  may  prefer.  *  *  Let  me  have  an 
answer.  I  conclude  poetically,  with  the  bellman,  "A 
"  merry  Christmas  to  you  ! " 

857. — To  John  Murray. 

R?  i0i>re  28°  1820. 

D*  M., — I  have  had  no  communication  from  you 
of  any  kind  since  the  second  reading  of  the  Queen's  bill. 
I  write  merely  to  apprize  you  that,  by  this  Post,  I  have 
transmitted  to  Mr.  Douglas  Kinnaird  the  fifth  Canto  of 
Don  Juan ;  and  you  will  apply  (if  so  disposed)  to  him 
for  it.  It  consists  of  155  Octave  Stanzas,  with  a  few 

I  wrote  to  you  several  times,  and  told  you  of  the 

I .  Alessandro  Tassoni  ( 1 565-1635),  a  native  of  Modena,  published, 
in  1622,  La  Secchia  Rapita,  a  mock-heroic  poem,  which  was  the 
forerunner  of  Boileau's  Lutrin  and  Pope's  Rape  of  tlie  Lock.  The 
allusion  is  explained  by  the  following  extract  from  the  Vita  di 
Alessandro  Tassoni  (p.  xxiv. )  of  Muratori  : — 

"  Al  veder  questo  nuovo  assalto  comincie  il  Tassoni  a  perder  la 
'  pazienza,  e  montogli  la  senape  al  naso.  II  perche  preso  1'esempio 
'  di  Tamerlano,  che  nelle  sue  guerre,  ed  assedi  esponeva  prima  una 
'  Tenda  bianca  in  segno  di  general  perdono ;  nell'  altro  dl  una 
'  Tenda  rossa  per  indizio  di  morte  a  chi  avesse  preso  1'armi  contra 
'  di  lui,  e  nel  terzo  dl  una  Tenda  ncra  per  segno  di  un  totale  ester- 
'minio  d'  ogni  sesso,  ed  eta  :  pubblico  anch'  egli  nell1  anno  1613 
'  un  Libro  in  Modena  (benche  nel  Frontispizio  si  legga  in  Fran- 
'  cofort)  con  questo  titolo :  Tenda  Rossa,  risposta  di  Girolamo 
Nomisenti  a  i  Dialoghi  di  Falcidio  Melampodio." 

VOL.  V.  L 

146          THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XX. 

various  events,  assassinations,  etc.,  which  have  occurred 
here.     War  is  certain.     If  you  write,  write  soon. 


P.S. — Did  you  receive  two  letters,  etc.,  from  Galig- 
nani  to  me,  which  I  enclosed  to  you  long  ago  ?  I  sup- 
pose your  answer  must  have  been  intercepted,  as  they 
were  of  importance  to  you,  and  you  would  naturally  have 
acknowledged  their  arrival. 



FEBRUARY    27,    1 82 1. 

Ravenna,  January  4,  1821. 

"  A  SUDDEN  thought  strikes  me."  Let  me  begin  a  Journal 
once  more.  The  last  I  kept  was  in  Switzerland,  in 
record  of  a  tour  made  in  the  Bernese  Alps,  which  I 
made  to  send  to  my  sister  in  1816,  and  I  suppose  that 
she  has  it  still,  for  she  wrote  to  me  that  she  was  pleased 
with  it.  Another,  and  longer,  I  kept  in  1813-1814, 
which  I  gave  to  Thomas  Moore  in  the  same  year. 

This  morning  I  gat  me  up  late,  as  usual — weather 
bad — bad  as  England — worse.  The  snow  of  last  week 
melting  to  the  sirocco  of  to-day,  so  that  there  were  two 
damned  things  at  once.  Could  not  even  get  to  ride  on 
horseback  in  the  forest.  Stayed  at  home  all  the  morning 
— looked  at  the  fire — wondered  when  the  post  would 
come.  Post  came  at  the  Ave  Maria,  instead  of  half-past 
one  o'clock,  as  it  ought.  Galignani's  Messengers,  six  in 
number — a  letter  from  Faenza,  but  none  from  England. 
Very  sulky  in  consequence  (for  there  ought  to  have  been 
letters),  and  ate  in  consequence  a  copious  dinner;  for 
when  I  am  vexed,  it  makes  me  swallow  quicker — but 
drank  very  little. 

I  was  out  of  spirits — read  the  papers — thought  what 
fame  was,  on  reading,  in  a  case  of  murder,  that  "Mr, 


EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

"  Wych,  grocer,  at  Tunb ridge,  sold  some  bacon,  flour, 
"  cheese,  and,  it  is  believed,  some  plums,  to  some  gipsy 
"  woman  accused.  He  had  on  his  counter  (I  quote  faith- 
"  fully)  a  book,  the  Life  of  Pamela,  which  he  was  tearing 
"  for  waste  paper,  etc.,  etc.  In  the  cheese  was  found,  etc., 
"  and  a  leaf  of  Pamela  wrapt  round  tfic  bacon"  What 
would  Richardson,1  the  vainest  and  luckiest  of  living 

I.  Samuel  Richardson  (1689-1761)  used  to  say  of  Fielding  that 
"had  he  not  known  who  Fielding  was,  he  should  have  believed  he 
"was  an  ostler  "  (Boswell's  Life  of  Johnson,  ed.  G.  B.  Hill,  vol.  ii. 
p.  174).  In  his  Correspondence  (vol.  vi.  p.  154)  he  says,  "  Poor 
"Fielding!  I  could  not  help  telling  his  sister  that  I  was  equally 
"surprised  at  and  concerned  for  his  continued  lowness."  Again, 
writing  to  Mrs.  Donnellan,  February  22,  1752,  Richardson  says 
(ibid,,  vol.  iv.  p.  59),  "  Mr.  Fielding  has  over-written  himself,  or 
"rather  under-written  ;  and  in  his  own  journal  seems  ashamed  of 
"his  last  piece;  and  has  promised  that  the  same  Muse  shall  write 
"  no  more  for  him.  The  piece,  in  short,  is  as  dead  as  if  it  had 
"  been  published  forty  years  ago,  as  to  sale." 

Speaking  of  Richardson's  vanity,  Dr.  Johnson  told  Mrs.  Piozzi 
(Atitobiography  of  Mrs.  Piozzi,  ed.  Hay  ward,  vol.  i.  p.  311)  that 
Richardson  ' '  died  merely  from  want  of  change  among  his  flatterers ; 
"he  perished  for  want  of  more,  like  a  man  obliged  to  breathe  the 
"same  air  till  it  is  exhausted." 

Boswell  illustrates  the  same  feature  in  Richardson's  character  in 
the  following  note  (Life  of  Dr.  Johnson,  vol.  iv.  pp.  28,  29,  note  7)  : 
"  One  day  at  his  country  house  at  Northend,  where  a  large  company 
"  was  assembled  at  dinner,  a  gentleman  who  was  just  returned  from 
"  Paris,  willing  to  please  Mr.  Richardson,  mentioned  to  him  a 
"  very  flattering  circumstance, — that  he  had  seen  his  Clarissa  lying  on 
"  the  King's  brother's  table.  Richardson,  observing  that  part  of  the 
"company  were  engaged  in  talking  to  each  other,  affected  then  not 
"  to  attend  to  it.  But  by  and  by,  when  there  was  a  general  silence, 
"  and  he  thought  that  the  flattery  might  be  fully  heard,  he  addressed 
"  himself  to  the  gentleman,  '  I  think,  sir,  you  were  saying  something 

"about '  pausing  in  a  high  flutter  of  expectation.  The  gentle- 

"  man,  provoked  at  his  inordinate  vanity,  resolved  not  to  indulge  it, 
"and  with  an  exquisitely  sly  air  of  indifference,  answered,  'A  mere 
"trifle,  sir,  not  worth  repeating.'  " 

Among  Richardson's  flatterers  was  Aaron  Hill  (1685-1750), 
whose  correspondence  with  Pope  is  published  in  Pope's  Works,  ed. 
Courthope,  vol.  x.  pp.  1-78.  He  gratified  Richardson,  as  well  as  his 
own  feelings,  by  abusing  Pope.  Thus,  writing,  September  10,  1 744,  to 
Richardson,  he  says,  "Mr.  Pope,  as  you  with  equal  keenness  and 
"  propriety  express  it,  is  gone  out.  I  told  a  friend  of  his,  who  sent 
"  me  the  first  news  of  it,  that  I  was  very  sorry  for  his  death,  because 
"  I  doubted  whether  he  would  live  to  recover  the  accident.  Indeed, 

1 82 1.]  THE   SEXTON   OF   AUTHORSHIP.  149 

authors  (i.e.  while  alive) — he  who,  with  Aaron  Hill,  used 
to  prophesy  and  chuckle  over  the  presumed  fall  of 
Fielding l  (the  prose  Homer  of  human  nature)  and  of 
Pope  (the  most  beautiful  of  poets) — what  would  he  have 
said,  could  he  have  traced  his  pages  from  their  place  on 
the  French  prince's  toilets  (see  Boswell's  Johnson)  to  the 
grocer's  counter  and  the  gipsy-murderess's  bacon  ! ! ! 

What  would  he  have  said  ?  What  can  any  body  say, 
save  what  Solomon  said  long  before  us  ?  After  all,  it  is 
but  passing  from  one  counter  to  another,  from  the  book- 
seller's to  the  other  tradesman's — grocer  or  pastry-cook. 
For  my  part,  I  have  met  with  most  poetry  upon  trunks ; 
so  that  I  am  apt  to  consider  the  trunk-maker  as  the 
sexton  of  authorship. 

Wrote  five  letters  in  about  half  an  hour,  short  and 
savage,  to  all  my  rascally  correspondents.  Carriage 
came.  Heard  the  news  of  three  murders  at  Faenza  and 
Forli — a  carabinier,  a  smuggler,  and  an  attorney — all 
last  night.  The  two  first  in  a  quarrel,  the  latter  by 

Three  weeks  ago — almost  a  month — the  7th  it  was — 
I  picked  up  the  commandant,  mortally  wounded,  out  of 

"  it  gives  me  no  surprise,  to  find  you  thinking  he  was  in  the  wane  of 
"his  popularity.  It  arose,  originally,  but  from  meditated  little  per- 
"sonal  assiduities,  and  a  certain  bladdery  swell  of  management." 

I.  Byron  admired  Fielding's  democratic  spirit.  See  Detached 
Thoughts,  No.  116.  Johnson  (Boswell's  Life,  ed.  G.  B.  Hill,  vol.  ii. 
p.  48),  comparing  Fielding  with  Richardson,  says,  "  There  is  all 
'  the  difference  in  the  world  between  characters  of  nature  and 
'  characters  of  manners ;  and  there  is  the  difference  between  the 
'  characters  of  Fielding  and  those  of  Richardson."  He  disparaged 
Melding  as  much  as  he  admired  Richardson. 

On  the  other  hand,  S.  T.  Coleridge  exclaims,  "What  a 
'master  of  composition  Fielding  was  !  Upon  my  word,  I  think 
'  the  CEdipus  Tyrannus,  the  Alchemist,  and  Tom  Jones,  the  three 
'  most  perfect  plots  ever  planned.  And  how  charming,  how  whole- 
'some,  Fielding  always  is!  To  take  him  up  after  Richardson  is 
'like  emerging  from  a  sick-room,  heated  by  stoves,  into  an  open 
'lawn,  on  a  breezy  day  in  May." — Table  Talk  (July  5,  1834). 

150  EXTRACTS   FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

the  street ;  he  died  in  my  house ;  assassins  unknown,  but 
presumed  political.  His  brethren  wrote  from  Rome  last 
night  to  thank  me  for  having  assisted  him  in  his  last 
moments.  Poor  fellow !  it  was  a  pity ;  he  was  a  good 
soldier,  but  imprudent.  It  was  eight  in  the  evening 
when  they  killed  him.  We  heard  the  shot ;  my  servants 
and  I  ran  out,  and  found  him  expiring,  with  five  wounds, 
two  whereof  mortal — by  slugs  they  seemed.  I  examined 
him,  but  did  not  go  to  the  dissection  next  morning. 

Carriage  at  8  or  so — went  to  visit  La  Contessa  G. — 
found  her  playing  on  the  piano-forte — talked  till  ten, 
when  the  Count,  her  father,  and  the  no  less  Count,  her 
brother,  came  in  from  the  theatre.  Play,  they  said, 
Alfieri's  Fileppo  x — well  received. 

Two  days  ago  the  King  of  Naples  passed  through 
Bologna  on  his  way  to  congress.2  My  servant  Luigi 

1.  Alfieri's  'Fileppo  appeared  in  1783.   The  scene  is  laid  at  Madrid, 
in   1568.      Philip   II.,   Don    Carlos,   and   Elizabeth    daughter   of 
Henry  II.  of  France,  once  betrothed  to  Don  Carlos,  but  afterwards 
the  third  wife  of  Philip  II.,  are  the  principal  characters.     Ranieri 
de'   Calsabigi,  writing  to   Alfieri,  August  20,    1783,   calls   Philip 
"the  Spanish  Tiberius,"  and  quotes  Tacitus's  description  of  the 
emperor,      Alfieri,  in  his  reply,   September  6,   1783,  accepts   the 
parallel  and  the  model.     Possibly  this  correspondence  may  have 
suggested  to  Byron  the  choice  of  Tiberius  (see  p.  189)  as  a  subject  for 
a  play. 

2.  That  is,  to  the  Congress  at  Laybach.    After  the  outbreak  of  the 
Spanish  Revolution  of  March,  1820,  the  Czar  (April  18)  proposed 
that   the  sovereigns  of  Europe  should  jointly  intervene  to  uphold 
monarchical  principles.     The  opposition  of  England  prevented  inter- 
vention ;  but  the  project  was  revived  after  the  Neapolitan  Revolution 
in  July,   1820.      Though  England   again   protested,  a  meeting   of 
sovereigns  was  arranged    at    Troppau,   in   Bohemia,   in    October. 
There  the  Czar,  the  Emperor  of  Austria,  and  the  Prince  of  Prussia 
sanctioned   the  principle  of  joint  intervention  by  the  three  allied 
sovereigns  to  resist,  and,  if  necessary,  suppress,  all  popular  changes. 
This  principle  was  to  be  at  once  applied  in  the  case  of  Naples.     On 
the  invitation  of  the  allied  sovereigns,  King  Ferdinand  of  Naples 
met  them  at  Laybach,  in  Carniola,  in  January,  1821.     By  a  letter, 
which  reached  Naples  February  q,  the  Duke  of  Calabria,  as  viceroy, 
was  informed  that  these  Powers  would  not  tolerate  a  constitution 
sprung  from  revolution,  and  that,  as  a  pledge  of  order,  the  country 

1 82 1.]  ADDITION   TO   FAMILY   OF   VICES.  151 

brought  the  news.     I  had  sent  him  to  Bologna  for  a  lamp. 
How  will  it  end  ?    Time  will  show. 

Came  home  at  eleven,  or  rather  before.  If  the  road 
and  weather  are  comfortable,  mean  to  ride  to-morrow. 
High  time — almost  a  week  at  this  work — snow,  sirocco, 
one  day — frost  and  snow  the  other — sad  climate  for  Italy. 
But  the  two  seasons,  last  and  present,  are  extraordinary. 
Read  a  Life  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci  by  Rossi l — ruminated 
— wrote  this  much,  and  will  go  to  bed. 

January  5,  1821. 

Rose  late — dull  and  drooping — the  weather  dripping 
and  dense.  Snow  on  the  ground,  and  sirocco  above  in 
the  sky,  like  yesterday.  Roads  up  to  the  horse's  belly, 
so  that  riding  (at  least  for  pleasure)  is  not  very  feasible. 
Added  a  postscript  to  my  letter  to  Murray.  Read  the 
conclusion,  for  the  fiftieth  time  (I  have  read  all  W.  Scott's 
novels  at  least  fifty  times),  of  the  third  series  of  Tales  of 
my  Landlord — grand  work — Scotch  Fielding,  as  well  as 
great  English  poet — wonderful  man !  I  long  to  get 
drunk  with  him. 

Dined  versus  six  o'  the  clock.  Forgot  that  there  was 
a  plum-pudding,  (I  have  added,  lately,  eating  to  my 
"  family  of  vices,")  and  had  dined  before  I  knew  it. 
Drank  half  a  bottle  of  some  sort  of  spirits — probably 
spirits  of  wine;  for  what  they  call  brandy,  rum,  etc.,  etc., 
here  is  nothing  but  spirits  of  wine,  coloured  accordingly. 
Did  not  eat  two  apples,  which  were  placed  by  way  of 

would  be  occupied  by  an  Austrian  army.  Three  days  before  the 
arrival  of  the  letter,  the  Austrians  had  crossed  the  Po  (February  6). 
For  Byron's  address  to  the  Neapolitan  insurgents,  see  Appendix  V. 
I.  Possibly  Bossi  should  be  read  for  Rossi.  There  are  two 
books  by  Giuseppe  Bossi,  the  painter,  on  Leonardo  da  Vinci :  (i) 
Del  Cetiacolo  di  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Libri  quattro,  Milano,  1 8 IO,  fol. 
(2)  Delle  Opinioni  di  Leonardo  da  Vinci  intorno  alia  simmelria  de' 
corpiumani,  discorso,  Milano,  i8n,/0/. 

152  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

dessert.  Fed  the  two  cats,  the  hawk,  and  the  tame  (but 
not  tamed)  crow.  Read  Mitford's  History  of  Greece 1 — 
Xenophon's  Retreat  of  the  Ten  Thousand.  Up  to  this 
present  moment  writing,  6  minutes  before  eight  o'  the 
clock — French  hours,  not  Italian. 

Hear  the  carriage — order  pistols  and  great  coat,  as 
usual — necessary  articles.  Weather  cold — carriage  open, 
and  inhabitants  somewhat  savage — rather  treacherous 
and  highly  inflamed  by  politics.2  Fine  fellows,  though, 
— good  materials  for  a  nation.  Out  of  chaos  God  made 
a  world,  and  out  of  high  passions  comes  a  people. 

Clock  strikes — going  out  to  make  love.  Somewhat 
perilous,  but  not  disagreeable.  Memorandum — a  new 
screen  put  up  to-day.  It  is  rather  antique,  but  will  do 
with  a  little  repair. 

Thaw  continues — hopeful  that  riding  may  be  prac- 
ticable to-morrow.  Sent  the  papers  to  All1. — grand  events 

no'  the  clock  and  nine  minutes.  Visited  La  Con- 
tessa  G[uiccioli]  nata  G[hisleri]  G[amba].  Found  her 
beginning  my  letter  of  answer  to  the  thanks  of  Alessio 
del  Pinto  of  Rome  for  assisting  his  brother  the  late 
Commandant  in  his  last  moments,  as  I  had  begged  her 
to  pen  my  reply  for  the  purer  Italian,  I  being  an  ultra- 
montane, little  skilled  in  the  set  phrase  of  Tuscany.  Cut 
short  the  letter — finish  it  another  day.  Talked  of  Italy, 

1.  William  Mitford  (1744-1827)  published  \\isflistoiy  of  Greece 
in  1784-1810.     For  Byron's  opinion  of  the  book,  see  Don  Jitan, 
Canto  XII.  stanza  xix.  note.     "  His  great  pleasure  consists  in  praising 
"  tyrants,  abusing  Plutarch,  spelling  oddly,  and  writing  quaintly  : 
"and,  what  is  strange,  after  all,  his  is  the  best  modern  history  of 
"  Greece  in  any  language,  and  he  is  the  best,  perhaps,  of  all  modern 
"historians  whatsoever,"  etc.,  etc. 

2.  Antonio  Canonico  Tarlazzi  (1801-1891),  a  native  of  Ravenna, 
who  remembered  Byron  well,  told  Mr.  Richard   Edgcumbe   that 
Byron  used  to  meet  the  "  Young  Italy"  party  at  night  at  the  Osttria 

i  now  pulled  down,  outside  the  Porta  San  Mamante. 

1821.]  BACON'S  APOPHTHEGMS.  153 

patriotism,  Alfieri,  Madame  Albany,1  and  other  branches 
of  learning.  Also  Sallust's  Conspiracy  of  Catiline,  and 
the  War  of  Jugurtha.  At  9  came  in  her  brother,  II 
Conte  Pietro — at  10,  her  father,  Conte  Ruggiero. 

Talked  of  various  modes  of  warfare — of  the  Hun- 
garian and  Highland  modes  of  broad-sword  exercise,  in 
both  whereof  I  was  once  a  moderate  "  master  of  fence." 
Settled  that  the  R.  will  break  out  on  the  yth  or  8th  of 
March,  in  which  appointment  I  should  trust,  had  it  not 
been  settled  that  it  was  to  have  broken  out  in  October, 
1820.  But  those  Bolognese  shirked  the  Romagnuoles. 

"  It  is  all  one  to  Ranger." 2  One  must  not  be  par- 
ticular, but  take  rebellion  when  it  lies  in  the  way.  Come 
home — read  the  Ten  Thousand  again,  and  will  go  to  bed. 

Mem. — Ordered  Fletcher  (at  four  o'clock  this  after- 
noon) to  copy  out  seven  or  eight  apophthegms  of  Bacon,3 
in  which  I  have  detected  such  blunders  as  a  schoolboy 
might  detect  rather  than  commit.  Such  are  the  sages  ! 
What  must  they  be,  when  such  as  I  can  stumble  on  their 
mistakes  or  misstatements  ?  I  will  go  to  bed,  for  I  find 
that  I  grow  cynical. 

1.  The  Comtesse  d'Albany,  tde  Stolberg  (1753-1824),  married  in 
1772  the  Young  Pretender,  Charles  Edward  Stuart,  whom  she  left 
in  1780.     She  lived  with  Alfieri  from  about   1780,  in  Rome,  at 
Paris,  and,  after  the  outbreak  of  the  French  Revolution,  at  Florence. 
It  has  been  said  that,  on  the  death  of  Charles  Edward,  in  1788,  she 
was  married  to  Alfieri ;  but  of  this  there  is  little  or  no  evidence. 
On  the  other  hand,  her  influence  on  his  literary  work  as  a  clever 
well-read  woman,  half  French,  half  German,  was  undoubtedly  great. 
After   Alfieri's  death,  in   1803,  she  attached  herself  to   Frar^ois 
Fabre,  a  French  painter,  to  whom  she  left  the  library  and  manu- 
scripts of  Alfieri.     Of  her  salon  at  Florence  an  account  is  given  in 
the  Life  of  George  Ticknor,  vol.  i.  pp.  183,  184. 

2.  In  The  Suspicious  Husband  (17 47)  by  Benjamin  Hoadly,  act  v. 
sc.  2,   "Ranger"  says,   "Up  mounted  I;  and  up  I  should   have 
"  gone,  if  it  had  been  in  the  garret — it's  all  one  to  Ranger." 

3.  See  Appendix  VI. 

154  EXTRACTS   FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

January  6,  1821. 

Mist — thaw — slop — rain.  No  stirring  out  on  horse- 
back. Read  Spence's  Anecdotes.  Pope  a  fine  fellow — 
always  thought  him  so.  Corrected  blunders  in  nine 
apophthegms  of  Bacon — all  historical — and  read  Mitford's 
Greece.  Wrote  an  epigram.  Turned  to  a  passage  in 
Guinguene'1 — ditto  in  Lord  Holland's  Lope  de  Vega? 
Wrote  a  note  on  Don  Juan. 

At  eight  went  out  to  visit.  Heard  a  little  music — 
like  music.  Talked  with  Count  Pietro  G.  of  the  Italian 
comedian  Vestris,  who  is  now  at  Rome — have  seen  him 
often  act  in  Venice — a  good  actor — very.  Somewhat  of 
a  mannerist ;  but  excellent  in  broad  comedy,  as  well  as 
in  the  sentimental  pathetic.  He  has  made  me  frequently 

1.  Pierre  Louis  Ginguene  (1748-1816),  who  under  the  Republic 
was  French  ambassador  at  Turin,  began  to  publish  his  Histoire 
Litteraire  de  Cltalie,   in   i8li.     The  work,   completed  by   Salfi, 
occupies  14  volumes,  1811-35. 

2.  "Till  Voltaire  appeared,  there  was  no  nation  more  ignorant  of 
1  its  neighbours'  literature  than  the  French.     He  first  exposed,  and 
'  then  corrected,  this  neglect  in  his  countrymen.    There  is  no  writer 
'  to  whom  the  authors  of  other  nations,  especially  of  England,  are 
'  so  indebted  for  the  extension  of  their  fame  in  France,  and,  through 
'  France,  in  Europe.     There  is  no  critic  who  has  employed  more 
'  time,  wit,  ingenuity,  and  diligence  in  promoting  the  literary  inter- 
1  course  between  country  and   country,  and   in  celebrating  in  one 
'  language  the  triumphs  of  another.     Yet,  by  a  strange  fatality,  he 
'is  constantly  represented  as  the  enemy  of  all  literature  but  his 
'  own ;   and  Spaniards,   Englishmen,   and   Italians   vie  with   each 
'  other  in  inveighing  against  his  occasional  exaggeration  of  faulty 
'  passages  ;  the  authors  of  which,  till  he  pointed  out  their  beauties, 
'  were  hardly  known  beyond  the  country  in  which  their  language 
'  was  spoken.     Those  who  feel  such  indignation  at  his  misrepre- 
'  sentations  and  oversights  would  find  it  difficult  to  produce  a  critic 
'  in  any  modern  language,  who,  in  speaking  of  foreign  literature,  is 
'  better  informed  or  more  candid  than  Voltaire  ;  and  they  certainly 
'  never  would  be  able  to  discover  one  who  to  those  qualities  unites 
'so  much  sagacity  and  liveliness." — Some  Account  of  the  Life  and 
Writings  of  Lope  Felix  de  Vega  Carpio,  ed.   1817  (published  with 
Lord   Holland's   name),  vol.  i.  p.  216.      (See   Appendix  VI.  for 
Byron's  use  of  this  passage  at  the  end  of  his  correction  of  Bacon's 

l82I.]  CHRONIC   ENNUI.  155 

laugh  and  cry,  neither  of  which  is  now  a  very  easy  matter 
— at  least,  for  a  player  to  produce  in  me. 

Thought  of  the  state  of  women  under  the  ancient 
Greeks — convenient  enough.  Present  state  a  remnant  of 
the  barbarism  of  the  chivalric  and  feudal  ages — artificial 
and  unnatural.  They  ought  to  mind  home — and  be  well 
fed  and  clothed — but  not  mixed  in  society.  Well  educated, 
too,  in  religion — but  to  read  neither  poetry  nor  politics — 
nothing  but  books  of  piety  and  cookery.  Music — draw- 
ing— dancing — also  a  little  gardening  and  ploughing  now 
and  then.  I  have  seen  them  mending  the  roads  in  Epirus 
with  good  success.  Why  not,  as  well  as  haymaking  and 
milking  ? 

Came  home,  and  read  Mitford  again,  and  played  with 
my  mastiff — gave  him  his  supper.  Made  another  reading 
to  the  epigram,  but  the  turn  the  same.  To-night  at  the 
theatre,  there  being  a  prince  on  his  throne  in  the  last 
scene  of  the  comedy, — the  audience  laughed,  and  asked 
him  for  a  Constitution.  This  shows  the  state  of  the  public 
mind  here,  as  well  as  the  assassinations.  It  won't  do. 
There  must  be  an  universal  republic, — and  there  ought 
to  be. 

The  crow  is  lame  of  a  leg — wonder  how  it  happened 
— some  fool  trod  upon  his  toe,  I  suppose.  The  falcon 
pretty  brisk — the  cats  large  and  noisy — the  monkeys  I 
have  not  looked  to  since  the  cold  weather,  as  they  suffer 
by  being  brought  up.  Horses  must  be  gay — get  a  ride 
as  soon  as  weather  serves.  Deuced  muggy  still — an 
Italian  winter  is  a  sad  thing,  but  all  the  other  seasons 
are  charming. 

What  is  the  reason  that  I  have  been,  all  my  lifetime, 
more  or  less  enmty'e  ?  and  that,  if  any  thing,  I  am  rather 
less  so  now  than  I  was  at  twenty,  as  far  as  my  recollection 
serves  ?  I  do  not  know  how  to  answer  this,  but  presume 

156  EXTRACTS    FROM    A    DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

that  it  is  constitutional, — as  well  as  the  waking  in  low 
spirits,  which  I  have  invariably  done  for  many  years. 
Temperance  and  exercise,  which  I  have  practised  at 
times,  and  for  a  long  time  together  vigorously  and 
violently,  made  little  or  no  difference.  Violent  passions 
did; — when  under  their  immediate  influence — it  is  odd, 
but — I  was  in  agitated,  but  not  in  depressed,  spirits. 

A  dose  of  salts  has  the  effect  of  a  temporary  inebria- 
tion, like  light  champagne,  upon  me.  But  wine  and 
spirits  make  me  sullen  and  savage  to  ferocity — silent, 
however,  and  retiring,  and  not  quarrelsome,  if  not  spoken 
to.  Swimming  also  raises  my  spirits, — but  in  general 
they  are  low,  and  get  daily  lower.  That  is  hopeless ;  for 
I  do  not  think  I  am  so  much  enmiy'e  as  I  was  at  nineteen. 
The  proof  is,  that  then  I  must  game,  or  drink,  or  be  in 
motion  of  some  kind,  or  I  was  miserable.  At  present, 
I  can  mope  in  quietness;  and  like  being  alone  better 
than  any  company — except  the  lady's  whom  I  serve. 
But  I  feel  a  something,  which  makes  me  think  that,  if  I 
ever  reach  near  to  old  age,  like  Swift,  "  I  shall  die  at 
"  top  "  first.1  Only  I  do  not  dread  idiotism  or  madness 
so  much  as  he  did.  On  the  contrary,  I  think  some 
quieter  stages  of  both  must  be  preferable  to  much  of 
what  men  think  the  possession  of  their  senses. 

January  7,  1821,  Sunday. 

Still  rain — mist — snow — drizzle — and  all  the  incal- 
culable combinations  of  a  climate  where  heat  and  cold 
struggle  for  mastery.  Read  Spence,  and  turned  over 

I.  "I  remember  as  I  and  others  were  taking  with  Swift  an  even- 
'  ing  walk,  about  a  mile  out  of  Dublin,  he  stopped  short :  we  passed 
'  on  ;  but  perceiving  he  did  not  follow  us,  I  went  back  and  found 
'  him  fixed  as  a  statue,  and  earnestly  gazing  upwards  at  a  noble  elm, 
'  which,  in  its  uppermost  branches,  was  much  withered  and  decayed. 
'  Pointing  at  it,  he  said,  '  I  shall  be  like  that  tree,  I  shall  die  at 
'  top.'  " — Dr.  Young,  in  his  Letter  to  Richardson. 

l82l.]          CONSPIRACY   AND    COUNTER-STROKE.  157 

Roscoe,1  to  find  a  passage  I  have  not  found.  Read  the 
fourth  vol.  of  W.  Scott's  second  series  of  Tales  of  my 
Landlord.  Dined.  Read  the  Lugano  Gazette.  Read — 
I  forget  what.  At  eight  went  to  conversazione.  Found 
there  the  Countess  Geltrude,2  Betti  V.  and  her  husband, 
and  others.  Pretty  black-eyed  woman  that — only  nine- 
teen— same  age  as  Teresa,  who  is  prettier,  though. 

The  Count  Pietro  G[amba]  took  me  aside  to  say  that 
the  Patriots  have  had  notice  from  Forli  (twenty  miles  off) 
that  to-night  the  government  and  its  party  mean  to  strike 
a  stroke — that  the  Cardinal  here  has  had  orders  to  make 
several  arrests  immediately,  and  that,  in  consequence,  the 
Liberals  are  arming,  and  have  posted  patroles  in  the 
streets,  to  sound  the  alarm  and  give  notice  to  fight  for  it. 

He  asked  me  "  what  should  be  done  ?  "  I  answered, 
"  Fight  for  it,  rather  than  be  taken  in  detail ; "  and  offered, 
if  any  of  them  are  in  immediate  apprehension  of  arrest, 
to  receive  them  in  my  house  (which  is  defensible),  and  to 
defend  them,  with  my  servants  and  themselves  (we  have 
arms  and  ammunition),  as  long  as  we  can, — or  to  try  to 
get  them  away  under  cloud  of  night.  On  going  home, 
I  offered  him  the  pistols  which  I  had  about  me — but  he 
refused,  but  said  he  would  come  off  to  me  in  case  of 

It  wants  half  an  hour  of  midnight,  and  rains; — as 
Gibbet  says,  "  a  fine  night  for  their  enterprise — dark  as 
"hell,  and  blows  like  the  devil."3  If  the  row  don't 
happen  now,  it  must  soon.  I  thought  that  their  system 
of  shooting  people  would  soon  produce  a  re-action — and 
now  it  seems  coming.  I  will  do  what  I  can  in  the  way 

1.  William  Roscoe  (1753-1831)  had  already  published  his  two 
historical  works  :  The  Life  of  Lorenzo  dt?  Medici,  called  the  Magtiificent 
(1796),  and  The  Life  and  Pontificate  of  Leo  the  Tenth  (1805). 

2.  Sic  in  Moore. 

3.  Beaux'  Stratagem,  act  iv.  sc.  2. 

158  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

of  combat,  though  a  little  out  of  exercise.     The  cause  is 
a  good  one. 

Turned  over  and  over  half  a  score  of  books  for  the 
passage  in  question,  and  can't  find  it.  Expect  to  hear 
the  drum  and  the  musquetry  momently  (for  they  swear  to 
resist,  and  are  right,) — but  I  hear  nothing,  as  yet,  save 
the  plash  of  the  rain  and  the  gusts  of  the  wind  at  intervals. 
Don't  like  to  go  to  bed,  because  I  hate  to  be  waked,  and 
would  rather  sit  up  for  the  row,  if  there  is  to  be  one. 

Mended  the  fire — have  got  the  arms — and  a  book  or 
two,  which  I  shall  turn  over.  I  know  little  of  their 
numbers,  but  think  the  Carbonari l  strong  enough  to  beat 
the  troops,  even  here.  With  twenty  men  this  house 
might  be  defended  for  twenty-four  hours  against  any  force 
to  be  brought  against  it,  now  in  this  place,  for  the  same 
time ;  and,  in  such  a  time,  the  country  would  have  notice, 
and  would  rise, — if  ever  they  will  rise,  of  which  there  is 
some  doubt.  In  the  mean  time,  I  may  as  well  read  as 
do  any  thing  else,  being  alone. 

I.  The  Italian  Carbonari  owed  their  origin,  statutes,  and  ritual  to 
the  Freemasons  (Saint-Edme,  Constitution,  etc.,  des  Carbonari,  pp. 
7,  8).  Much  of  their  secret  phraseology  was,  on  the  other  hand, 
taken  from  the  charcoal-burners ;  thus  a  Carbonari  lodge  was  a 
barraca  (hut),  and  a  meeting  a  veiidita  (sale).  Founded  as  a  political 
society  by  the  "republican  refugees,  who  fled  from  Joseph  Buona- 
"parte's  rule  to  the  Abruzzi  and  Calabria"  (Bolton  King,  History 
of  Italian  Unity,  vol.  i.  p.  19),  they  spread  over  Italy,  though 
Naples  remained  the  centre  of  their  organization.  In  the  society 
were  included  royalists  and  republicans,  papalists  and  anti-papalists, 
soldiers,  men  of  letters,  priests,  and  officials.  It  linked  together 
Neapolitan  Carbonari  and  Murattists,  detesting  Bourbon  rule  ;  Pied- 
montese  Adelfi,  cherishing  ideals  of  a  free  and  united  Italy  ;  Lombard 
federali,  inspired  by  the  romantic  movement  to  social  and  literary 
revolt ;  and  the  "  American  hunters"  of  the  Romagna,  whose  Capo 
was  Byron.  But  the  bond  was  one  of  disaffection,  not  of  principle. 
In  want  of  cohesion  and  in  diversity  of  political  aims  lay  the  fatal 
weakness  of  the  society.  The  movement  which  it  helped  to  prepare, 
neither  popular  nor  national,  collapsed  (see  p.  8,  note  i),  and 
Mazzini  and  the  later  Italian  patriots  set  their  faces  against  the 

1 82 1.]  THE   CARBONARI.  159 

JanuaryS,  1821,  Monday. 

Rose,  and  found  Count  P.  G.  in  my  apartments. 
Sent  away  the  servant.  Told  me  that,  according  to  the 
best  information,  the  Government  had  not  issued  orders 
for  the  arrests  apprehended ;  that  the  attack  in  Forli  had 
not  taken  place  (as  expected)  by  the  Sanfedisti — the 
opponents  of  the  Carbonari  or  Liberals — and  that,  as 
yet,  they  are  still  in  apprehension  only.  Asked  me  for 
some  arms  of  a  better  sort,  which  I  gave  him.  Settled 
that,  in  case  of  a  row,  the  Liberals  were  to  assemble  here 
(with  me),  and  that  he  had  given  the  word  to  Vincenzo 
G.  and  others  of  the  Chiefs  for  that  purpose.  He  himself 
and  father  are  going  to  the  chase  in  the  forest ;  but  V.  G. 
is  to  come  to  me,  and  an  express  to  be  sent  off  to  him, 
P.  G.,  if  any  thing  occurs.  Concerted  operations.  They 
are  to  seize — but  no  matter. 

I  advised  them  to  attack  in  detail,  and  in  different 
parties,  in  different  places  (though  at  the  same  time),  so 
as  to  divide  the  attention  of  the  troops,  who,  though 
few,  yet  being  disciplined,  would  beat  any  body  of 
people  (not  trained)  in  a  regular  fight — unless  dispersed 
in  small  parties,  and  distracted  with  different  assaults. 
Offered  to  let  them  assemble  here  if  they  choose.  It 
is  a  strongish  post — narrow  street,  commanded  from 
within — and  tenable  walls. 

Dined.  Tried  on  a  new  coat.  Letter  to  Murray, 
with  corrections  of  Bacon's  Apophthegms  and  an  epigram 
— the  latter  not  for  publication.  At  eight  went  to  Teresa, 
Countess  G.  At  nine  and  a  half  came  in  II  Conte  P. 
and  Count  P.  G.  Talked  of  a  certain  proclamation 
lately  issued.  Count  R.  G.  had  been  with  *  *  (the  *  *), 
to  sound  him  about  the  arrests.  He,  *  *,  is  a  trimmer^ 
and  deals,  at  present,  his  cards  with  both  hands.  If  he 
don't  mind,  they'll  be  full.  *  *  pretends  (/  doubt  him 

l6o  EXTRACTS    FROM    A    DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

— tluy  don't, — we  shall  see)  that  there  is  no  such  order, 
and  seems  staggered  by  the  immense  exertions  of  the 
Neapolitans,  and  the  fierce  spirit  of  the  Liberals  here. 
The  truth  is,  that  *  *  cares  for  little  but  his  place  (which 
is  a  good  one),  and  wishes  to  play  pretty  with  both 
parties.  He  has  changed  his  mind  thirty  times  these 
last  three  moons,  to  my  knowledge,  for  he  corresponds 
with  me.  But  he  is  not  a  bloody  fellow — only  an 
avaricious  one. 

It  seems  that,  just  at  this  moment  (as  Lydia  Languish * 
says),  "  there  will  be  no  elopement  after  all."  I  wish 
that  I  had  known  as  much  last  night — or,  rather,  this 
morning — I  should  have  gone  to  bed  two  hours  earlier. 
And  yet  I  ought  not  to  complain ;  for,  though  it  is  a 
sirocco,  and  heavy  rain,  I  have  not  yawned  for  these  two 

Came  home — read  History  of  Greece — before  dinner 
had  read  Walter  Scott's  Rob  Roy.  Wrote  address  to  the 
letter  in  answer  to  Alessio  del  Pinto,  who  has  thanked 
me  for  helping  his  brother  (the  late  Commandant, 
murdered  here  last  month)  in  his  last  moments.  Have 
told  him  I  only  did  a  duty  of  humanity — as  is  true.  The 
brother  lives  at  Rome. 

Mended  the  fire  with  some  sgobole  (a  Romagnuole 
word),  and  gave  the  falcon  some  water.  Drank  some 
Seltzer-water.  Mem. — received  to-day  a  print,  or  etching, 
of  the  story  of  Ugolino,  by  an  Italian  painter — different, 
of  course,  from  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's,  and  I  think  (as 
far  as  recollection  goes)  no  worse,  for  Reynolds's  is  not 
good  in  history.2  Tore  a  button  in  my  new  coat. 

1.  "  Lydia  Languish"  in  The  Rivals,  act  iv.  sc.  2 — 

"  So  ! — there  will  be  no  elopement  after  all  !  "  (sullenly) 

2.  Medwin  (Angler  in  Wales,  vol.  ii.  pp.  178,  179),  speaking  of 
Byron's  palace  at  Pisa,  says,  "  I  found  him  in  his  sanctum.     The 




I  wonder  what  figure  these  Italians  will  make  in  a 
regular  row.  I  sometimes  think  that,  like  the  Irishman's 
gun  (somebody  had  sold  him  a  crooked  one),  they  will 
only  do  for  "  shooting  round  a  corner ; "  at  least,  this 
sort  of  shooting  has  been  the  late  tenor  of  their  exploits. 
And  yet  there  are  materials  in  this  people,  and  a  noble 
energy,  if  well  directed.  But  who  is  to  direct  them? 
No  matter.  Out  of  such  times  heroes  spring.  Diffi- 
culties are  the  hotbeds  of  high  spirits,  and  Freedom  the 
mother  of  the  few  virtues  incident  to  human  nature. 

Tuesday,  January  9,  1821. 

Rose — the  day  fine.  Ordered  the  horses;  but  Lega 
(my  secretary,  an  Italianism  for  steward  or  chief  servant) 
coming  to  tell  me  that  the  painter  had  finished  the  work 
in  fresco  for  the  room  he  has  been  employed  on  lately, 
I  went  to  see  it  before  I  set  out.  The  painter  has  not 
copied  badly  the  prints  from  Titian,  etc.,  considering 
all  things. 

Dined.  Read  Johnson's  Vanity  of  ffiiman  Wishes, 
— all  the  examples  and  mode  of  giving  them  sublime, 
as  well  as  the  latter  part,  with  the  exception  of  an 
occasional  couplet.  I  do  not  so  much  admire  the 
opening.  I  remember  an  observation  of  Sharpe's,  (the 
Conversationist,  as  he  was  called  in  London,  and  a  very 
clever  man,)  that  the  first  line  of  this  poem  was  super- 
fluous, and  that  Pope  (the  best  of  poets,  /think,)  would 
have  begun  at  once,  only  changing  the  punctuation — 
"  Survey  mankind  from  China  to  Peru."  * 

"  walls  of  it  were  stained,  and  against  them  hung  a  picture  of 
"  Ugolino,  in  the  Torre  Delia  fame,  the  work  of  one  of  the  Guiccioli's 
"  sisters,  and  a  miniature  of  Ada." 

I.  For  Richard  Sharp,  see  Letters,  vol.  ii.  p.  341,  note  2.  He 
had  been  a  wholesale  hatter,  and  was  of  a  peculiarly  dark  com- 
plexion. "  Somebody  said  that  he  had  transferred  the  colour  of  his 

VOL.  V.  M 

1 62  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

The  former  line,  "Let  observation,"  etc.,  is  certainly 
heavy  and  useless.  But  'tis  a  grand  poem — and  so  true  1 
— true  as  the  loth  of  Juvenal  himself.  The  lapse  of 
ages  changes  all  things — time — language — the  earth — the 
bounds  of  the  sea — the  stars  of  the  sky,  and  every  thing 
"  about,  around,  and  underneath  "  man,  except  man  himself > 
who  has  always  been,  and  always  will  be,  an  unlucky 
rascal.  The  infinite  variety  of  lives  conduct  but  to  death, 
and  the  infinity  of  wishes  lead  but  to  disappointment.1 

"hats  to  his  face,  when  Luttrell  said  that  'it  was  darkness  which 
"might  be  felt' "  (Greville  Memoirs,  vol.  i.  p.  249). 
Byron  refers  to  the  following  passage  : — 

' '  There  is  another  offence  against  simplicity  which  should  be 
"  shunned  ;  though  it  occurs  often  in  Johnson,  and  though  the 
"  abstract  terms,  affected  by  him,  give  a  kind  of  false  pomp  to  the 
"style,  assuming  the  air  of  personification.  He  thus  commences 
"  his  imitation  of  the  tenth  satire  of  Juvenal — 

"  '  Let  observation,  with  extensive  view, 
Survey  mankind  from  China  to  Peru.' 

"  Dryden  and  Pope  would  have  been  satisfied  with  the  second  line, 
"  and  would  have  avoided  both  the  tautology  and  pomposity  of  the 
"  first." — Sharp's  Letters  and  Essays  in  Prose  and  Verse,  pp.  35,  36, 
ed.  1834. 

Johnson  (Boswell's  Life,  vol.  i.  p.  403)  himself  discussed  this 
question  of  abrupt  openings.  Speaking  of  Gray,  he  says,  "His 
"  Ode,  which  begins — 

"  '  Ruin  seize  thee,  ruthless  King, 

Confusion  on  thy  banners  wait ! ' 

'  has  been  celebrated  for  its  abruptness,  and  plunging  into  the 
'  subject  all  at  once.  But  such  arts  as  these  have  no  merit,  unless 
'  when  they  are  original.  We  admire  them  only  once ;  and  this 
'  abruptness  has  nothing  new  in  it.  We  have  had  it  often  before. 
'  Nay,  we  have  it  in  the  old  song  of  Johnny  Armstrong — 
"  '  Is  there  ever  a  man  in  all  Scotland 

From  the  highest  estate  to  the  lowest  degree,'  etc. 
"  And  then,  sir, 

"  '  Yes,  there  is  a  man  in  Westmoreland, 

And  Johnny  Armstrong  they  do  him  call.' " 
I.     "  Time  hovers  o'er,  impatient  to  destroy, 
And  shuts  up  all  the  passages  of  joy  : 
In  vain  their  gifts  the  bounteous  seasons  pour, 
The  fruit  autumnal,  and  the  vernal  flow'r  ; 
With  listless  eyes  the  dotard  views  the  store, 
He  views,  and  wonders  that  they  please  no  more." 

Vanity  of  Human  Wishes. 

1 82  I.]  WAR,   OR   RUMOURS   OF   WAR.  163 

All  the  discoveries  which  have  yet  been  made  have 
multiplied  little  but  existence.  An  extirpated  disease  is 
succeeded  by  some  new  pestilence;  and  a  discovered 
world  has  brought  little  to  the  old  one,  except  the  p — 
first  and  freedom  afterwards — the  latter  a  fine  thing, 
particularly  as  they  gave  it  to  Europe  in  exchange  for 
slavery.  But  it  is  doubtful  whether  "the  Sovereigns" 
would  not  think  the  first  the  best  present  of  the  two  to 
their  subjects. 

At  eight  went  out — heard  some  news.  They  say  the 
King  of  Naples  has  declared  by  couriers  from  Florence, 
to  the  Powers  (as  they  call  now  those  wretches  with 
crowns),  that  his  Constitution  was  compulsive,  etc.,  etc., 
and  that  the  Austrian  barbarians  are  placed  again  on 
war  pay,  and  will  march.  Let  them — "  they  come  like 
"  sacrifices  in  their  trim,"  x  the  hounds  of  hell !  Let  it 
still  be  a  hope  to  see  their  bones  piled  like  those  of  the 
human  dogs  at  Morat,  in  Switzerland,  which  I  have  seen. 

Heard  some  music.  At  nine  the  usual  visitors — 
news,  war,  or  rumours  of  war.  Consulted  with  P.  G.,  etc., 
etc.  They  mean  to  insurrect  here,  and  are  to  honour 
me  with  a  call  thereupon.  I  shall  not  fall  back ;  though 
I  don't  think  them  in  force  or  heart  sufficient  to  make 
much  of  it.  But,  onward! — it  is  now  the  time  to  act, 
and  what  signifies  self>  if  a  single  spark  of  that  which 
would  be  worthy  of  the  past  can  be  bequeathed  un- 
quenchedly  to  the  future?  It  is  not  one  man,  nor  a 
million,  but  the  spirit  of  liberty  which  must  be  spread. 
The  waves  which  dash  upon  the  shore  are,  one  by  one, 
broken,  but  yet  the  ocean  conquers,  nevertheless.  It 

I.  "  Let  them  come  j 

They  come  like  sacrifices  in  their  trim, 
And  to  the  fire-ey'd  maid  of  smoky  war, 
All  hot,  and  bleeding,  will  we  offer  them." 

King  Henry  IV.,  Part  I.  act  iv.  sc.  I. 

164  EXTRACTS    FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

overwhelms  the  Armada,  it  wears  the  rock,  and,  if  the 
Neptunians  are  to  be  believed,  it  has  not  only  destroyed, 
but  made  a  world.  In  like  manner,  whatever  the  sacrifice 
of  individuals,  the  great  cause  will  gather  strength,  sweep 
down  what  is  rugged,  and  fertilise  (for  sea-weed  is  manure) 
what  is  cultivable.  And  so,  the  mere  selfish  calculation 
ought  never  to  be  made  on  such  occasions;  and,  at 
present,  it  shall  not  be  computed  by  me.  I  was  never 
a  good  arithmetician  of  chances,  and  shall  not  commence 

January  10,  1821. 

Day  fine — rained  only  in  the  morning.  Looked  over 
accounts.  Read  Campbell's  Poets — marked  errors  of 
Tom  (the  author)  for  correction.  Dined — went  out — 
music  —  Tyrolese  air,  with  variations.  Sustained  the 
cause  of  the  original  simple  air  against  the  variations  of 
the  Italian  school. 

Politics  somewhat  tempestuous,  and  cloudier  daily. 
To-morrow  being  foreign  post-day,  probably  something 
more  will  be  known. 

Came  home — read.  Corrected  Tom  Campbell's  slips 
of  the  pen.  A  good  work,  though — style  affected — but 
his  defence  of  Pope  is  glorious.1  To  be  sure,  it  is  his 
own  cause  too, — but  no  matter,  it  is  very  good,  and  does 
him  great  credit. 


I  have  been  turning  over  different  Lives  of  the  Poets. 
I  rarely  read  their  works,  unless  an  occasional  flight  over 

I.  To  Campbell's  Specimens  of  the  British,  Poets  (9  vols.,  1819)  is 
prefixed  an  Essay  on  English  Poetry ',  which  concludes  with  a  defence 
of  Pope.  The  Essay,  and  the  Lives  prefixed  to  the  Specimens,  were 
republished  separately  in  1848,  edited  by  Peter  Cunningham.  In 
this  edition  the  defence  of  Pope  occupies  pp.  108-117. 

1 82 1.]  THE   TALE   OF   TROY.  165 

the  classical  ones,  Pope,  Dryden,  Johnson,  Gray,  and 
those  who  approach  them  nearest  (I  leave  the  rant  of  the 
rest  to  the  cant  of  the  day),  and — I  had  made  several 
reflections,  but  I  feel  sleepy,  and  may  as  well  go  to  bed. 

January  n,  1821. 

Read  the  letters.  Corrected  the  tragedy  and  the 
Hints  from  Horace.  Dined,  and  got  into  better  spirits. 
Went  out — returned — finished  letters,  five  in  number. 
Read  Poets,  and  an  anecdote  in  Spence. 

All1,  writes  to  me  that  the  Pope,  and  Duke  of  Tuscany, 
and  King  of  Sardinia,  have  also  been  called  to  Congress ; 
but  the  Pope  will  only  deal  there  by  proxy.  So  the 
interests  of  millions  are  in  the  hands  of  about  twenty 
coxcombs,  at  a  place  called  Leibach  ! l 

I  should  almost  regret  that  my  own  affairs  went  well, 
when  those  of  .nations  are  in  peril.  If  the  interests  of 
mankind  could  be  essentially  bettered  (particularly  of 
these  oppressed  Italians),  I  should  not  so  much  mind  my 
own  "  sma  peculiar."  God  grant  us  all  better  times,  or 
more  philosophy  ! 

In  reading,  I  have  just  chanced  upon  an  expression 
of  Tom  Campbell's ; — speaking  of  Collins,  he  says  that 
"  no  reader  cares  any  more  about  the  characteristic 
"  manners  of  his  Eclogues  than  about  the  authenticity  of 
"  the  tale  of  Troy." 2  'Tis  false— we  do  care  about  "  the 
"  authenticity  of  the  tale  of  Troy."  I  have  stood  upon  that 
plain  daily,  for  more  than  a  month  in  1810;  and  if  any 
thing  diminished  my  pleasure,  it  was  that  the  blackguard 

1.  See  p.  8,  note  i. 

2.  In   Campbell's   life  of   William   Collins   (Essay  on   English 
Poetry,  ed.   1848,  p.    270),  he  says,  speaking  of  Collins's  pastoral 
eclogues,  "  It  seems  that  he  himself  ultimately  undervalued  those 
"eclogues,  as  deficient  in  characteristic  manners  ;  but  surely  no  just 
"  reader  of  them  cares  any  more  about  this  circumstance  than  about 
"  the  authenticity  of  the  tale  of  Troy." 

1 66  EXTRACTS    FROM    A   DIARY.          [CHAP.   XXI. 

Bryant1  had  impugned  its  veracity.  It  is  true  I  read 
Homer  Travestied"*-  (the  first  twelve  books),  because  Hob- 
house  and  others  bored  me  with  their  learned  localities, 
and  I  love  quizzing.  But  I  still  venerated  the  grand 
original  as  the  truth  of  history  (in  the  material  facts]  and 
of  place.  Otherwise,  it  would  have  given  me  no  delight. 
Who  will  persuade  me,  when  I  reclined  upon  a  mighty 
tomb,  that  it  did  not  contain  a  hero  ? — its  very  magnitude 
proved  this.  Men  do  not  labour  over  the  ignoble  and 
petty  dead — and  why  should  not  the  dead  be  Homer's 
dead  ?  The  secret  of  Tom  Campbell's  defence  of  inaccu- 
racy in  costume  and  description  is,  that  his  Gertrude,3  etc., 
has  no  more  locality  in  common  with  Pennsylvania  than 
with  Penmanmaur.  It  is  notoriously  full  of  grossly  false 
scenery,  as  all  Americans  declare,  though  they  praise 
parts  of  the  poem.  It  is  thus  that  self-love  for  ever 
creeps  out,  like  a  snake,  to  sting  anything  which  happens, 
even  accidentally,  to  stumble  upon  it. 

January  12,  1821. 

The  weather  still  so  humid  and  impracticable,  that 
London,  in  its  most  oppressive  fogs,  were  a  summer- 
bower  to  this  mist  and  sirocco,  which  has  now  lasted 

1.  "  I've  stood  upon  Achilles'  tomb, 

And  heard  Troy  doubted  ; — time  will  doubt  of  Rome." 

Don  yuan,  Canto  IV.  stanza  ci. 

The  first  edition  of  Jacob  Bryant's  Dissertation  concerning  the  war 
of  Troy,  and  the  expedition  of  the  Grecians,  as  described  by  Homer ; 
showing  that  no  such  expedition  was  ever  undertaken,  and  that  no 
such  city  of  Phrygia  existed,  appeared  in  1796. 

2.  Homer  Travestie ;  Being  a  new  translation  of  that  great  poet, 
appeared  anonymously  in  1720.     It  contained  a  translation  of  three 
books.     A  second  edition,  with  four  books  translated  by  Cotton, 
junior,  was  printed  in  1762.     The  third  edition  of  this  work,  greatly 
enlarged,  was  published   in  1770,  under  the   title  of  A  Burlesque 
Translation  of  Homer  (i.e.  of  Books  I.-XI1.  of  the  Iliad),  with  the 
real  name  of  the  author,  T.  Bridges. 

3.  Gertrude  of  Wyoming  appeared  in  1809. 

1 82 1.]         A  PLAY  FOR  THE  STUDY.  167 

(but  with  one  day's  interval),  chequered  with  snow  or 
heavy  rain  only,  since  the  3oth  of  December,  1820.  It 
is  so  far  lucky  that  I  have  a  literary  turn ; — but  it  is  very 
tiresome  not  to  be  able  to  stir  out,  in  comfort,  on  any 
horse  but  Pegasus,  for  so  many  days.  The  roads  are 
even  worse  than  the  weather,  by  the  long  splashing,  and 
the  heavy  soil,  and  the  growth  of  the  waters. 

Read  the  Poets — English,  that  is  to  say — out  of 
Campbell's  edition.  There  is  a  good  deal  of  taffeta  in 
some  of  Tom's  prefatory  phrases,  but  his  work  is  good  as 
a  whole.  I  like  him  best,  though,  in  his  own  poetry. 

Murray  writes  that  they  want  to  act  the  Tragedy  of 
Marino  Faliero — more  fools  they,  it  was  written  for  the 
closet.  I  have  protested  against  this  piece  of  usurpation, 
(which,  it  seems,  is  legal  for  managers  over  any  printed 
work,  against  the  author's  will)  and  I  hope  they  will  not 
attempt  it.  Why  don't  they  bring  out  some  of  the  num- 
berless aspirants  for  theatrical  celebrity,  now  encumbering 
their  shelves,  instead  of  lugging  me  out  of  the  library  ? 
I  have  written  a  fierce  protest  against  any  such  attempt ; 
but  I  still  would  hope  that  it  will  not  be  necessary,  and 
that  they  will  see,  at  once,  that  it  is  not  intended  for  the 
stage.  It  is  too  regular — the  time,  twenty-four  hours — 
the  change  of  place  not  frequent — nothing  *w/(7-dramatic 
— no  surprises,  no  starts,  nor  trap-doors,  nor  opportunities 
"  for  tossing  their  heads  and  kicking  their  heels " — and 
no  love — the  grand  ingredient  of  a  modern  play. 

I  have  found  out  the  seal  cut  on  Murray's  letter.  It 
is  meant  for  Walter  Scott — or  Sir  Walter — he  is  the  first 
poet  knighted  since  Sir  Richard  Blackmore.  But  it  does 
not  do  him  justice.  Scott's — particularly  when  he  recites 
— is  a  very  intelligent  countenance,  and  this  seal  says 

Scott  is  certainly  the  most  wonderful  writer  of  the 

1 68  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

day.  His  novels  are  a  new  literature  in  themselves,  and 
his  poetry  as  good  as  any — if  not  better  (only  on  an 
erroneous  system) — and  only  ceased  to  be  so  popular,  be- 
cause the  vulgar  learned  were  tired  of  hearing  "  Aristides 
"  called  the  Just,"  and  Scott  the  Best,  and  ostracised  him. 

I  like  him,  too,  for  his  manliness  of  character,  for  the 
extreme  pleasantness  of  his  conversation,  and  his  good- 
nature towards  myself,  personally.  May  he  prosper ! — 
for  he  deserves  it.  I  know  no  reading  to  which  I  fall 
with  such  alacrity  as  a  work  of  W.  Scott's.  I  shall  give 
the  seal,  with  his  bust  on  it,  to  Madame  la  Comtesse  G. 
this  evening,  who  will  be  curious  to  have  the  effigies  of  a 
man  so  celebrated. 

How  strange  are  my  thoughts  ! — The  reading  of  the 
song  of  Milton,  "  Sabrina  fair " l  has  brought  back  upon 
me — I  know  not  how  or  why — the  happiest,  perhaps, 
days  of  my  life  (always  excepting,  here  and  there,  a 
Harrow  holiday  in  the  two  latter  summers  of  my  stay 
there)  when  living  at  Cambridge  with  Edward  Noel 
Long,2  afterwards  of  the  Guards, — who,  after  having 
served  honourably  in  the  expedition  to  Copenhagen  (of 
which  two  or  three  thousand  scoundrels  yet  survive  in 
plight  and  pay),  was  drowned  early  in  1809,  on  his  passage 
to  Lisbon  with  his  regiment  in  the  St.  George  transport, 
which  was  run  foul  of  in  the  night  by  another  trans- 
port. We  were  rival  swimmers — fond  of  riding — reading 
— and  of  conviviality.  We  had  been  at  Harrow  together ; 
but — there,  at  least — his  was  a  less  boisterous  spirit  than 

I.          "  Sabrina  fair, 

Listen  where  thou  art  sitting 
Under  the  glassy,  cool,  translucent  wave, 

In  twisted  braids  of  lilies  knitting 
The  loose  train  of  thy  amber-dropping  hair,"  etc. 

Comus,  line  859,  et  seqq. 

z.  For  Long,  the  "Cleon"  of  Childish  Recollections,  see  Letters, 
vol.  i.  p.  73,  note  2,  and  vol.  ii.  p.  19,  note. 

1 82 1.]  BYRON'S  POOL.  169 

mine.  I  was  always  cricketing — rebelling — fighting — 
rowing  (from  row,  not  &?#/-rowing,  a  different  practice), 
and  in  all  manner  of  mischiefs ;  while  he  was  more  sedate 
and  polished.  At  Cambridge — both  of  Trinity — my 
spirit  rather  softened,  or  his  roughened,  for  we  became 
very  great  friends.  The  description  of  Sabrina's  seat 
reminds  me  of  our  rival  feats  in  diving.  Though  Cam's 
is  not  a  very  translucent  wave,  it  was  fourteen  feet  deep, 
where  we  used  to  dive  for,  and  pick  up — having  thrown 
them  in  on  purpose — plates,  eggs,  and  even  shillings.  I 
remember,  in  particular,  there  was  the  stump  of  a  tree 
(at  least  ten  or  twelve  feet  deep)  in  the  bed  of  the  river, 
in  a  spot  where  we  bathed  most  commonly,  round  which  I 
used  to  cling,  and  "  wonder  how  the  devil  I  came  there." 

Our  evenings  we  passed  in  music  (he  was  musical, 
and  played  on  more  than  one  instrument,  flute  and 
violoncello),  in  which  I  was  audience ;  and  I  think  that 
our  chief  beverage  was  soda-water.  In  the  day  we  rode, 
bathed,  and  lounged,  reading  occasionally.  I  remember 
our  buying,  with  vast  alacrity,  Moore's  new  quarto 1  (in 
1806),  and  reading  it  together  in  the  evenings. 

We  only  passed  the  summer  together; — Long  had 
gone  into  the  Guards  during  the  year  I  passed  in  Notts, 
away  from  college.  His  friendship,  and  a  violent,  though 
pure,  love  and  passion — which  held  me  at  the  same 
period — were  the  then  romance  of  the  most  romantic 
period  of  my  life. 


I  remember  that,  in  the  spring  of  1809,  Hobhouse 
laughed  at  my  being  distressed  at  Long's  death,  and 
amused  himself  with  making  epigrams  upon  his  name, 
which  was  susceptible  of  a  pun — Long,  short,  etc.  But 
three  years  after,  he  had  ample  leisure  to  repent  it,  when 
I.  Epistles,  Odes,  and  other  Poems  (1806). 

I7O  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

our  mutual  friend,  and  his,  Hobhouse's,  particular  friend, 
Charles  Matthews,  was  drowned  also,  and  he  himself  was 
as  much  affected  by  a  similar  calamity.  But  /did  not 
pay  him  back  in  puns  and  epigrams,  for  I  valued  Matthews 
too  much  myself  to  do  so ;  and,  even  if  I  had  not,  I  should 
have  respected  his  griefs. 

Long's  father  wrote  to  me  to  write  his  son's  epitaph. 
I  promised — but  I  had  not  the  heart  to  complete  it.  He 
was  such  a  good  amiable  being  as  rarely  remains  long  in 
this  world ;  with  talent  and  accomplishments,  too,  to 
make  him  the  more  regretted.  Yet,  although  a  cheerful 
companion,  he  had  strange  melancholy  thoughts  some- 
times. I  remember  once  that  we  were  going  to  his  uncle's, 
I  think — I  went  to  accompany  him  to  the  door  merely, 
in  some  Upper  or  Lower  Grosvenor  or  Brook  Street,  I 
forget  which,  but  it  was  in  a  street  leading  out  of  some 
square, — he  told  me  that,  the  night  before,  he  "  had  taken 
"  up  a  pistol — not  knowing  or  examining  whether  it  was 
"  loaded  or  no — and  had  snapped  it  at  his  head,  leaving 
"it  to  chance  whether  it  might  not  be  charged."  The 
letter,  too,  which  he  wrote  me  on  leaving  college  to  join  the 
Guards,  was  as  melancholy  in  its  tenour  as  it  could  well 
be  on  such  an  occasion.  But  he  showed  nothing  of  this 
in  his  deportment,  being  mild  and  gentle  ; — and  yet  with 
much  turn  for  the  ludicrous  in  his  disposition.  We  were 
both  much  attached  to  Harrow,  and  sometimes  made 
excursions  there  together  from  London  to  revive  our 
schoolboy  recollections.1 

I.  "...  ere  yon  silver  lamp  of  night  .  .  . 

Has  thrice  retraced  her  path  of  light,  .  .  . 
I  trust,  that  we,  my  gentle  Friend, 
Shall  see  her  rolling  orbit  wend, 
Above  the  dear-loved  peaceful  seat, 
Which  once  contained  our  youth's  retreat ; 
And,  then,  with  those  our  childhood  knew, 
We'll  mingle  in  the  festive  crew." 

Lines  to  Edward  Noel  Long,  Esq.,  see  Poems, 
1898,  vol.  i.  p.  188. 

i82i.]  GRILLPARZER'S  SAPPHO.  171 


Read  the  Italian  translation  by  Guide  Sorelli  of  the 
German  Grillparzer l — a  devil  of  a  name,  to  be  sure,  for 
posterity  ;  but  they  must  learn  to  pronounce  it.  With  all 
the  allowance  for  a  translation,  and  above  all,  an  Italian 
translation  (they  are  the  very  worst  of  translators,  except 
from  the  Classics — Annibale  Caro,2  for  instance — and 
there,  the  bastardy  of  their  language  helps  them,  as,  by 
way  of  looking  legitimate,  they  ape  their  father's  tongue)  ; 
— but  with  every  allowance  for  such  a  disadvantage,  the 
tragedy  of  Sappho  is  superb  and  sublime  !  There  is  no 
denying  it.  The  man  has  done  a  great  thing  in  writing 
that  play.  And  -who  is  he?  I  know  him  not ;  but  ages 
will.  'Tis  a  high  intellect. 

I  must  premise,  however,  that  I  have  read  nothing  of 
Adolph  Milliner's  (the  author  of  Guilt*),  and  much  less 
of  Goethe,  and  Schiller,  and  Wieland,  than  I  could  wish. 
I  only  know  them  through  the  medium  of  English,  French, 

1.  Franz  Grillparzer  (1791-1872)  was  born  at  Vienna,  where  his 
originality  was  crushed  by  rigorous  press-censorship.     He  began  his 
literary  career  with  Die  Ahnjrau  (1817),  which  was  followed  by 
Sappho  (1819).     His  Konig  Ottokars  Gltick  und  Ende  (1825)  was 
kept  for  two  years  in  the  censor's  office,  and  only  discovered  by 
accident,  when  the  poet  had  given  it  up  for  lost  (see  Laube's  edition 
of  Grillparzer's  Sdmtl.  Werke,  vol.  i.  p.  xxiv.).     The  passage  from 
Byron's  Journal  is  prefixed  to  a  translation  of  Sappho,  into  English 
blank  verse,  by  L.  C.  C.  (1855).     Guido  Sorelli's  versione  italiana 
of  Saffo  was  published  in   1819.      Perhaps   Byron's   curious  ana- 
chronism, where  he  makes  Sardanapalus  (act  iii.  sc.  l)  say — 

"  Sing  me  a  song  of  Sappho,  her,  thou  know'st, 

Who  in  thy  country  threw " 

is  due  to  the  impression  made  on  his  mind  by  Grillparzer's  Sappho. 

2.  Annibale  Caro  1(1507-1566)  translated  the  Aineid  into  blank 
verse  (printed  at  Venice  in  1581),  and  sang  the  praises  alternately  of 
Francis  I.  and  the  Emperor  Charles  V. 

3.  Adolf  Mullner  (1774-1829)  published  his  Die  Schuld  (1812). 
It  belongs  to  the  Schicksalsdrama,  or  "  Fate  Tragedies,"  in  which 
some  of  the  romantic  school,  e.g.  Zacharias  Werner,  Houwald,  etc., 
found  expression  for  the  new  thoughts  and  feelings  which  invaded 
the  rationalistic  world  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

172  EXTRACTS    FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

and  Italian  translations.  Of  the  real  language  I  know 
absolutely  nothing, — except  oaths  learned  from  postillions 
and  officers  in  a  squabble  !  I  can  swear  in  German 
potently,  when  I  like — "  Sacrament —  Verfluchter — Hunds- 
"foft" — and  so  forth;1  but  I  have  little  less  of  their 
energetic  conversation. 

I  like,  however,  their  women,  (I  was  once  so  desperately 
in  love  with  a  German  woman,  Constance,)  and  all  that  I 
have  read,  translated,  of  their  writings,  and  all  that  I  have 
seen  on  the  Rhine  of  their  country  and  people — all,  except 
the  Austrians,  whom  I  abhor,  loathe,  and — I  cannot  find 
words  for  my  hate  of  them,  and  should  be  sorry  to  find 
deeds  correspondent  to  my  hate;  for  I  abhor  cruelty 
more  than  I  abhor  the  Austrians — except  on  an  impulse, 
and  then  I  am  savage — but  not  deliberately  so. 

Grillparzer  is  grand — antique — not  so  simple  as  the 
ancients,  but  very  simple  for  a  modern — too  Madame  de 
StaehV/z,  now  and  then — but  altogether  a  great  and  goodly 

January  13,  1821,  Saturday. 

Sketched  the  outline  and  Drams.  Pers.  of  an  intended 
tragedy  of  Sardanapalus,  which  I  have  for  some  time 
meditated.  Took  the  names  from  Diodorus  Siculus, 
(I  know  the  history  of  Sardanapalus,  and  have  known  it 
since  I  was  twelve  years  old,)  and  read  over  a  passage  in 

I.   "  On  with  the  horses  ;  off  to  Canterbury  ! 

Tramp,   tramp  o'er  pebble,   and  splash,  splash   through 

puddle  ; 

Hurrah  !  how  swiftly  speeds  the  post  so  merry  ! 
Not  like  slow  Germany,  wherein  they  muddle 
Along  the  road,  as  if  they  went  to  bury 

Their  fare  ;  and  also  pause  besides,  to  fuddle 
With  '  schnapps ' — sad  dogs  !   whom  '  Hundsfott '  or  '  Ver- 
Affect  no  more  than  lightning  a  conductor." 

Don  Juan,  Canto  X.  stanza  Ixxi. 


the  ninth  vol.  octavo,  of  Mitford's  Greece,  where  he  rather 
vindicates  the  memory  of  this  last  of  the  Assyrians.1 

Dined — news  come — the  Powers  mean  to  war  with 
the  peoples.  The  intelligence  seems  positive — let  it  be 
so — they  will  be  beaten  in  the  end.  The  king-times  are 
fast  finishing.  There  will  be  blood  shed  like  water,  and 
tears  like  mist ;  but  the  peoples  will  conquer  in  the  end. 
I  shall  not  live  to  see  it,  but  I  foresee  it. 

I  carried  Teresa  the  Italian  translation  of  Grillparzer's 
Sappho,  which  she  promises  to  read.  She  quarrelled  with 
me,  because  I  said  that  love  was  not  tfie  loftiest  theme  for 
true  tragedy;  and,  having  the  advantage  of  her  native 
language,  and  natural  female  eloquence,  she  overcame 
my  fewer  arguments.  I  believe  she  was  right.  I  must 
put  more  love  into  Sardanapalus  than  I  intended.  I 
speak,  of  course,  if  the  times  will  allow  me  leisure.  That 
//  will  hardly  be  a  peace-maker. 

January  14,  1821. 

Turned  over  Seneca's  tragedies.  Wrote  the  opening 
lines  of  the  intended  tragedy  of  Sardanapalus.  Rode  out 
some  miles  into  the  forest.  Misty  and  rainy.  Returned — 
dined — wrote  some  more  of  my  tragedy. 

Read  Diodorus  Siculus — turned  over  Seneca,  and 
some  other  books.  Wrote  some  more  of  the  tragedy. 
Took  a  glass  of  grog.  After  having  ridden  hard  in  rainy 
weather,  and  scribbled,  and  scribbled  again,  the  spirits 

I.  The  passage  from  Mitford's  History  of  Greece  (vol.  ix.  pp.  311- 
313)  is  quoted  in  Sardanapalus,  as  a  note  to  act  i.  sc.  2 — 

"  Sardanapalus 

The  king,  and  son  of  Anacyndaraxes, 
In  one  day  built  Anchialus  and  Tarsus. 
Eat,  drink,  and  love  ;  the  rest's  not  worth  a  fillip." 
Sardanapalus,  a  Tragedy,  was  published  with  The  Two  Foscari, 
and   Cain,  a  Mystery,  in  December,    1821.     Murray  paid  for  the 
three  tragedies  .£2710. 

174  EXTRACTS   FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

(at  least  mine)  need  a  little  exhilaration,  and  I  don't  like 
laudanum  now  as  I  used  to  do.  So  I  have  mixed  a  glass 
of  strong  waters  and  single  waters,  which  I  shall  now 
proceed  to  empty.  Therefore  and  thereunto  I  conclude 
this  day's  diary. 

The  effect  of  all  wines  and  spirits  upon  me  is,  however, 
strange.  It  settles ,  but  it  makes  me  gloomy — gloomy  at 
the  very  moment  of  their  effect,  and  not  gay  hardly  ever. 
But  it  composes  for  a  time,  though  sullenly. 

January  15,  1821. 

Weather  fine.  Received  visit.  Rode  out  into  the 
forest — fired  pistols.  Returned  home — dined — dipped 
into  a  volume  of  Mitford's  Greece — wrote  part  of  a  scene 
of  Sardanapalus.  Went  out — heard  some  music — heard 
some  politics.  More  ministers  from  the  other  Italian 
powers  gone  to  Congress.  War  seems  certain — in  that 
case,  it  will  be  a  savage  one.  Talked  over  various  im- 
portant matters  with  one  of  the  initiated.  At  ten  and 
half  returned  home. 

I  have  just  thought  of  something  odd.  In  the  year 
1814,  Moore  ("the  poet," par  excellence^  and  he  deserves 
it)  and  I  were  going  together,  in  the  same  carriage,  to 
dine  with  Earl  Grey,1  the  Capo  Politico  of  the  remaining 

i.  Charles  Grey  (1764-1845)  succeeded  his  father  as  second  Earl 
Grey  in  1807.  As  M.P.  for  Northumberland  and  Appleby  (1786- 
1807),  he  was  prominent  in  opposition  to  Pitt,  and  support  of  Fox, 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  the  Friends  of  the  People,  and  a  con- 
sistent advocate  of  parliamentary  reform.  In  the  Fox  and  Grenville 
administration  of  1 806  he  was  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  and  on 
the  death  of  Fox,  in  September  of  that  year,  he  became  Secretary  of 
State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  leader  of  the  House  of  Commons  and  of 
the  Whig  party.  After  the  fall  of  the  Government  in  March,  1807, 
Lord  Grey  was  excluded  from  office  till  1830,  when  he  formed  the 
Reform  Bill  administration  of  1830-34.  He  married,  November 
1 8,  1794,  a  daughter  of  the  first  Lord  Ponsonby,  by  whom  he  had 
fifteen  children.  Byron  probably  refers  to  Lady  Louisa  Elizabeth 
Grey,  born  April  7,  1797,  who  married  (1816)  the  first  Earl  of 

1 82 1.]  FAME  AT   SIX-AND-TWENTY.  1 75 

Whigs.  Murray,  the  magnificent  (the  illustrious  publisher 
of  that  name),  had  just  sent  me  a  Java  gazette — I  know 
not  why,  or  wherefore.  Pulling  it  out,  by  way  of  curiosity, 
we  found  it  to  contain  a  dispute  (the  said  Java  gazette) 
on  Moore's  merits  and  mine.  I  think,  if  I  had  been 
there,  that  I  could  have  saved  them  the  trouble  of  dis- 
puting on  the  subject.  But,  there  is  fame  for  you  at  six 
and  twenty!  Alexander  had  conquered  India  at  the 
same  age;  but  I  doubt  if  he  was  disputed  about,  or  his 
conquests  compared  with  those  of  Indian  Bacchus,  at 

It  was  a  great  fame  to  be  named  with  Moore ;  greater 
to  be  compared  with  him;  greatest— pleasure,  at  least — 
to  be  with  him ;  and,  surely,  an  odd  coincidence,  that  we 
should  be  dining  together  while  they  were  quarrelling 
about  us  beyond  the  equinoctial  line. 

Well,  the  same  evening,  I  met  Lawrence x  the  painter, 

I.  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  (1769-1830),  the  son  of  an  innkeeper, 

was  knighted  in  1815,  and  became  President  of  the  Royal  Academy 

in  1820.     An  infant  prodigy,  he  drew,  from  the  age  of  six,  portraits 

of  his  father's  guests  at  the  Black  Bear  Inn,  Devizes.     His  prices 

rose  as  he  grew  in  fame.     "  A.  Ellis,"  writes  Jekyll,  in  December, 

1828  (Letters,  p.  189),  "  gives  Lawrence  five  hundred  guineas  for  a 

"portrait  of  Lady  G.  and  child.     I  have  a  picture  he  painted  for 

"half  a  guinea."     Though  he  made  a  large  income,  he  was  always 

in  money  difficulties,  mainly  through  his  passion  for  collecting  works 

of  art.     Rogers  lent  him  money  (Rogers  and  his  Contemporaries, 

vol.  i.  p.  426),  and,  when  Lawrence  came  to  his  door  at  night 

towards  Christmas,  1825,  "  in  a  state  of  alarming  agitation,"  asking 

for  a  few  thousand  pounds,  it  was  through  Rogers  that  Lord  Dudley 

saved  him  from  ruin  (ibid.,  pp.  423-425).    He  died  in  debt.    "  Poor 

''Sir  T.  Lawrence,"  writes  Jekyll,  January,  1830  (Letters,  p.  220), 

'  is  the  subject  of  universal  regret,  terribly  in  debt,  ^6000  they  say 

'  to  Lord  Dudley,  and  God  knows  how  much  to  others.  ...  It  is 

'  false  that  he  ever  played.     The  riches  of  his  portfolio  very  great, 

'  for  so  he  spent  all  he  had.     They  talk  of  a  value  of  ^60,000  in 

'sketches,  studies,  etc.,  of  the  great  masters,  an  irreparable  blow  to 

'  the  Academy.    No  such  successor  can  be  found."    His  good  looks 

and  good  manners,  combined  with  his  artistic  genius  and  intellectual 

gifts,  made  him  popular  in  society.     Greville  (Memoirs,  vol.  i.  p. 

263)  speaks  of  him,  at  the  age  of  sixty,  as  "  very  like  Canning  in 

176  EXTRACTS   FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

and  heard  one  of  Lord  Grey's  daughters  (a  fine,  tall, 
spirit-looking  girl,  with  much  of  the  patrician  thorough- 
bred look  of  her  father,  which  I  dote  upon)  play  on  the 
harp,  so  modestly  and  ingenuously,  that  she  looked  music, 
Well,  I  would  rather  have  had  my  talk  with  Lawrence 
(who  talked  delightfully)  and  heard  the  girl,  than  have 
had  all  the  fame  of  Moore  and  me  put  together. 

The  only  pleasure  of  fame  is  that  it  paves  the  way  to 
pleasure;  and  the  more  intellectual  our  pleasure,  the 
better  for  the  pleasure  and  for  us  too.  It  was,  however, 
agreeable  to  have  heard  our  fame  before  dinner,  and  a 
girl's  harp  after. 

January  16,  1821. 

Read — rode — fired  pistols — returned — dined — wrote 
— visited — heard  music — talked  nonsense — and  went 

Wrote  part  of  a  Tragedy — advanced  in  Act  ist  with 
"  all  deliberate  speed."  Bought  a  blanket.  The  weather 
is  still  muggy  as  a  London  May — mist,  mizzle,  the  air 
replete  with  Scotticisms,  which,  though  fine  in  the  descrip- 
tions of  Ossian,  are  somewhat  tiresome  in  real,  prosaic 
perspective.  Politics  still  mysterious. 

'  appearance,  remarkably  gentlemanlike,  with  very  mild  manners, 

'  though  rather  too  doucereux,  agreeable  in  society,  unassuming,  and 

'  not  a  great  talker  j  his  mind  was  highly  cultivated  ;  he  had  a  taste 

'  for  every  kind  of  literature,  and  was  enthusiastically  devoted  to  his 

'  art.  .  .  .  He  was  ...  a  generous  patron  of  young  artists  of  merit 

'  and  talent."     His  subjects  were  always  painted,  to  say  the  least,  at 

their  best.    His  portrait  of  George  IV.,  which  Moore  (Memoirs,  etc., 

vol.  iii.  p.  349)  described  as  "  disgraceful  both  to  the  king  and  the 

"painter:  a  lie  upon  canvas,"  is  an  exaggerated  example  of  his 

flattery.     At  the  time  when  Byron  wrote  (1821),  Lawrence  was  at 

Rome,  where  Lady  Morgan  saw  him  and  one  of  his  finest  pictures, 

the  portrait  of  Pope  Pius  VII.,  which,  she  says  (Memoirs,  vol.  ii.  p. 

123),  "  left  all  the  Italian  painters  in  despair." 

1 82 1.]  PLAN  FOR  ALLEGRA'S  STUDIES.  177 

January  17,  1821. 

Rode  i'  the  forest — fired  pistols — dined.  Arrived  a 
packet  of  books  from  England  and  Lombardy — English, 
Italian,  French,  and  Latin.  Read  till  eight — went  out. 

January  18,  1821. 

To-day,  the  post  arriving  late,  did  not  ride.  Read 
letters — only  two  gazettes  instead  of  twelve  now  due. 
Made  Lega  write  to  that  negligent  Galignani,  and  added 
a  postscript.  Dined. 

At  eight  proposed  to  go  out.  Lega  came  in  with  a 
letter  about  a  bill  rinpaid  at  Venice,  which  I  thought  paid 
months  ago.  I  flew  into  a  paroxysm  of  rage,  which 
almost  made  me  faint.  I  have  not  been  well  ever  since. 
I  deserve  it  for  being  such  a  fool — but  it  was  provoking 
— a  set  of  scoundrels  !  It  is,  however,  but  five  and  twenty 

January  19,  1821. 

Rode.  Winter's  wind  somewhat  more  unkind  than 
ingratitude  itself,  though  Shakspeare  says  otherwise. 
At  least,  I  am  so  much  more  accustomed  to  meet  with 
ingratitude  than  the  north  wind,  that  I  thought  the  latter 
the  sharper  of  the  two.  I  had  met  with  both  in  the 
course  of  the  twenty-four  hours,  so  could  judge. 

Thought  of  a  plan  of  education  for  my  daughter 
Allegra,  who  ought  to  begin  soon  with  her  studies. 
Wrote  a  letter — afterwards  a  postscript.  Rather  in  low 
spirits — certainly  hippish — liver  touched — will  take  a  dose 
of  salts. 

I   have    been    reading    the    Life,   by    himself    and 

daughter,   of  Mr.  R.   L.  Edgeworth,  the   father  of  the 

Miss    Edgeworth.      It   is  altogether  a  great  name.     In 

1813,  I  recollect  to  have  met  them  in  the  fashionable 

VOL.  v.  N 


world  of  London  (of  which  I  then  formed  an  item,  a 
fraction,  the  segment  of  a  circle,  the  unit  of  a  million,  the 
nothing  of  something)  in  the  assemblies  of  the  hour,  and 
at  a  breakfast  of  Sir  Humphry  and  Lady  Davy's,  to 
which  I  was  invited  for  the  nonce.  I  had  been  the  lion 
of  1812 :  Miss  Edgeworth  and  Madame  de  Stael,  with 
"  the  Cossack,"  towards  the  end  of  1813,  were  the  exhi- 
bitions of  the  succeeding  year.1 

I  thought  Edgeworth  a  fine  old  fellow,  of  a  clarety, 
elderly,  red  complexion,  but  active,  brisk,  and  endless. 
He  was  seventy,  but  did  not  look  fifty — no,  nor  forty- 
eight  even.  I  had  seen  poor  Fitzpatrick  not  very  long 
before — a  man  of  pleasure,  wit,  eloquence,  all  things.2 
He  tottered — but  still  talked  like  a  gentleman,  though 
feebly.  Edgeworth  bounced  about,  and  talked  loud  and 
long ;  but  he  seemed  neither  weakly  nor  decrepit,  and 
hardly  old. 

He  began  by  telling  "  that  he  had  given  Dr.  Parr  a 
"  dressing,  who  had  taken  him  for  an  Irish  bogtrotter,"  etc., 
etc.  Now  I,  who  know  Dr.  Parr,  and  who  know  (not  by 

1.  Richard  Lovell  Edgeworth  (1744-1817),  father  of  Maria  Edge- 
worth  (1767-1849),  was  in  London  in  1813,  with  his  fourth  wife  (nee 
Beaufort).     His  Memoirs,  completed  by  Maria,  were  published  in 

"  May  II,  1813.  Mr.,  Mrs.,  and  Miss  Edgeworth  are  just  come 
'  over  from  Ireland,  and  are  the  general  objects  of  curiosity  and 
'  attention.  .  .  .  Miss  Edgeworth  is  a  most  agreeable  person,  very 
'  natural,  clever,  and  well-informed,  without  the  least  pretensions 
1  of  authorship.  She  had  never  been  in  a  large  society  before,  and 
'  she  was  followed  and  courted  by  all  the  persons  of  distinction  in 
'  London,  with  an  avidity  almost  without  example." — Sir  J.  Mack- 
intosh, Life,  vol.  ii.  p.  267.  See  also  Letters,  vol.  ii.  p.  391,  note  l. 

2.  General  Richard  Fitzpatrick  (1747-1813),  second  son  of  the 
first  Earl  of  Ossory,  was  for  forty  years  the  intimate  friend  of  Fox. 
He  was  Secretary  at  War  to  the  coalition  ministry  of  1783  ;  and 
again  in  1806,  during  the  Fox  and  Grenville  administration.     He 
wrote  various  poetical  trifles  ;  among  others,  The  Bath  Picture  (1772), 
Dorinda  (1775).     To  The  Rolliad  he  contributed  "The  Lyars,"  a 
political  eclogue  between  Prettyman  (sic)  and  Banks. 

1 82 1.]  MARIA  EDGEWORTH'S  FATHER.  179 

experience — for  I  never  should  have  presumed  so  far  as  to 
contend  with  him — but  by  hearing  him  with  others,  and 
Bothers)  that  it  is  not  so  easy  a  matter  to  "dress  him," 
thought  Mr.  Edgeworth  an  assertor  of  what  was  not  true. 
He  could  not  have  stood  before  Parr  for  an  instant.  For 
the  rest,  he  seemed  intelligent,  vehement,  vivacious,  and 
full  of  life.  He  bids  fair  for  a  hundred  years. 

He  was  not  much  admired  in  London,  and  I  re- 
member a  "  ryghte  merrie  "  and  conceited  jest  which  was 
rife  among  the  gallants  of  the  day, — viz.  a  paper  had 
been  presented  for  the  recall  of  Mrs.  Siddons  to  the  stage, 
(she  having  lately  taken  leave,  to  the  loss  of  ages, — for 
nothing  ever  was,  or  can  be,  like  her,)  to  which  all  men 
had  been  called  to  subscribe.  Whereupon  Thomas 
Moore,  of  profane  and  poetical  memory,  did  propose  that 
a  similar  paper  should  be  Ascribed  and  transcribed 
"  for  the  recall  of  Mr.  Edgeworth  to  Ireland." * 

The  fact  was — every  body  cared  more  about  her.  She 
was  a  nice  little  unassuming  "  Jeanie  Deans-looking  body," 
as  we  Scotch  say — and,  if  not  handsome,  certainly  not 
ill-looking.  Her  conversation  was  as  quiet  as  herself. 
One  would  never  have  guessed  she  could  write  her  name; 
whereas  her  father  talked,  not  as  if  he  could  write  nothing 
else,  but  as  if  nothing  else  was  worth  writing. 

As  for  Mrs.  Edgeworth,  I  forget' — except  that  I  think 
she  was  the  youngest  of  the  party.  Altogether,  they  were 
an  excellent  cage  of  the  kind;  and  succeeded  for  two 
months,  till  the  landing  of  Madame  de  Stael. 

To  turn  from  them  to  their  works,  I  admire  them ; 
but  they  excite  no  feeling,  and  they  leave  no  love — except 
for  some  Irish  steward  or  postillion.  However,  the 

I.  "In  this  I  rather  think  Byron  was  misinformed  ;  whatever 
"  merit  there  may  be  in  the  jest,  I  have  not,  as  far  as  I  can  recollect, 
"  the  slightest  claim  to  it"  (Moore). 

l8o  EXTRACTS    FROM   A  DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

impression  of  intellect  and  prudence  is  profound — and 
may  be  useful.1 

January  21,  1821. 

Rode — fired  pistols.  Read  from  Grimm's  Corre- 
spondence. Dined — went  out — heard  music — returned — 
wrote  a  letter  to  the  Lord  Chamberlain  to  request  him  to 
prevent  the  theatres  from  representing  the  Doge,  which 
the  Italian  papers  say  that  they  are  going  to  act.  This  is 
pretty  work — what !  without  asking  my  consent,  and  even 
in  opposition  to  it ! 

January  21,  1821. 

Fine,  clear,  frosty  day — that  is  to  say,  an  Italian  frost, 
for  their  winters  hardly  get  beyond  snow;  for  which 
reason  nobody  knows  how  to  skate  (or  skait) — a  Dutch 
and  English  accomplishment.  Rode  out,  as  usual,  and 
fired  pistols.  Good  shooting — broke  four  common,  and 
rather  small,  bottles,  in  four  shots,  at  fourteen  paces,  with 
a  common  pair  of  pistols  and  indifferent  powder.  Almost 
as  good  wafering  or  shooting — considering  the  difference 
of  powder  and  pistol, — as  when,  in  1809,  1810,  1811, 
1812,  1813,  1814,  it  was  my  luck  to  split  walking-sticks, 
wafers,  half-crowns,  shillings,  and  even  the  eye  of  a 

I.  "In  my  first  enthusiasm  of  admiration,  I  thought  that  [Miss 
'  Edgeworth]  had  first  made  fiction  useful ;  but  every  fiction  since 
'  Homer  has  taught  friendship,  patriotism,  generosity,  contempt  of 
4  death.  These  are  the  highest  virtues  ;  and  the  fictions  which 
4  taught  them  were  therefore  of  the  highest,  though  not  of  unmixed 
'  utility.  Miss  Edgeworth  inculcates  prudence,  and  the  many 
'  virtues  of  that  family.  Are  these  excellent  virtues  higher  or  more 
'  useful  than  those  of  fortitude  and  benevolence  ?  Certainly  not. 
'  Where,  then,  is  Miss  Edgeworth's  merit  ?  Her  merit — her 
'  extraordinary  merit,  both  as  a  moralist  and  as  a  woman  of  genius 
'  — consists  in  her  having  selected  a  class  of  virtues  far  more  difficult 
'  to  treat  as  the  subject  of  fiction  than  others,  and  which  had  there- 
'  fore  been  left  by  former  writers  to  her." — Sir  James  Mackintosh, 
Life,  vol.  ii.  p.  42. 

l82I.]         THIRTY   AND   THREE   YEARS    OF    AGE.  l8l 

walking-stick,  at  twelve  paces,  with  a  single  bullet — and  all 
by  eye  and  calculation ;  for  my  hand  is  not  steady,1  and 
apt  to  change  with  the  very  weather.  To  the  prowess 
which  I  here  note,  Joe  Manton  and  others  can  bear 
testimony ;  for  the  former  taught,  and  the  latter  has  seen 
me  do,  these  feats. 

Dined — visited — came  home — read.  Remarked  on 
an  anecdote  in  Grimm's  Correspondence^  which  says  that 
"  Regnard  et  la  plupart  des  poe'tes  comiques  dtaient  gens 
"bilieux  et  melancoliques ;  et  que  M.  de  Voltaire,  qui 
"  est  tres  gai,  n'a  jamais  fait  que  des  tragedies — et  que  la 
"  come'die  gaie  est  le  seul  genre  ou  il  n'ait  point  re'ussi. 
"  C'est  que  celui  qui  rit  et  celui  qui  fait  rire  sont  deux 
"  hommes  fort  diffe'rens."— Vol.  VI. 

At  this  moment  I  feel  as  bilious  as  the  best  comic 
writer  of  them  all,  (even  as  Regnard  2  himself,  the  next 
to  Moliere,  who  has  written  some  of  the  best  comedies 
in  any  language,  and  who  is  supposed  to  have  committed 
suicide,)  and  am  not  in  spirits  to  continue  my  proposed 
tragedy  of  Sardanapahis^  which  I  have,  for  some  days, 
ceased  to  compose. 

To-morrow  is  my  birth-day — that  is  to  say,  at  twelve 
o'  the  clock,  midnight,  i.e.  in  twelve  minutes,  I  shall  have 
completed  thirty  and  three  years  of  age  ! ! ! — and  I  go  to 
my  bed  with  a  heaviness  of  heart  at  having  lived  so  long, 
and  to  so  little  purpose. 

1.  Medwin  (The  Angler  in  Wales,  vol.  ii.  p.  183)  says,  "  It  was 
"  always  a  matter  of  wonder  to  me  how  Byron  ever  struck  the  mark. 
"His  aim  was  long  and  his  hand  trembled  as  though  he  had  St. 
"  Vitus's  dance." 

2.  To  Jean  Fra^ois  Regnard  (1655-1709)  is  generally  assigned, 
as  Byron  says,  the  next  place  after  Moliere  as  a  writer  of  comedies. 
He  wrote  both  for  the  Theatre  Italien  and  the  Theatre  Fran£ais ; 
but  his  best  pieces  were  written  for  the  latter  (1694-1708).     Among 
them  are  Lejoueur  (1696) ;  Le  Distrait (1697)  ;  Les  Folies  Amoureuses 
(1704)  ;  Le  Ltgataire  Universel  (1708).     There  seems  no  foundation 
for  the  charge  of  suicide. 

1 82  EXTRACTS    FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

It  is  three  minutes  past  twelve. — "  'Tis  the  middle  of 
"  the  night  by  the  castle  clock,"  l  and  I  am  now  thirty-three  ! 

"Eheu,  fugaces,  Posthume,  Posthume, 
Labuntur  anni ; "  * — 

but  I  don't  regret  them  so  much  for  what  I  have  done,  as 
for  what  I  might  have  done. 

Through  life's  road,  so  dim  and  dirty, 
I  have  dragged  to  three-and-thirty. 
What  have  these  years  left  to  me  ? 
Nothing — except  thirty-three. 

January  22,  1821. 
Here  lies 
interred  in  the  Eternity 

of  the  Past, 
from  whence  there  is  no 

for  the  Days — Whatever  there  may  be 

for  the  Dust — 

the  Thirty-Third  Year 

of  an  ill-spent  Life, 

Which,  after 

a  lingering  disease  of  many  months 
sunk  into  a  lethargy, 

and  expired, 

January  22d,  1821,  A.  D. 

Leaving  a  successor 


for  the  very  loss  which 

occasioned  its 


1.  Coleridge's  Christabel,  Part  I.  line  I. 

2.  Horace,  Carm.  II.  xiv.  1-2. 

1821.]  NOTHING   BUT   WAR.  183 

January  23,  1821. 

Fine  day.  Read — rode — fired  pistols,  and  returned. 
Dined — read.  Went  out  at  eight — made  the  usual  visit. 
Heard  of  nothing  but  war, — "  the  cry  is  still,  They 
"  come." 1  The  Carbonari  seem  to  have  no  plan — nothing 
fixed  among  themselves,  how,  when,  or  what  to  do.  In 
that  case,  they  will  make  nothing  of  this  project,  so  often 
postponed,  and  never  put  in  action. 

Came  home,  and  gave  some  necessary  orders,  in  case 
of  circumstances  requiring  a  change  of  place.  I  shall 
act  according  to  what  may  seem  proper,  when  I  hear 
decidedly  what  the  Barbarians  mean  to  do.  At  present, 
they  are  building  a  bridge  of  boats  over  the  Po,  which 
looks  very  warlike.  A  few  days  will  probably  show.  I 
think  of  retiring  towards  Ancona,  nearer  the  northern 
frontier;  that  is  to  say,  if  Teresa  and  her  father  are 
obliged  to  retire,  which  is  most  likely,  as  all  the  family 
are  Liberals.  If  not,  I  shall  stay.  But  my  movements 
will  depend  upon  the  lady's  wishes — for  myself,  it  is  much 
the  same. 

I  am  somewhat  puzzled  what  to  do  with  my  little 
daughter,  and  my  effects,  which  are  of  some  quantity  and 
value, — and  neither  of  them  do  in  the  seat  of  war,  where 
I  think  of  going.  But  there  is  an  elderly  lady  who  will 
take  charge  of  her,  and  T.  says  that  the  Marchese  C.  will 
undertake  to  hold  the  chattels  in  safe  keeping.  Half  the 
city  are  getting  their  affairs  in  marching  trim.  A  pretty 
Carnival !  The  blackguards  might  as  well  have  waited 
till  Lent. 

January  24,  1821. 

Returned — met  some  masques  in  the  Corso —  Vive  la 
bagatelle  ! — the  Germans  are  on  the  Po,  the  Barbarians  at 
I.  Macbeth^  act  v.  sc.  5. 

184  EXTRACTS    FROM    A    DIARY.          [CHAP.  XXI. 

the  gate,  and  their  masters  in  council  at  Leybach  (or 
whatever  the  eructation  of  the  sound  may  syllable  into 
a  human  pronunciation),  and  lo !  they  dance  and  sing 
and  make  merry,  "  for  to-morrow  they  may  die."  Who 
can  say  that  the  Arlequins  are  not  right  ?  Like  the  Lady 
Baussiere,  and  my  old  friend  Burton — I  "  rode  on." J 

Dined — (damn  this  pen  !) — beef  tough — there  is  no 
beef  in  Italy  worth  a  curse ;  unless  a  man  could  eat  an 
old  ox  with  the  hide  on,  singed  in  the  sun. 

The  principal  persons  in  the  events  which  may  occur 
in  a  few  days  are  gone  out  on  a  shooting  party.  If  it 
were  like  a  "  highland  hunting,"  a  pretext  of  the  chase 
for  a  grand  re-union  of  counsellors  and  chiefs,  it  would 
be  all  very  well.  But  it  is  nothing  more  or  less  than  a 
real  snivelling,  popping,  small-shot,  water-hen  waste  of 
powder,  ammunition,  and  shot,  for  their  own  special 
amusement :  a  rare  set  of  fellows  for  "  a  man  to  risk  his 
"neck  with,"  as  "Marishall  Wells"  says  in  the  Black 

If  they  gather, — "  whilk  is  to  be  doubted," — they  will 
not  muster  a  thousand  men.  The  reason  of  this  is,  that 
the  populace  are  not  interested, — only  the  higher  and 
middle  orders.  I  wish  that  the  peasantry  were ;  they  are 

1.  "The  Lady  Baussiere  had  got  into  a  wilderness  of  conceits, 
'  with  moralizing  too  intricately  upon  La  Fosseus^s  text She 

•  mounted  her  palfrey,  her  page  followed  her — the  host  passed  by — 
'  the  Lady  Baussiere  rode  on. 

'"One  denier,'  cried  the  Order  of  Mercy — ' one  single  denier,  in 
1  behalf  of  a  thousand  patient  captives,  whose  eyes  look  towards 

•  heaven  and  you  for  their  redemption.' 

" The  Lady  Baussiere  rode  on." — Tristram  Shandy,  bk.  v. 

chap.  i. 

Byron  was  a  devoted  admirer  of  Burton's  Anatomy  of  Melancfioly, 
and,  like  him  in  his  part  of  "  Democritus  Junior,"  and  like  the 
Italians,  laughed  at  misfortunes. 

2.  "  '  For  my  part,  I  won't  enter  my  horse  for  such  a  plate,'  said 
' '  Mareschal ;  and  added,  betwixt  his  teeth,  '  A  pretty  pair  of  fellows 
"  to  trust  a  man's  neck  with.' " — The  Black  Dwarf,  chap.  xiii. 

l82I.]  AN    UNFORTUNATE    YEAR.  185 

a  fine  savage  race  of  two-legged  leopards.  But  the 
Bolognese  won't — the  Romagnuoles  can't  without  them. 
Or,  if  they  try — what  then  ?  They  will  try,  and  man  can 
do  no  more — and,  if  he  would  but  try  his  utmost,  much 
might  be  done.  The  Dutch,  for  instance,  against  the 
Spaniards — then  the  tyrants  of  Europe,  since,  the  slaves, 
and,  lately,  the  freedmen. 

The  year  1820  was  not  a  fortunate  one  for  the  indi- 
vidual me,  whatever  it  may  be  for  the  nations.  I  lost  a 
lawsuit,  after  two  decisions  in  my  favour.  The  project 
of  lending  money  on  an  Irish  mortgage  was  finally  rejected 
by  my  wife's  trustee  after  a  year's  hope  and  trouble.  The 
Rochdale  lawsuit  had  endured  fifteen  years,  and  always 
prospered  till  I  married;  since  which,  every  thing  has 
gone  wrong — with  me  at  least. 

In  the  same  year,  1820,  the  Countess  T.  G.  nata 
G!.  G1.,  in  despite  of  all  I  said  and  did  to  prevent  it, 
woiild  separate  from  her  husband,  II  Cavalier  Commen- 
datore  G'.,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  and  all  on  the  account  of  "  P.  P. 
"  clerk  of  this  parish."  1  The  other  little  petty  vexations 
of  the  year — overturns  in  carriages — the  murder  of  people 
before  one's  door,  and  dying  in  one's  beds — the  cramp 
in  swimming — colics — indigestions  and  bilious  attacks, 
etc.,  etc.,  etc. — 

"  Many  small  articles  make  up  a  sum, 
And  hey  ho  for  Caleb  Quotem,  oh  !  "  * 

1.  Alluding  to    Pope's  Memoirs  of  P.P.  Clerk   of  this  Parish, 
which  were  probably  intended,  though  Pope  denied  it  in  his  Prole- 
gomena to  the  Dunciad,  as  a  skit  on  Bishop  Burnet's  History  of  my 
own  Times.     See  Papers  Works,  ed.  Elwin  and  Courthope,  vol.  x. 
P-  435- 

2.  "  Many  small  articles  make  up  a  sum  ; 

I  dabble  in  all — I'm  merry  and  rum  ; 
And  'tis  heigho  !  for  Caleb  Quotem,  O  !  " 

—  The  Review,  or  the   Wags  of  Windsor  (by  George  Colman  the 
Younger),  sc.  4. 

1 86  EXTRACTS    FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

January  25,  1821. 

Received  a  letter  from  Lord  S.  O.,1  state  secretary  of 
the  Seven  Islands — a  fine  fellow — clever — dished  in  Eng- 
land five  years  ago,  and  came  abroad  to  retrench  and 
to  renew.  He  wrote  from  Ancona,  in  his  way  back  to 
Corfu,  on  some  matters  of  our  own.  He  is  son  of  the 
late  Duke  of  L[eeds]  by  a  second  marriage.  He  wants 
me  to  go  to  Corfu.  Why  not? — perhaps  I  may,  next 

Answered  Murray's  letter — read — lounged.  Scrawled 
this  additional  page  of  life's  log-book.  One  day  more  is 
over  of  it  and  of  me : — but  "  which  is  best,  life  or  death, 
"  the  gods  only  know,"  as  Socrates  said  to  his  judges,  on 
the  breaking  up  of  the  tribunal.2  Two  thousand  years 
since  that  sage's  declaration  of  ignorance  have  not  en- 
lightened us  more  upon  this  important  point ;  for,  accord- 
ing to  the  Christian  dispensation,  no  one  can  know 
whether  he  is  sure  of  salvation — even  the  most  righteous 
— since  a  single  slip  of  faith  may  throw  him  on  his  back, 
like  a  skaiter,  while  gliding  smoothly  to  his  paradise. 
Now,  therefore,  whatever  the  certainty  of  faith  in  the 
facts  may  be,  the  certainty  of  the  individual  as  to  his 
happiness  or  misery  is  no  greater  than  it  was  under 

It  has  been  said  that  the  immortality  of  the  soul  is  a 

1.  Sidney    Godolphin    Osborne    (1789-1861),    son    of   Francis 
Godolphin,  fifth  Duke  of  Leeds,  by  his  second  wife,  Catherine, 
daughter  of  Thomas  Anguish.     He  was  therefore  stepson  to  Lady 
Amelia  d'Arcy,  afterwards  Baroness  Conyers  in  her  own  right,  who 
married  (l)  the  Marquis  of  Carmarthen,  afterwards  fifth  Duke  of 
Leeds,  from  whom  she  was  divorced  in  1779  ;  and  (2)  Captain  Byron, 
father  of  the  poet,  by  whom  she  was  the  mother  of  Augusta  Leigh. 

2.  "  Sed  tempus  est,"  inquit,  "jam  hinc  abire,  me  ut  moriar,  vos 
"  ut  vitam  agatis.     Utrum  autem  sit  melius,  Dii  immortales  sciunt  : 
"hominem  quidem  scire  arbitror  neminem." — Cicero,  Tusc.  Quast., 

1 82 1.]  TRE  CROC/.  187 

grand peut-etre — but  still  it  is  a  grand  one.  Every  body 
clings  to  it — the  stupidest,  and  dullest,  and  wickedest  of 
human  bipeds  is  still  persuaded  that  he  is  immortal. 

January  26,  1821. 

Fine  day — a  few  mares'  tails  portending  change,  but 
the  sky  clear,  upon  the  whole.  Rode — fired  pistols — 
good  shooting.  Coming  back,  met  an  old  man.  Charity 
— purchased  a  shilling's  worth  of  salvation.  If  that  was 
to  be  bought,  I  have  given  more  to  my  fellow-creatures 
in  this  life — sometimes  for  vice,  but,  if  not  more  often,  at 
least  more  considerably,  for  virtue — than  I  now  possess. 
I  never  in  my  life  gave  a  mistress  so  much  as  I  have 
sometimes  given  a  poor  man  in  honest  distress ;  but  no 
matter.  The  scoundrels  who  have  all  along  persecuted 
me  (with  the  help  of  *  *  who  has  crowned  their  efforts) 
will  triumph ; — and,  when  justice  is  done  to  me,  it  will  be 
when  this  hand  that  writes  is  as  cold  as  the  hearts  which 
have  stung  me. 

Returning,  on  the  bridge  near  the  mill,  met  an  old 
woman.  I  asked  her  age — she  said  "  Tre  croci" *  I  asked 
my  groom  (though  myself  a  decent  Italian)  what  the  devil 
her  three  crosses  meant.  He  said,  ninety  years,  and  that 
she  had  five  years  more  to  boot ! !  I  repeated  the  same 
three  times — not  to  mistake — ninety-five  years  ! ! ! — and 
she  was  yet  rather  active — heard  my  question,  for  she 
answered  it — saw  me,  for  she  advanced  towards  me ;  and 
did  not  appear  at  all  decrepit,  though  certainly  touched 
with  years.  Told  her  to  come  to-morrow,  and  will 
examine  her  myself.  I  love  phenomena.  If  she  is 

I.  A  croce  =  ten  years;  therefore  tre  croci  =  thirty  years  (i.e. 
XXX.).  "  Probably,"  said  Signer  Sabastiani  Fusconi  (himself 
exiled  with  the  Gambas  in  1821)  to  Mr.  Richard  Edgcumbe,  "the 
"old  woman  replied,  Tre  Ire  croci,"  i.e.  ninety  years.  Byron  gave 
her  a  pension  during  the  rest  of  her  life. 

1 88  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

ninety-five  years  old,  she  must  recollect  the  Cardinal 
Alberoni,1  who  was  legate  here. 

On  dismounting,  found  Lieutenant  E.  just  arrived 
from  Faenza.  Invited  him  to  dine  with  me  to-morrow. 
Did  not  invite  him  for  to-day,  because  there  was  a  small 
turbotj  (Friday,  fast  regularly  and  religiously,2)  which  I 
wanted  to  eat  all  myself.  Ate  it. 

Went  out — found  T.  as  usual — music.  The  gentle- 
men, who  make  revolutions  and  are  gone  on  a  shooting, 
are  not  yet  returned.  They  don't  return  till  Sunday — 
that  is  to  say,  they  have  been  out  for  five  days,  buffoon- 
ing, while  the  interests  of  a  whole  country  are  at  stake, 
and  even  they  themselves  compromised. 

It  is  a  difficult  part  to  play  amongst  such  a  set  of 
assassins  and  blockheads — but,  when  the  scum  is  skimmed 
off,  or  has  boiled  over,  good  may  come  of  it.  If  this 
country  could  but  be  freed,  what  would  be  too  great  for 
the  accomplishment  of  that  desire?  for  the  extinction 
of  that  Sigh  of  Ages  ?  Let  us  hope.  They  have  hoped 
these  thousand  years.  The  very  revolvement  of  the 
chances  may  bring  it — it  is  upon  the  dice. 

If  the  Neapolitans  have  but  a  single   Massaniello  3 

1.  Alberoni   (1664-1752),  the  son  of  a  gardener  of  Placentia, 
through  the  Duke  of  Parma  and  his  niece,  Elizabeth  Farnese,  Queen 
of  Spain,  rose  to  be  the  ruler  of  Spain  from  1715  to  I7i9,under  Philip 
V.     After  his  downfall  he  returned  to  Italy,  his  native  country, 
suffered,  at  the  hands  of  Pope  Innocent  III.,  a  sort  of  imprisonment 
which  lasted  four  years,  was   restored  to  his   rights  as  cardinal  in 
1723,  and  made  legate  to  the  Romagna  (1734-39).      As  legate, 
in  1739,  he  endeavoured  to  unite  the  republic  of  San  Marino  to  the 
Papal  dominions,  representing  to  Clement  XII.  that  it  was  a  second 
Geneva.     The  attempt  failed,  and  in  1740  Alberoni  was  removed 
by  Benedict  XIV.  from  the  Romagna  to  Bologna.     The  story  is  told 
in  Lady  Morgan's  Italy  (vol.  iii.  pp.  236,  237),  where  it  was  possibly 
read  by  Byron. 

2.  "Byron,"  says  Medwin  (The  Angler  in  Wales,  vol.  i.  p.  118), 
' '  who  was  a  '  virtuous  man  '  in  FalstafFs  sense  of  the  word,  had  great 
''  faith  in  abstinence,  for  on  Friday  he  would  not  touch  beccaficas." 

3.  Tommaso  Aniello  (1623-1647),  a  fisherman  of  Amalfi,  headed  a 

1821.]  SUBJECTS   OF    FOUR   TRAGEDIES.  189 

amongst  them,  they  will  beat  the  bloody  butchers  of  the 
crown  and  sabre.  Holland,  in  worse  circumstances,  beat 
the  Spains  and  Philips ;  America  beat  the  English ; 
Greece  beat  Xerxes;  and  France  beat  Europe,  till  she 
took  a  tyrant ;  South  America  beats  her  old  vultures  out 
of  their  nest ;  and,  if  these  men  are  but  firm  in  them- 
selves, there  is  nothing  to  shake  them  from  without. 

January  28,  1821. 

Lugano  Gazette  did  not  come.  Letters  from  Venice. 
It  appears  that  the  Austrian  brutes  have  seized  my  three 
or  four  pounds  of  English  powder.  The  scoundrels ! — I 
hope  to  pay  them  in  ball  for  that  powder.  Rode  out 
till  twilight. 

Pondered  the  subjects  of  four  tragedies  to  be  written 
(life  and  circumstances  permitting),  to  wit,  Sardanapalus, 
already  begun;  Cain,  a  metaphysical  subject,  something 
in  the  style  of  Manfred,  but  in  five  acts,  perhaps,  with  the 
chorus ;  Francesca  of  Rimini,  in  five  acts ;  and  I  am  not 
sure  that  I  would  not  try  Tiberius.  I  think  that  I  could 
extract  a  something,  of  my  tragic,  at  least,  out  of  the 
gloomy  sequestration  and  old  age  of  the  tyrant — and 
even  out  of  his  sojourn  at  Caprea — by  softening  the 
details,  and  exhibiting  the  despair  which  must  have  led 
to  those  very  vicious  pleasures.  For  none  but  a  powerful 
and  gloomy  mind  overthrown  would  have  had  recourse 
to  such  solitary  horrors, — being  also,  at  the  same  time, 
o Id,  and  the  master  of  the  world. 


What  is  Poetry  ? — The  feeling  of  a  Former  world  and 

rising  of  the  Neapolitans  in  1647,  and  compelled  the  Spanish  Viceroy, 
Arcos,  to  abolish  unpopular  taxes,  and  to  proclaim  an  amnesty.  But 
his  cruelty  alienated  his  followers,  and,  after  being  master  of  Naples 
for  seven  days,  he  was  assassinated  by  order  of  the  viceroy. 

I  go  EXTRACTS   FROM   A  DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

Thoiight  Second. 

Why,  at  the  very  height  of  desire  and  human  pleasure, 
— worldly,  social,  amorous,  ambitious,  or  even  avaricious, 
— does  there  mingle  a  certain  sense  of  doubt  and  sorrow — 
a  fear  of  what  is  to  come — a  doubt  of  what  is — a  retro- 
spect to  the  past,  leading  to  a  prognostication  of  the 
future  ?  (The  best  of  Prophets  of  the  future  is  the  Past.) 
Why  is  this,  or  these? — I  know  not,  except  that  on  a 
pinnacle  we  are  most  susceptible  of  giddiness,  and  that 
we  never  fear  falling  except  from  a  precipice — the  higher, 
the  more  awful,  and  the  more  sublime ;  and,  therefore,  I 
am  not  sure  that  Fear  is  not  a  pleasurable  sensation ;  at 
least,  Hope  is;  and  what  Hope  is  there  without  a  deep 
leaven  of  Fear?  and  what  sensation  is  so  delightful  as 
Hope?  and,  if  it  were  not  for  Hope,  where  would  the 
Future  be? — in  hell.  It  is  useless  to  say  where  the 
Present  is,  for  most  of  us  know ;  and  as  for  the  Past, 
what  predominates  in  memory? — Hope  baffled.  Ergo, 
in  all  human  affairs,  it  is  Hope — Hope — Hope.  I  allow 
sixteen  minutes,  though  I  never  counted  them,  to  any 
given  or  supposed  possession.  From  whatever  place  we 
commence,,  we  know  where  it  all  must  end.  And  yet, 
what  good  is  there  in  knowing  it?  It  does  not  make 
men  better  or  wiser.  During  the  greatest  horrors  of  the 
greatest  plagues,  (Athens  and  Florence,  for  example — 
see  Thucydides  and  Machiavelli,)  men  were  more  cruel 
and  profligate  than  ever.  It  is  all  a  mystery.  I  feel 
most  things,  but  I  know  nothing,  except 

i.  "  Thus  marked,  with  impatient  strokes  of  the  pen,  by  himself 
"  in  the  original  "  (Moore). 

1 82 1.]      SCHLEGEL'S  HISTORY  OF  LITERATURE.          191 

Thought  for  a  Speech  of  Lucifer,  in  the  Tragedy  of  Cain: — 

Were  Death  an  evil,  would  /  let  thee  live  ? 
Fool !  live  as  I  live — as  thy  father  lives, 
And  thy  son's  sons  shall  live  for  evermore. 

Past  Midnight.     One  o'  the  clock. 

I  have  been  reading  Frederick  Schlegel1  (brother  to 
the  other  of  the  name)  till  now,  and  I  can  make  out 
nothing.  He  evidently  shows  a  great  power  of  words, 
but  there  is  nothing  to  be  taken  hold  of.  He  is  like 
Hazlitt,  in  English,  who  talks  pimpks — a  red  and  white 
corruption  rising  up  (in  little  imitation  of  mountains  upon 
maps),  but  containing  nothing,  and  discharging  nothing, 
except  their  own  humours. 

I  dislike  him  the  worse,  (that  is,  Schlegel,)  because  he 
always  seems  upon  the  verge  of  meaning;  and,  lo,  he 
goes  down  like  sunset,  or  melts  like  a  rainbow,  leaving  a 
rather  rich  confusion, — to  which,  however,  the  above 
comparisons  do  too  much  honour. 

Continuing  to  read  Mr.  Frederick  Schlegel.  He  is 
not  such  a  fool  as  I  took  him  for,  that  is  to  say,  when  he 
speaks  of  the  North.  But  still  he  speaks  of  things  all 
over  the  world  with  a  kind  of  authority  that  a  philosopher 
would  disdain,  and  a  man  of  common  sense,  feeling,  and 
knowledge  of  his  own  ignorance,  would  be  ashamed  of. 
The  man  is  evidently  wanting  to  make  an  impression, 
like  his  brother, — or  like  George  in  the  Vicar  of  Wake- 
field,  who  found  out  that  all  the  good  things  had  been 
said  already  on  the  right  side,  and  therefore  "  dressed  up 

I.  Karl  Wilhelm  Friedrich  Schlegel  (1772-1829)  began  his  lite- 
rary career  with  his  novel  Z.ucmde(i'jgg).  His  Sprache  und  Weisheit 
der  Indier  (1808),  chiefly  composed  in  Paris,  introduced  Sanskrit  to 
Europe.  Byron  was  probably  reading  his  History  of  Literature, 
lectures  delivered  at  Vienna  (1814)  and  translated  at  Edinburgh  in 

IQ2  EXTRACTS    FROM    A    DIARY.          [CHAP.  XXI. 

"  some  paradoxes  "  upon  the  wrong  side — ingenious,  but 
false,  as  he  himself  says — to  which  "  the  learned  world 
"said  nothing,  nothing  at  all,  sir."1  The  "learned 
"  world,"  however,  has  said  something  to  the  brothers 

It  is  high  time  to  think  of  something  else.  What 
they  say  of  the  antiquities  of  the  North  is  best. 

January  29,  1821. 

Yesterday,  the  woman  of  ninety-five  years  of  age  was 
with  me.  She  said  her  eldest  son  (if  now  alive)  would 
have  been  seventy.  She  is  thin — short,  but  active — hears, 
and  sees,  and  talks  incessantly.  Several  teeth  left — all  in 
the  lower  jaw,  and  single  front  teeth.  She  is  very  deeply 
wrinkled,  and  has  a  sort  of  scattered  grey  beard  over  her 
chin,  at  least  as  long  as  my  mustachios.  Her  head,  in 
fact,  resembles  the  drawing  in  crayons  of  Pope  the  poet's 
mother,  which  is  in  some  editions  of  his  works. 

I  forgot  to  ask  her  if  she  remembered  Alberoni 
(legate  here),  but  will  ask  her  next  time.  Gave  her  a 
louis — ordered  her  a  new  suit  of  clothes,  and  put  her 
upon  a  weekly  pension.  Till  now,  she  had  worked  at 
gathering  wood  and  pine-nuts  in  the  forest — pretty  work 
at  ninety-five  years  old  !  She  had  a  dozen  children,  of 
whom  some  are  alive.  Her  name  is  Maria  Montanari. 

Met  a  company  of  the  sect  (a  kind  of  Liberal  Club) 
called  the  Americani  in  the  forest,  all  armed,  and  singing, 
with  all  their  might,  in  Romagnuole — "  Sem  tutti  soldat' 
"  per  la  liberta  "  ("  we  are  all  soldiers  for  liberty  ").  They 

I .  "  '  Finding  that  the  best  things  remained  to  be  said  on  the  wrong 
'  side,  I  resolved  to  write  a  book  that  should  be  wholly  new.  I 
'  therefore  dressed  up  three  paradoxes  with  ingenuity.  They  were 
'  false  indeed,  but  they  were  new.' — '  Well  said,  my  boy,'  cried  I, 
'  '  and  what  did  the  learned  world  say  to  your  paradoxes  ?  ' — '  Sir,' 
'  replied  my  son,  '  the  learned  world  said  nothing  to  my  paradoxes  ; 
'  nothing  at  all,  Sir.'  " — Vicar  of  Wakefield,  chap.  xx. 

1 82 1.]  ENTHUSIASM    FOR   DANTE.  193 

cheered  me  as  I  passed — I  returned  their  salute,  and 
rode  on.  This  may  show  the  spirit  of  Italy  at  present. 

My  to-day's  journal  consists  of  what  I  omitted  yester- 
day. To-day  was  much  as  usual.  Have  rather  a  better 
opinion  of  the  writings  of  the  Schlegels  than  I  had  four- 
and-twenty  hours  ago ;  and  will  amend  it  still  further,  if 

They  say  that  the  Piedmontese  have  at  length  arisen 
— fa  ira  ! 

Read  Schlegel.  Of  Dante  he  says,  "  that  at  no  time 
"  has  the  greatest  and  most  national  of  all  Italian  poets 
"  ever  been  much  the  favourite  of  his  countrymen."  'Tis 
false  !  There  have  been  more  editors  and  commentators 
(and  imitators,  ultimately)  of  Dante  than  of  all  their 
poets  put  together.  Not  a  favourite !  Why,  they  talk 
Dante — write  Dante — and  think  and  dream  Dante  at 
this  moment  (1821)  to  an  excess,  which  would  be  ridicu- 
lous, but  that  he  deserves  it.1 

In  the  same  style  this  German  talks  of  gondolas  on 
the  Arno  2 — a  precious  fellow  to  dare  to  speak  of  Italy  ! 

He  says  also  that  Dante's  chief  defect  is  a  want,  in 

1.  In  lecture  ix.  (Lectures  on  the  History  of  Literature,  ed.  1841, 
p.  237)  Schlegel  says  of  Dante,  "The  truth  is,  that  at  no  time  has 
"  the  greatest  and  most  national  of  all  Italian  poets  ever  been  much 
"  the  favourite  of  his  countrymen."     Again  (ibid.,  p.  238),  he  says, 
"  His  chief  defect  is,  in  a  word,  a  want  of  gentle  feelings." 

"  I  don't  wonder,"  said  Byron,  "  at  the  enthusiasm  of  the  Italians 
"  about  Dante.  He  is  the  poet  of  liberty.  Persecution,  exile,  the 
"  dread  of  a  foreign  grave,  could  not  shake  his  principles.  There  is 
"  no  Italian  gentleman,  scarcely  any  well-educated  girl,  that  has  not 
"all  the  finer  passages  of  Dante  at  the  fingers'  ends  ;  particularly 
"  the  Ravennese.  The  Guiccioli,  for  instance,  could  almost  repeat 
"  any  part  of  the  Divine  Comedy  ;  and,  I  dare  say,  is  well  read  in 
"  the  VitaNuova,  that  prayer-book  of  love." — Medwin,  Convtrsations 
of  Lord  Byron,  p.  242. 

2.  In  lecture  xi.  (Lectures  on  the  History  of  Literature,  p.  297), 
speaking  of  Tasso,  Schlegel  says,  "  Individual  parts  and  episodes  of 
"  his  poem  are  frequently  sung  in  the  gondolas  of  the  Arno  and  the 
"  Po." 

VOL.  V.  O 

194  EXTRACTS    FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

a  word,  of  gentle  feelings.  Of  gentle  feelings ! — and 
Francesca  of  Rimini — and  the  father's  feelings  in  Ugolino 
— and  Beatrice — and  "  La  Pia  ! "  Why,  there  is  gentle- 
ness in  Dante  beyond  all  gentleness,  when  he  is  tender. 
It  is  true  that,  treating  of  the  Christian  Hades,  or  Hell, 
there  is  not  much  scope  or  site  for  gentleness — but  who 
but  Dante  could  have  introduced  any  "gentleness"  at  all 
into  Hell?  Is  there  any  in  Milton's?  No — and  Dante's 
Heaven  is  all  love,  and  glory  and  majesty. 

One  o'clock. 

I  have  found  out,  however,  where  the  German  is  right 
— it  is  about  the  Vicar  of  Wakefield.  "  Of  all  romances 
"in  miniature  (and,  perhaps,  this  is  the  best  shape  in 
"  which  Romance  can  appear)  the  Vicar  of  Wakefield  is,  I 
"  think,  the  most  exquisite." *  He  thinks  ! — he  might  be 
sure.  But  it  is  very  well  for  a  Schlegel.  I  feel  sleepy, 
and  may  as  well  get  me  to  bed.  To-morrow  there  will  be 
fine  weather. 

"  Trust  on,  and  think  to-morrow  will  repay."  * 

January  30,  1821. 

The  Count  P.  G.  this  evening  (by  commission  from 
the  Ci.)  transmitted  to  me  the  new  words  for  the  next 
six  months.  *  *  *  and  *  *  *.  The  new  sacred  word  is 
*  *  * — the  reply  *  *  * — the  rejoinder  *  *  *.  The  former 
word  (now  changed)  was  *  *  * — there  is  also  *  *  * — *  *  *.3 
Things  seem  fast  coming  to  a  crisis — fa  ira  ! 

1.  History  of  Literature^  lecture  xiv.  p.  367. 

2.  "  When  I  consider  life,  'tis  all  a  cheat. 

Yet  fool'd  with  hope,  men  favour  the  deceit ; 
Trust  on,  and  think  to-morrow  will  repay ; 
To-morrow's  falser  than  the  former  day." 

Dryden's  Aureitgzebe,  act  iv.  sc.  I. 

3.  "In  the  original  MS.  these  watchwords  are  blotted  over  so  as 
"  to  be  illegible"  (Moore). 


We  talked  over  various  matters  of  moment  and  move- 
ment. These  I  omit; — if  they  come  to  any  thing,  they 
will  speak  for  themselves.  After  these,  we  spoke  of 
Kosciusko.1  Count  R.  G.  told  me  that  he  has  seen  the 
Polish  officers  in  the  Italian  war  burst  into  tears  on 
hearing  his  name. 

Something  must  be  up  in  Piedmont — all  the  letteis 
and  papers  are  stopped.  Nobody  knows  anything,  and 
the  Germans  are  concentrating  near  Mantua.  Of  the 
decision  of  Leybach  nothing  is  known.  This  state  of 
things  cannot  last  long.  The  ferment  in  men's  minds  at 
present  cannot  be  conceived  without  seeing  it. 

January  31,  1821. 

For  several  days  I  have  not  written  any  thing  except 
a  few  answers  to  letters.  In  momentary  expectation  of 
an  explosion  of  some  kind,  it  is  not  easy  to  settle  down 
to  the  desk  for  the  higher  kinds  of  composition.  I  could 
do  it,  to  be  sure,  for,  last  summer,  I  wrote  my  drama  in 
the  very  bustle  of  Madame  la  Contessa  G.'s  divorce,  and 
all  its  process  of  accompaniments.  At  the  same  time,  I 
also  had  the  news  of  the  loss  of  an  important  lawsuit  in 
England.  But  these  were  only  private  and  personal 
business  ;  the  present  is  of  a  different  nature. 

I  suppose  it  is  this,  but  have  some  suspicion  that  it 
may  be  laziness,  which  prevents  me  from  writing ; 
especially  as  Rochefoucalt  says  that  "  laziness  often 
"  masters  them  all " 2 — speaking  of  the  passions.  If  this 

1.  Thaddeus  Kosciusko   (1746-1817)   commanded    the  national 
forces   of  Poland  against   Russia   in    1794.      Defeated   and   taken 
prisoner  at  Maciejowice,  October  10,  1794,  he  died  in  1817  at  Soleure, 
in  Switzerland. 

2.  "  C'est  se  tromper  que  de  croire  qu'il  n'y  ait  que  les  violentes 
"  passions,  comme  1'ambition  et  1'amour,  qui  puissent  triompher  des 
"  autres.    La  paresse,  toute  languissante  qu'elle  est,  ne  laisse  pas  d'en 
"etre  souvent  la  maltresse  ;  elle  usurpe  sur  tous  les  desseins  et  sur 

196  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

were  true,  it  could  hardly  be  said  that  "  idleness  is  the 
"  root  of  all  evil,"  since  this  is  supposed  to  spring  from 
the  passions  only  :  ergo,  that  which  masters  all  the  passions 
(laziness,  to  wit)  would  in  so  much  be  a  good.  Who 
knows  ? 


I  have  been  reading  Grimm's  Cowespondence.1  He 
repeats  frequently,  in  speaking  of  a  poet,  or  a  man  of 
genius  in  any  department,  even  in  music,  (Gre'try,  for 
instance,)  that  he  must  have  une  ame  qui  se  tourmente,  tin 
esprit  violent.  How  far  this  may  be  true,  I  know  not; 
but  if  it  were,  I  should  be  a  poet  "per  excellenza ;  "  for  I 
have  always  had  tine  ante,  which  not  only  tormented  itself 
but  every  body  else  in  contact  with  it;  and  an  esprit 
•violent,  which  has  almost  left  me  without  any  esprit  at  all. 
As  to  defining  what  a  poet  should  be,  it  is  not  worth 
while,  for  what  are  they  worth  ?  what  have  they  done  ? 

Grimm,  however,  is  an  excellent  critic  and  literary 
historian.  His  Correspondence  forms  the  annals  of  the 
literary  part  of  that  age  of  France,  with  much  of  her 

"  toutes  les  actions  de  la  vie  ;  elle  y  detruit  et  y  consume  insensible- 
"  ment  les  passions  et  les  vertus  "  (Reflections  Morales,  cclxxiv.). 

I.  Friedrich  Melchior  Grimm  (1723-1807)  served  as  reader  to  the 
Duke  of  Saxe  Coburg,  then  acted  as  secretary  to  the  Due  d'Orleans 
at  Paris,  where  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  Diderot,  Raynal,  Suard, 
and  other  literary  men  of  the  day.  He  was  appointed  Plenipotentiary 
at  the  court  of  France  and  the  Duke  of  Saxe  Coburg,  who  also 
raised  him  to  the  rank  of  baron.  His  correspondence  with  the 
duke,  the  Empress  Catherine,  Frederick  the  Great,  and  other 
potentates,  is  a  lively  chronicle  of  scandal,  politics,  and  literature  in 
France  from  1753  to  1793. 

Speaking  of  St.  Lambert  (Correspondence,  ed.  Tourneux,  vol.  viii. 
p.  289,  note),  he  says,  "  Que  lui  manque-t-il  done  pour  etre  un 
"poete?  Ce  qui  lui  manque,  c'est  une  ame  qui  se  tourmente,  un 
"esprit  violent,  une  imagination  forte  et  brillante,  etc.,  etc." 

So  again,  speaking  of  Gre'try,  he  says  (ibid.,  September,  1768), 
"  M.  Gretri  est  de  Liege  ;  il  est  jeune,  il  a  1'air  pale,  bleme,  souffrant, 
"  tourmente,  tous  les  symptomes  d'un  homme  de  genie." 

i82i.]  ST.  LAMBERT'S  SAJSO&S.  197 

politics,  and  still  more  of  her  "  way  of  life."  He  is  as 
valuable,  and  far  more  entertaining  than  Muratori1  or 
Tiraboschi 2— I  had  almost  said,  than  Ginguend 3 — but 
there  we  should  pause.  However,  't  is  a  great  man  in  its 

Monsieur  St.  Lambert  *  has, 

"  Et  lorsqu'  a  ses  regards  la  lumiere  est  ravie, 
II  n'a  plus,  en  mourant,  a  perdre  que  la  vie." 

This  is,  word  for  word,  Thomson's 

"  And  dying,  all  we  can  resign  is  breath," 
without  the  smallest  acknowledgment  from  the  Lorrainer 
of  a  poet.  M.  St.  Lambert  is  dead  as  a  man,  and  (for 
any  thing  I  know  to  the  contrary)  damned,  as  a  poet,  by 
this  time.  However,  his  Seasons  have  good  things,  and, 
it  may  be,  some  of  his  own. 

1.  Ludovico  Antonio  Muratori    (1672-1750)   published,   among 
other  learned  works,  his  Rerum  Italicarum  Scriptores  pracipui  ab 
Anno  500  ad  Annum  1500,  29  vols.,  fol.,  1723-51,  at  Milan. 

2.  Geronimo  Tiraboschi  (1731-1794)  published  his  Storia  della 
Letteratura  Italiana,  13  vols.,  410,  1772-82,  at  Modena. 

3.  See  p.  154,  note  I. 

4.  Fran9ois,  Marquis  de  St.  Lambert  (1716-1803),  born  at  Vezelise 
in  Lorraine,  began  life  as  a  soldier  and  a  courtier  in  the  service  of 
Stanislas  II.,  of  Poland  and  Lorraine.     In  1756  he  devoted  himself 
to  a  literary  career,  associated  himself  with  Helvetius  and  the  French 
philosophical  school  of  the  day,   contributed  to  the  Encyclopedic^ 
published  several  volumes  of  poetry,  tales,  memoirs,  and  philosophy, 
and  spent  the  last  years  of  his  life  at  Eaubonne,  near  Montmorency, 
in  the  society  of  Madame  d'Houdetot.     His  Saisons  appeared  in 
1769.     The  passage  to  which  Byron  refers  occurs  in  "  L'Automne" 
(Chant  troisieme) — 

' '  II  voit  autour  de  lui  tout  perir,  tout  changer, 
A  la  race  nouvelle  il  se  trouve  etranger ; 
Et  lorsqu'  a  ses  regards  la  lumiere  est  ravie, 
II  n'a  plus  en  mourant  a  perdre  que  la  vie." 

In  Thomson's  "  verses  occasioned  by  the  death  of  Mr.  Aikman  " 
occurs  the  line  to  which  Byron  refers — 

' '  Unhappy  he  who  latest  feels  the  blow, 

Whose  eyes  have  wept  o'er  every  friend  laid  low, 
Dragg'd  lingering  on  from  partial  death  to  death, 
Till,  dying,  all  he  can  resign  is  breath." 

1 98  EXTRACTS    FROM    A    DIARY.          [CHAP.   XXI. 

February  2,  1821. 

I  have  been  considering  what  can  be  the  reason  why 
I  always  wake,  at  a  certain  hour  in  the  morning,  and 
always  in  very  bad  spirits — I  may  say,  in  actual  despair 
and  despondency,  in  all  respects — even  of  that  which 
pleased  me  over  night.  In  about  an  hour  or  two,  this 
goes  off,  and  I  compose  either  to  sleep  again,  or,  at  least, 
to  quiet.  In  England,  five  years  ago,  I  had  the  same 
kind  of  hypochondria,  but  accompanied  with  so  violent  a 
thirst  that  I  have  drank  as  many  as  fifteen  bottles  of  soda- 
water  in  one  night,  after  going  to  bed,  and  been  still 
thirsty — calculating,  however,  some  lost  from  the  bursting 
out  and  effervescence  and  overflowing  of  the  soda-water, 
in  drawing  the  corks,  or  striking  off  the  necks  of  the 
bottles  from  mere  thirsty  impatience.  At  present,  I  have 
not  the  thirst ;  but  the  depression  of  spirits  is  no  less 

I  read  in  Edgeworth's  Memoirs  of  something  similar 
(except  that  his  thirst  expended  itself  on  small  beer)  in 
the  case  of  Sir  F.  B.  Delaval ; * — but  then  he  was,  at 
least,  twenty  years  older.  What  is  it  ? — liver  ?  In  Eng- 
land, Le  Man  (the  apothecary)  cured  me  of  the  thirst  in 
three  days,  and  it  had  lasted  as  many  years.  I  suppose 
that  it  is  all  hypochondria. 

What  I  feel  most  growing  upon  me  are  laziness,  and 
a  disrelish  more  powerful  than  indifference.  If  I  rouse, 

I.  "  His  friends,  perhaps  to  obviate  any  suspicion  of  his  having 
'  destroyed  himself,  had  his  body  opened,  and  the  physician  who 
'  attended  informed  me  that  his  death  was  probably  occasioned  by 
'  an  unnatural  distension  of  his  stomach,  which  seemed  to  have  lost 
'  the  power  of  collapsing.  This  they  attributed  to  his  drinking 
'  immoderate  quantities  of  water  and  small  beer.  He  always  had  a 
'  large  jug  of  beer  left  by  his  bedside  at  night,  which  was  usually 
'  empty  before  morning.  .  .  .  Whether  this  was  cause  or  effect  still 
'  remains  uncertain." — Memoirs  of  R.  L.  Edgeworth,  ed.  1844,  p. 
97,  note. 

1821.]  THE   KILN    IN    A   LOW.  199 

it  is  into  fury.  I  presume  that  I  shall  end  (if  not  earlier 
by  accident,  or  some  such  termination),  like  Swift — 
"dying  at  top."  I  confess  I  do  not  contemplate  this 
with  so  much  horror  as  he  apparently  did  for  some  years 
before  it  happened.  But  Swift  had  hardly  begun  life  at 
the  very  period  (thirty-three)  when  I  feel  quite  an  old  sort 
of  feel. 

Oh  !  there  is  an  organ  playing  in  the  street — a  waltz, 
too !  I  must  leave  off  to  listen.  They  are  playing  a 
waltz  which  I  have  heard  ten  thousand  times  at  the  balls 
in  London,  between  1812  and  1815.  Music  is  a  strange 

February  5,  1821. 

At  last,  "  the  kiln's  in  a  low." 1  The  Germans  are 
ordered  to  march,  and  Italy  is,  for  the  ten  thousandth 
time  to  become  a  field  of  battle.  Last  night  the  news 

This  afternoon — Count  P.  G.  came  to  me  to  consult 
upon  divers  matters.  We  rode  out  together.  They  have 
sent  off  to  the  C.  for  orders.  To-morrow  the  decision 
ought  to  arrive,  and  then  something  will  be  done.  Re- 
turned— dined — read — went  out — talked  over  matters. 
Made  a  purchase  of  some  arms  for  the  new  enrolled 
Americani,  who  are  all  on  tiptoe  to  march.  Gave  order 
for  some  harness  and  portmanteaus  necessary  for  the 

Read  some  of  Bowles's  dispute  about  Pope,  with  all 
the  replies  and  rejoinders.  Perceive  that  my  name  has 

I.  When  the  Highland  clans  broke  out  in  revolt  in  1715,  Andrew 
Fairservice  bounced  into  Francis  Osbaldistone's  room  "  like  a  mad- 
"  man,  jumping  up  and  down,  and  singing,  with  more  vehemence 
"  than  tune — 

"  '  The  kiln's  on  fire— the  kiln's  on  fire— 
The  kiln's  on  fire — she's  a'  in  a  lowe.'  " 

Rob  Roy,  ed.  1836,  vol.  ii.  chap.  xx. 

200  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

been  lugged  into  the  controversy,  but  have  not  time  to 
state  what  I  know  of  the  subject.  On  some  "  piping  day 
"  of  peace  "  *  it  is  probable  that  I  may  resume  it. 

February  9,  1821. 

Before  dinner  wrote  a  little ;  also,  before  I  rode  out, 
Count  P.  G.  called  upon  me,  to  let  me  know  the  result  of 
the  meeting  of  the  Ci.  at  F.  and  at  B.  *  *  returned  late 
last  night.  Every  thing  was  combined  under  the  idea 
that  the  Barbarians  would  pass  the  Po  on  the  i5th  inst. 
Instead  of  this,  from  some  previous  information  or  other- 
wise, they  have  hastened  their  march  and  actually  passed 
two  days  ago ;  so  that  all  that  can  be  done  at  present  in 
Romagna  is,  to  stand  on  the  alert  and  wait  for  the 
advance  of  the  Neapolitans.  Every  thing  was  ready, 
and  the  Neapolitans  had  sent  on  their  own  instructions 
and  intentions,  all  calculated  for  the  tenth  and  eleventh, 
on  which  days  a  general  rising  was  to  take  place,  under 
the  supposition  that  the  Barbarians  could  not  advance 
before  the  isth. 

As  it  is,  they  have  but  fifty  or  sixty  thousand  troops, 
a  number  with  which  they  might  as  well  attempt  to 
conquer  the  world  as  secure  Italy  in  its  present  state. 
The  artillery  marches  last,  and  alone,  and  there  is  an 
idea  of  an  attempt  to  cut  part  of  them  off.  All  this  will 
much  depend  upon  the  first  steps  of  the  Neapolitans. 
Here,  the  public  spirit  is  excellent,  provided  it  be  kept 
up.  This  will  be  seen  by  the  event. 

It  is  probable  that  Italy  will  be  delivered  from  the 
Barbarians  if  the  Neapolitans  will  but  stand  firm,  and 
are  united  among  themselves.  Here  they  appear  so. 

i.  "  This  weak  piping  time  of  peace." 

Richard  III.,  act  i.  sc.  I. 


February  10,  1821. 

Day  passed  as  usual — nothing  new.  Barbarians  still 
in  march — not  well  equipped,  and,  of  course,  not  well 
received  on  their  route.  There  is  some  talk  of  a  commo- 
tion at  Paris. 

Rode  out  between  four  and  six — finished  my  letter  to 
Murray  on  Bowles's  pamphlets1 — added  postscript.  Passed 
the  evening  as  usual — out  till  eleven — and  subsequently 
at  home. 

February  ir,  1821. 

Wrote — had  a  copy  taken  of  an  extract  from  Petrarch's 
Letters,2  with  reference  to  the  conspiracy  of  the  Doge, 
Marino  Faliero,  containing  the  poet's  opinion  of  the 
matter.  Heard  a  heavy  firing  of  cannon  towards  Co- 
macchio — the  Barbarians  rejoicing  for  their  principal  pig's 
birthday,  which  is  to-morrow — or  Saint  day — I  forget 
which.  Received  a  ticket  for  the  first  ball  to-morrow. 
Shall  not  go  to  the  first,  but  intend  going  to  the  second, 
as  also  to  the  Veglioni. 

February  13,  1821. 

To-day  read  a  little  in  Louis  B.'s  Hollande?  but  have 
written  nothing  since  the  completion  of  the  letter  on  the 
Pope  controversy.  Politics  are  quite  misty  for  the  present. 
The  Barbarians  still  upon  their  march.  It  is  not  easy  to 
divine  what  the  Italians  will  now  do. 

Was  elected  yesterday  Socio  of  the  Carnival  Ball 
Society.  This  is  the  fifth  carnival  that  I  have  passed. 

1.  See  Appendix  III.  for  Byron's  Letter  in  reply  to  Bowles's 
strictures  on  Pope. 

2.  An  Italian  version  of  the  extract  from  Petrarch's  Letters  is 
quoted  in  the  notes  to  Marino  Faliero,  Appendix,  Note  B. 

3.  Documents  Historiques^  et  Reflexions  sur  le  Gouverneinent  de  la 
Hollande  (3  vols.  8vo),  by  Louis  Buonaparte,  ex-King  of  Holland, 
was  published  at  Paris  in  1820. 


In  the  four  former,  I  racketed  a  good  deal.      In  the 
present,  I  have  been  as  sober  as  Lady  Grace  herself. 

February  14,  1821. 

Much  as  usual.  Wrote,  before  riding  out,  part  of  a 
scene  of  Sardanapalus.  The  first  act  nearly  finished. 
The  rest  of  the  day  and  evening  as  before — partly  with- 
out, in  conversazione — partly  at  home. 

Heard  the  particulars  of  the  late  fray  at  Russi,  a  town 
not  far  from  this.  It  is  exactly  the  fact  of  Romeo  and 
Giulietta — not  Romeo,  as  the  Barbarian  writes  it.  Two 
families  of  Contadini  (peasants)  are  at  feud.  At  a  ball, 
the  younger  part  of  the  families  forget  their  quarrel,  and 
dance  together.  An  old  man  of  one  of  them  enters, 
and  reproves  the  young  men  for  dancing  with  the  females 
of  the  opposite  family.  The  male  relatives  of  the  latter 
resent  this.  Both  parties  rush  home  and  arm  themselves. 
They  meet  directly,  by  moonlight,  in  the  public  way,  and 
fight  it  out.  Three  are  killed  on  the  spot,  and  six 
wounded,  most  of  them  dangerously, — pretty  well  for  two 
families,  methinks — and  all /art",  of  the  last  week.  Another 
assassination  has  taken  place  at  Cesenna — in  all  about 
forty  in  Romagna  within  the  last  three  months.  These 
people  retain  much  of  the  middle  ages. 

February  15,  1821. 

Last  night  finished  the  first  act  of  Sardanapalns. 
To-night,  or  to-morrow,  I  ought  to  answer  letters. 

February  16,  1821. 

Last  night  II  Conte  P.  G.  sent  a  man  with  a  bag  full 
of  bayonets,  some  muskets,  and  some  hundreds  of  cart- 
ridges to  my  house,  without  apprizing  me,  though  I  had 

1 82 1.]  FIRST    BLOOD.  203 

seen  him  not  half  an  hour  before.  About  ten  days  ago, 
when  there  was  to  be  a  rising  here,  the  Liberals  and  my 
brethren  C'.  asked  me  to  purchase  some  arms  for  a  certain 
few  of  our  ragamuffins.  I  did  so  immediately,  and  ordered 
ammunition,  etc.,  and  they  were  armed  accordingly. 
Well — the  rising  is  prevented  by  the  Barbarians  marching 
a  week  sooner  than  appointed;  and  an  order  is  issued, 
and  in  force,  by  the  Government,  "  that  all  persons  having 
"  arms  concealed,  etc.,  etc.,  shall  be  liable  to,  etc.,  etc."— 
and  what  do  my  friends,  the  patriots,  do  two  days  after- 
wards ?  Why,  they  throw  back  upon  my  hands,  and  into 
my  house,  these  very  arms  (without  a  word  of  warning 
previously)  with  which  I  had  furnished  them  at  their  own 
request,  and  at  my  own  peril  and  expense. 

It  was  lucky  that  Lega  was  at  home  to  receive  them. 
If  any  of  the  servants  had  (except  Tita  and  F.  and  Lega) 
they  would  have  betrayed  it  immediately.  In  the  mean 
time,  if  they  are  denounced  or  discovered,  I  shall  be  in  a 

At  nine  went  out — at  eleven  returned.  Beat  the 
crow  for  stealing  the  falcon's  victuals.  Read  Tales  of 
my  Landlord — wrote  a  letter — and  mixed  a  moderate 
beaker  of  water  with  other  ingredients. 

February  18,  1821. 

The  news  are  that  the  Neapolitans  have  broken  a 
bridge,  and  slain  four  pontifical  carabiniers,  whilk  cara- 
biniers  wished  to  oppose.  Besides  the  disrespect  to 
neutrality,  it  is  a  pity  that  the  first  blood  shed  in  this 
German  quarrel  should  be  Italian.  However,  the  war 
seems  begun  in  good  earnest :  for,  if  the  Neapolitans  kill 
the  Pope's  carabiniers,  they  will  not  be  more  delicate  to- 
wards the  Barbarians.  If  it  be  even  so,  in  a  short  time 
"  there  will  be  news  o'  thae  craws,"  as  Mrs.  Alison  Wilson 

204  EXTRACTS    FROM    A    DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

says  of  Jenny  Blane's  "  unco  cockernony  "  in  the  Tales  of 
my  Landlord.1 

In  turning  over  Grimm's  Correspondence  to-day,  I 
found  a  thought  of  Tom  Moore's  in  a  song  of  Maupertuis 2 
to  a  female  Laplander 

"  Et  tous  les  lieux 
Ou  sont  ses  yeux, 
Font  la  zone  brulante." 

This  is  Moore's, 

"  And  those  eyes  make  my  climate,  wherever  I  roam." 

But  I  am  sure  that  Moore  never  saw  it;  for  this  was 
published  in  Grimm's  Correspondence,  in  1813,  and  I  knew 
Moore's  by  heart  in  1812.  There  is  also  another,  but  an 
antithetical  coincidence — 

"  Le  soleil  luit, 

Des  jours  sans  nuit 
Bientot  il  nous  destine  ; 

1.  "  But  I  doubt  the  daughter's  a  silly  thing — an  unco  cockernony 
"  she  had  busked  on  her  head  at  the  kirk  last  Sunday." — Mrs.  Alison 
Wilson,  in  Old  Mortality,  chap.  v. 

2.  Pierre  Louis  Moreau  de  Maupertuis  (1698-1759)  "  pretendait 
"  avoir  congu  une  passion  violente  pour  une  jeune  Laponne  qu'il 
"  avait  amenee  en  France,  et  qui  y  est  morte.     II  aimait  a  chanter 
"des  couplets  qu'il  avait  fails  pour  elle  sous  le  p&le,  et  qu'il  faut 
' '  conserver  ici — 

"  Pour  fuir  1'amour, 

En  vain  Ton  court 
Jusqu'au  cercle  polaire  ; 

Dieux  !  qui  croiroit 

Qu'en  cet  endroit 
On  cut  trouv£  Cythere  ! 

' '  Dans  les  frimas 

De  ces  climats, 
Christine  nous  enchante  ; 

Et  tous  les  lieux 

Oil  sont  ses  yeux 
Font  la  zone  brulante." 

Etc.,  etc.     Grimm's  Correspondance,   ed.   Tourneux,   vol.  vii.  pp. 
180,  181. 

l82I.]  THE   POETRY   OF   POLITICS.  205 

Mais  ces  longs  jours 
Seront  trop  courts, 
Passes  pres  de  Christine." 

This  is  the  thought  reversed,  of  the  last  stanza  of  the  ballad 
on  Charlotte  Lynes,  given  in  Miss  Seward's  Memoirs  of 
Darwin^  which  is  pretty — I  quote  from  memory  of  these 
last  fifteen  years. 

"  For  my  first  night  I'd  go 

To  those  regions  of  snow, 
Where  the  sun  for  six  months  never  shines  ; 

And  think,  even  then, 

He  too  soon  came  again, 
To  disturb  me  with  fair  Charlotte  Lynes."  ' 

To-day  I  have  had  no  communication  with  my 
Carbonari  cronies;  but,  in  the  mean  time,  my  lower 
apartments  are  full  of  their  bayonets,  fusils,  cartridges, 
and  what  not.  I  suppose  that  they  consider  me  as  a 
depot,  to  be  sacrificed,  in  case  of  accidents.  It  is  no 
great  matter,  supposing  that  Italy  could  be  liberated,  who 
or  what  is  sacrificed.  It  is  a  grand  object — the  very  poetry 
of  politics.  Only  think — a  free  Italy  ! ! !  Why,  there  has 
been  nothing  like  it  since  the  days  of  Augustus.  I  reckon 
the  times  of  Caesar  (Julius)  free ;  because  the  commotions 
left  every  body  a  side  to  take,  and  the  parties  were  pretty 
equal  at  the  set  out.  But,  afterwards,  it  was  all  praetorian 
and  legionary  business — and  since ! — we  shall  see,  or,  at 
least,  some  will  see,  what  card  will  turn  up.  It  is  best  to 
hope,  even  of  the  hopeless.  The  Dutch  did  more  than 
these  fellows  have  to  do,  in  the  Seventy  Years'  War. 

I.  "At  a  convivial  meeting  of  Lichfield  gentlemen,  most  of 
"whom  could  make  agreeable  verses,  it  was  proposed  that  every 
"  person  in  company  should  give  a  ballad  or  epigram  on  the  lady 
"  whose  health  he  drank.  Mr.  Vyse  toasted  Miss  Lynes,  and,  taking 
"out  his  pencil,  wrote  the  stanzas  extempore"  (Seward's  Memoirs 
of  Dr.  Darwin,  pp.  72-74).  Of  the  stanzas,  which  are  nine  in 
number,  that  quoted  by  Byron  is  the  last. 


February  19,  1821. 

Came  home  solus — very  high  wind — lightning — moon- 
shine— solitary  stragglers  muffled  in  cloaks — women  in 
masks — white  houses — clouds  hurrying  over  the  sky,  like 
spilt  milk  blown  out  of  the  pail — altogether  very  poetical. 
It  is  still  blowing  hard — the  tiles  flying,  and  the  house 
rocking — rain  splashing — lightning  flashing — quite  a  fine 
Swiss  Alpine  evening,  and  the  sea  roaring  in  the  distance. 

Visited — conversazione.  All  the  women  frightened 
by  the  squall :  they  won't  go  to  the  masquerade  because 
it  lightens — the  pious  reason ! 

Still  blowing  away.  A.  has  sent  me  some  news  to- 
day. The  war  approaches  nearer  and  nearer.  Oh  those 
scoundrel  sovereigns !  Let  us  but  see  them  beaten — let 
the  Neapolitans  but  have  the  pluck  of  the  Dutch  of  old, 
or  the  Spaniards  of  now,  or  of  the  German  Protestants, 
the  Scotch  Presbyterians,  the  Swiss  under  Tell,  or  the 
Greeks  under  Themistocles — all  small  and  solitary  nations 
(except  the  Spaniards  and  German  Lutherans),  and  there 
is  yet  a  resurrection  for  Italy,  and  a  hope  for  the  world. 

February  20,  1821. 

The  news  of  the  day  are,  that  the  Neapolitans  are 
full  of  energy.  The  public  spirit  here  is  certainly  well 
kept  up.  The  Americani  (a  patriotic  society  here,  an 
under  branch  of  the  Carbonari)  give  a  dinner  in  the  Forest 
in  a  few  days,  and  have  invited  me,  as  one  of  the  C'.  It 
is  to  be  in  the  Forest  of  Boccacio's  and  Dryden's  "  Hunts- 
"  man's  Ghost ; "  and,  even  if  I  had  not  the  same  political 
feelings,  (to  say  nothing  of  my  old  convivial  turn,  which 
every  now  and  then  revives,)  I  would  go  as  a  poet,  or,  at 
least,  as  a  lover  of  poetry.  I  shall  expect  to  see  the 
spectre  of  "  Ostasio  degli  Onesti  "  *  (Dryden  has  turned 
i.  The  story  of  Nastagio  degli  Onesti,  and  his  love  for  the 

1 82 1.]  THE   POPE'S    PROCLAMATION.  2O7 

him  into  Guido  Cavalcanti — an  essentially  different  person, 
as  may  be  found  in  Dante)  come  "  thundering  for  his 
"  prey  in  the  midst  of  the  festival."  At  any  rate,  whether 
he  does  or  no,  I  will  get  as  tipsy  and  patriotic  as  possible. 
Within  these  few  days  I  have  read,  but  not  written. 

February  21,  1821. 

As  usual,  rode — visited,  etc.  Business  begins  to 
thicken.  The  Pope  has  printed  a  declaration  against  the 
patriots,  who,  he  says,  meditate  a  rising.  The  consequence 
of  all  this  will  be,  that,  in  a  fortnight,  the  whole  country 
will  be  up.  The  proclamation  is  not  yet  published,  but 
printed,  ready  for  distribution.  *  *  sent  me  a  copy 
privately — a  sign  that  he  does  not  know  what  to  think. 
When  he  wants  to  be  well  with  the  patriots,  he  sends  to 
me  some  civil  message  or  other. 

For  my  own  part,  it  seems  to  me,  that  nothing  but 
the  most  decided  success  of  the  Barbarians  can  prevent  a 
general  and  immediate  rise  of  the  whole  nation. 

February  23,  1821. 

Almost  ditto  with  yesterday — rode,  etc. — visited — 
wrote  nothing — read  Roman  History. 

Had  a  curious  letter  from  a  fellow,  who  informs  me 
that  the  Barbarians  are  ill-disposed  towards  me.  He  is 

daughter  of  Messer  Paolo  Traversari,  is  the  eighth  story  of  the  fifth 
day  in  Boccaccio.  But  the  spectral  horseman  in  the  story  is  Guido 
degli  Anastagi. 

"  The  knight  came  thundering  on,  but,  from  afar, 
Thus  in  imperious  tone  forebade  the  war  ; 
'  Cease,  Theodore,  to  proffer  vain  relief, 
Nor  stop  the  vengeance  of  so  just  a  grief ; 
But  give  me  leave  to  seize  my  destin'd  prey, 
And  let  eternal  justice  take  the  way  : 
I  but  revenge  my  fate,  disdain'd,  betray'd, 
And  suffering  death  for  this  ungrateful  maid.'  " 

Dryden  ("Theodore  and  Honoria"). 

208  EXTRACTS   FROM    A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

probably  a  spy,  or  an  impostor.  But  be  it  so,  even  as  he 
says.  They  cannot  bestow  their  hostility  on  one  who 
loathes  and  execrates  them  more  than  I  do,  or  who  will 
oppose  their  views  with  more  zeal,  when  the  opportunity 

February  24,  1821. 

Rode,  etc.,  as  usual.  The  secret  intelligence  arrived 
this  morning  from  the  frontier  to  the  C'.  is  as  bad  as 
possible.  The  plan  has  missed — the  Chiefs  are  betrayed, 
military,  as  well  as  civil — and  the  Neapolitans  not  only 
have  not  moved,  but  have  declared  to  the  P.  government, 
and  to  the  Barbarians,  that  they  know  nothing  of  the 
matter ! ! ! 

Thus  the  world  goes ;  and  thus  the  Italians  are  always 
lost  for  lack  of  union  among  themselves.  What  is  to  be 
done  here,  between  the  two  fires,  and  cut  off  from  the 
Nn.  frontier,  is  not  decided.  My  opinion  was, — better 
to  rise  than  be  taken  in  detail ;  but  how  it  will  be  settled 
now,  I  cannot  tell.  Messengers  are  despatched  to  the 
delegates  of  the  other  cities  to  learn  their  resolutions. 

I  always  had  an  idea  that  it  would  be  bungled;  but 
was  willing  to  hope,  and  am  so  still.  Whatever  I  can  do 
by  money,  means,  or  person,  I  will  venture  freely  for 
their  freedom ;  and  have  so  repeated  to  them  (some  of 
the  Chiefs  here)  half  an  hour  ago.  I  have  two  thousand 
five  hundred  scudi,  better  than  five  hundred  pounds,  in 
the  house,  which  I  offered  to  begin  with. 

February  25,  1821. 

Came  home — my  head  aches — plenty  of  news,  but 
too  tiresome  to  set  down.  I  have  neither  read  nor 
written,  nor  thought,  but  led  a  purely  animal  life  all  day. 
I  mean  to  try  to  write  a  page  or  two  before  I  go  to  bed. 


But,  as  Squire  Sullen  says,  "  My  head  aches  consumedly  : 
"  Scrub,  bring  me  a  dram  ! " *  Drank  some  Imola  wine, 
and  some  punch  ! 

Log-book  contimied? 

February  27,  1821. 

I  have  been  a  day  without  continuing  the  log,  because 
I  could  not  find  a  blank  book.  At  length  I  recollected 

Rode,  etc. — wrote  down  an  additional  stanza  for  the 
5th  canto  of  D\on\  J\itari\  which  I  had  composed  in  bed 
this  morning.3  Visited  F Arnica.  We  are  invited,  on  the 
night  of  the  Veglione  (next  Dominica)  with  the  Marchesa 
Clelia  Cavalli  and  the  Countess  Spinelli  Rasponi.  I 
promised  to  go.  Last  night  there  was  a  row  at  the  ball, 
of  which  I  am  a  socio.  The  Vice-legate  had  the  impru- 
dent insolence  to  introduce  three  of  his  servants  in  masque 
— without  tickets^  too !  and  in  spite  of  remonstrances. 
The  consequence  was,  that  the  young  men  of  the  ball 
took  it  up,  and  were  near  throwing  the  Vice-legate  out  of 
the  window.  His  servants,  seeing  the  scene,  withdrew, 
and  he  after  them.  His  reverence  Monsignore  ought  to 
know,  that  these  are  not  times  for  the  predominance  of 
priests  over  decorum.  Two  minutes  more,  two  steps 
further,  and  the  whole  city  would  have  been  in  arms,  and 
the  government  driven  out  of  it. 

1.  In   Farquhar's  Beatix1  Stratagem,  act  v.  sc.  4,  Sullen  says, 
'  How,  my  writings !     My  head  aches  consumedly — Well,  gentle- 
'  men,  you  shall  have  her  Fortune,  but  I  can't  talk.     If  you  have  a 
'  mind,  Sir  Charles,  to  be  merry,  and  celebrate  my  sister's  wedding, 
'  and   my   Divorce,  you  may  command  my  house — but  my  head 
'  aches  consumedly — Scrub,  bring  me  a  dram." 

2.  "  In  another  paper-book"  (Moore). 

3.  Stanza  clviii. — 

"  Thus  in  the  East  they  are  extremely  strict, 
And  wedlock  and  a  padlock  mean  the  same,"  etc. 

VOL.    V.  P 

210  EXTRACTS    FROM   A   DIARY.         [CHAP.  XXI. 

Such  is  the  spirit  of  the  day,  and  these  fellows  appear 
not  to  perceive  it.  As  far  as  the  simple  fact  went,  the 
young  men  were  right,  servants  being  prohibited  always 
at  these  festivals. 

Yesterday  wrote  two  notes  on  the  "  Bowles  and  Pope  " 
controversy,  and  sent  them  off  to  Murray  by  the  post. 
The  old  woman  whom  I  relieved  in  the  forest  (she  is 
ninety-four  years  of  age)  brought  me  two  bunches  of 
violets.  Nam  vita  gaudet  mortua  floribus}  I  was  much 
pleased  with  the  present.  An  English  woman  would 
have  presented  a  pair  of  worsted  stockings,  at  least,  in 
the  month  of  February.  Both  excellent  things ;  but  the 
former  are  more  elegant.  The  present,  at  this  season, 
reminds  one  of  Gray's  stanza,  omitted  from  his  elegy  : — 

"  Here  scatter'd  oft,  the  earliest  of  the  year, 

By  hands  unseen,  are  showers  of  violets  found  ; 
The  red-breast  loves  to  build  and  warble  here, 
And  little  footsteps  lightly  print  the  ground." 

As  fine  a  stanza  as  any  in  his  elegy.     I  wonder  that  he 
could  have  the  heart  to  omit  it.2 

Last  night  I  suffered  horribly — from  an  indigestion,  I 
believe.  I  never  sup — that  is,  never  at  home.  But,  last 

1.  Byron    quotes    from    Abraham    Cowley's    Epitaphium    vivi 
Auctoris  ;  the  last  stanza  runs  as  follows  : — 

"  Hie  sparge  flores,  sparge  breves  rosas, 
Nam  vita  gaudet  mortua  floribus, 
Herbisque  odoratis  corona 
Vatis  adhuc  cinerem  calentem." 

2.  The  stanza  originally  preceded  the  "  Epitaph,"  and  followed 
the  lines — 

"  Approach  and  read  (for  thou  canst  read)  the  lay 
Graved  on  the  stone  beneath  yon  aged  thorn." 

This  stanza  "  was  printed  in  some  of  the  first  editions,  but  after- 
"  wards  omitted,  because  he  [Gray]  thought  (and  in  my  own  opinion 
"  very  justly)  that  it  was  too  long  a  parenthesis  in  this  place.  The 
"lines,  however,  are  in  themselves  exquisitely  fine,  and  demand 
"preservation"  (The  Works  of  Thomas  Gray,  1814,  ed.  Mason  and 
Mathias,  vol.  5.  p.  127). 

1 82 1.]  THE  SOUL  AND  BODY.  211 

night,  I  was  prevailed  upon  by  the  Countess  Gamba's 
persuasion,  and  the  strenuous  example  of  her  brother,  to 
swallow,  at  supper,  a  quantity  of  boiled  cockles,  and  to 
dilute  them,  not  reluctantly,  with  some  Imola  wine. 
When  I  came  home,  apprehensive  of  the  consequences,  I 
swallowed  three  or  four  glasses  of  spirits,  which  men  (the 
venders)  call  brandy,  rum,  or  hollands,  but  which  gods 
would  entitle  spirits  of  wine,  coloured  or  sugared.  All 
was  pretty  well  till  I  got  to  bed,  when  I  became  some- 
what swollen,  and  considerably  vertiginous.  I  got  out, 
and  mixing  some  soda-powders,  drank  them  off.  This 
brought  on  temporary  relief.  I  returned  to  bed;  but 
grew  sick  and  sorry  once  and  again.  Took  more  soda- 
water.  At  last  I  fell  into  a  dreary  sleep.  Woke,  and 
was  ill  all  day,  till  I  had  galloped  a  few  miles.  Query — 
was  it  the  cockles,  or  what  I  took  to  correct  them,  that 
caused  the  commotion  ?  I  think  both.  I  remarked  in 
my  illness  the  complete  inertion,  inaction,  and  destruction 
of  my  chief  mental  faculties.  I  tried  to  rouse  them,  and 
yet  could  not — and  this  is  the  Soul I !  !  I  should  believe 
that  it  was  married  to  the  body,  if  they  did  not  sympa- 
thise so  much  with  each  other.  If  the  one  rose,  when 
the  other  fell,  it  would  be  a  sign  that  they  longed  for 
the  natural  state  of  divorce.  But  as  it  is,  they  seem  to 
draw  together  like  post-horses. 

Let  us  hope  the  best — it  is  the  grand  possession. 



OCTOBER,  1821. 


858. — To  Thomas  Moore.. 

Ravenna,  January  2,  1821. 

YOUR  entering  into  my  project  for  the  Memoir,  is 
pleasant  to  me.  But  I  doubt  (contrary  to  me  my  dear 
Made  Mac  F  *  V  whom  I  always  loved,  and  always 
shall — not  only  because  I  really  did  feel  attached  to  her 
personally,  but  because  she  and  about  a  dozen  others  of 
that  sex  were  all  who  stuck  by  me  in  the  grand  conflict 
of  1815) — but  I  doubt,  I  say,  whether  the  Memoir  could 
appear  in  my  lifetime ; — and,  indeed,  I  had  rather  it  did 
not;  for  a  man  always  looks  dead  after  his  Life  has 
appeared,  and  I  should  certes  not  survive  the  appearance 
of  mine.  The  first  part  I  cannot  consent  to  alter,  even 

I.  Probably  Madame  de  Flahault,  nee  Mercer  (see  Letters,  vol. 
iii.  p.  253,  note  i). 

1 82  I.]  MADAME   DE   STAEL.  213 

although  Madame  de  S[tael]'s  opinion  of  B.  C.  and  my 
remarks  upon  Lady  C.'s  beauty  (which  is  surely  great, 
and  I  suppose  that  I  have  said  so — at  least,  I  ought) 
should  go  down  to  our  grandchildren  in  unsophisticated 

As  to  Madame  de  S[tael],  I  am  by  no  means  bound  to 
be  her  beadsman — she  was  always  more  civil  to  me  in 
person  than  during  my  absence.  Our  dear  defunct  friend, 
Monk  Lewis,  who  was  too  great  a  bore  ever  to  lie, 
assured  me  upon  his  tiresome  word  of  honour,  that  at 
Florence,  the  said  Madame  de  S[tael]  was  open-moutfod 
against  me;  and  when  asked,  in  Switzerland^  why  she 
had  changed  her  opinion,  replied,  with  laudable  sincerity, 
that  I  had  named  her  in  a  sonnet  with  Voltaire,  Rous- 
seau, etc. *  and  that  she  could  not  help  it  through  decency. 
Now,  I  have  not  forgotten  this,  but  I  have  been  generous, 
— as  mine  acquaintance,  the  late  Captain  Whitby,  of  the 
navy,  used  to  say  to  his  seamen  (when  "  married  to  the 
"  gunner's  daughter  ") — "  two  dozen  and  let  you  off  easy." 
The  "two  dozen"  were  with  the  cat-o'-nine  tails; — the 
"  let  you  off  easy  "  was  rather  his  own  opinion  than  that 
of  the  patient. 

My  acquaintance  with  these  terms  and  practices  arises 
from  my  having  been  much  conversant  with  ships  of  war 
and  naval  heroes  in  the  year  of  my  voyages  in  the 
Mediterranean.  Whitby  was  in  the  gallant  action  off 
Lissa2  in  1811.  He  was  brave,  but  a  disciplinarian. 

1.  "  Rousseau — Voltaire — our  Gibbon — and  De  Stael, 

Leman  !  these  names  are  worthy  of  thy  shore,"  etc. 
Sonnet  to  Lake  Leman,  written  at  Diodati,  July,  1816. 

2.  The  combined  French  and  Italian  squadron,  under  Dubourdieu, 
consisting  of  six  frigates  and  five  smaller  armed  vessels,  sailed  from 
Ancona,  with  500  troops  on  board,  to  fortify  and  garrison  the  island 
of  Lissa  on  the  Dalmatian  Coast.     On  March  13,  1811,  they  were 
defeated  off  Lissa  by  an  English  squadron  of  three  frigates  and  one 


When  he  left  his  frigate,  he  left  a  parrot,  which  was 
taught  by  the  crew  the  following  sounds — (it  must  be 
remarked  that  Captain  Whitby  was  the  image  of  Fawcett l 
the  actor,  in  voice,  face,  and  figure,  and  that  he  squinted). 

The  Parrot  loquitur. 

"  Whitby  !  Whitby  !  funny  eye  !  funny  eye !  two 
"  dozen,  and  let  you  off  easy.  Oh  you ! " 

Now,  if  Madame  de  B.  has  a  parrot,  it  had  better  be 
taught  a  French  parody  of  the  same  sounds. 

With  regard  to  our  purposed  Journal,  I  will  call  it 
what  you  please,  but  it  should  be  a  newspaper,  to  make 
it  pay.  We  can  call  it  "  The  Harp,"  if  you  like — or  any 

I  feel  exactly  as  you  do  about  our  "  art,"  *  but  it 

corvette,  under  Commodore  Hoste  (Yonge's  History  of  the  British 
Navy,  vol.  ii.  p.  476). 

Byron  alludes  to  the  battle  in  Marino  Faliero,  ftote  5.  Enumerat- 
ing the  exceptions  to  the  degeneracy  of  Venice,  he  says:  "There 
'  is  Pasqualigo,  the  last,  and  alas  !  posthumous  son  of  the  marriage 
'  of  the  Doges  with  the  Adriatic,  who  fought  his  frigate  with  far 
1  greater  gallantry  than  any  of  his  French  coadjutors  in  the  memor- 
'  able  action  off  Lissa.  I  came  home  in  the  squadron  with  the 
'prizes  in  i8ir,  and  recollect  to  have  heard  Sir  William  Hoste, 
1  and  the  other  officers  engaged  in  that  glorious  conflict,  speak  in 
'  the  highest  terms  of  Pasqualigo's  behaviour." 

1.  John  Fawcett  (1768-1837),  after  acting  at  York  in  Tate  Wil- 
kinson's company,  made  his  first  appearance  in  London  at  Covent 
Garden,  as  "Caleb"  in  He  would  be  a  Soldier,  September  21,  1791. 
In  low  comedy  he  was  excellent.     Leigh  Hunt,  in  his  "  Synopses  " 
(Dramatic  Essays,  edited  by  William  Archer  and  Robert  W.  Lowe, 
pp.  xliv.-v.),  speaks  of  him  as  one  of  the  "  actors  whom  modern 
"  writers  have  spoiled."     The  meaning  of  the  remark  probably  is 
that  Colman  wrote  pieces  specially  designed  to  suit  his  peculiarities. 
Fawcett  made  his  last  appearance  on  the  stage  May  30,  1830,  as 
"  Captain  Copp  "  in  Howard  Payne's  Charles  the  Second.     A  list  of 
his  principal  characters  is  given  in  Genest's  English  Stage,  vol.  ix. 
pp.  521-525. 

2.  The  following  passage  from  Moore's  letter,  to  which  the  above 
was  an  answer,  will  best  explain  what  follows  :  "  With  respect  to 
"  the  newspaper,  it  is  odd  enough  that  Lord  [John  Russell  ?]  and 
"  myself  had  been  (about  a  week  or  two  before  I  received  your  letter) 

l82I.]  THE  JOURNAL   SCHEME.  215 

comes  over  me  in  a  kind  of  rage  every  now  and  then, 
like  *  *  *  *,  and  then,  if  I  don't  write  to  empty  my 
mind,  I  go  mad.  As  to  that  regular,  uninterrupted  love 
of  writing,  which  you  describe  in  your  friend,  I  do  not 
understand  it.  I  feel  it  as  a  torture,  which  I  must  get 
rid  of,  but  never  as  a  pleasure.  On  the  contrary,  I  think 
composition  a  great  pain. 

I  wish  you  to  think  seriously  of  the  Journal  scheme — 
for  I  am  as  serious  as  one  can  be,  in  this  world,  about 
any  thing.  As  to  matters  here,  they  are  high  and  mighty 
— but  not  for  paper.  It  is  much  about  the  state  of  things 
betwixt  Cain  and  Abel.  There  is,  in  fact,  no  law  or 
government  at  all ;  and  it  is  wonderful  how  well  things 
go  on  without  them.  Excepting  a  few  occasional  murders, 
(every  body  killing  whomsoever  he  pleases,  and  being 
killed,  in  turn,  by  a  friend,  or  relative,  of  the  defunct,) 
there  is  as  quiet  a  society  and  as  merry  a  Carnival  as  can 
be  met  with  in  a  tour  through  Europe.  There  is  nothing 
like  habit  in  these  things. 

I  shall  remain  here  till  May  or  June,  and,  unless 
"  honour  comes  unlocked  for," l  we  may  perhaps  meet,  in 
France  or  England,  within  the  year. 

Yours,  etc. 

Of  course,  I  cannot  explain  to  you  existing  circum- 
stances, as  they  open  all  letters. 

'  speculating  upon  your  assistance  in  a  plan  somewhat  similar,  but 
'  more  literary  and  less  regularly  periodical  in  its  appearance.  Lord 
'  [John],  as  you  will  see  by  his  volume  of  Essays,  if  it  reaches  you,  has 
'  a  very  sly,  dry,  and  pithy  way  of  putting  sound  truths  upon  politics 
'  and  manners  ;  and  whatever  scheme  we  adopt,  he  will  be  a  very 
'  useful  and  active  ally  in  it,  as  he  has  a  pleasure  in  writing  quite 
'  inconceivable  to  a  poor  hack  scribe  like  me,  who  always  feel,  about 
'  my  art,  as  the  French  husband  did  when  he  found  a  man  making 
'  love  to  his  (the  Frenchman's)  wife  :  '  Comment,  Monsieur, — sans 
'  y  etre  oblige! '  When  I  say  this,  however,  I  mean  it  only  of  the 
'  executive  part  of  writing ;  for  the  imagining,  the  shadowing  out 
'of the  future  work,  is,  I  own,  a  delicious  fool's  paradise." 
I.  ffenry  /P.,  Part  I.  act  v.  sc.  3. 


Will  you  set  me  right  about  your  curst  Champs 
Elysees? — are  they  "es"  or  "ees"  for  the  adjective? 
I  know  nothing  of  French,  being  all  Italian.  Though 
I  can  read  and  understand  French,  I  never  attempt  to 
speak  it;  for  I  hate  it.  From  the  second  part  of  the 
Memoirs  cut  what  you  please. 

859. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  JY  4<h,  1821. 

D?  M?, — I  write  to  you  in  considerable  surprise,  that, 
since  the  first  days  of  November,  I  have  never  had  a  line 
from  you.  It  is  so  incomprehensible,  that  I  can  only 
account  for  it  by  supposing  some  accident.  I  have 
written  to  you  at  least  ten  letters,  to  none  of  which  I 
have  had  a  word  of  answer :  one  of  them  was  on  your 
own  affairs — a  proposal  of  Galignani,  relative  to  your 
publications,  which  I  referred  to  you  (as  was  proper),  for 
your  own  decision. 

Last  week  I  sent  (addressed  to  Mr.  D.  Kinnaird)  two 
packets  containing  the  5th  Canto  of  D.J?  I  wish  to 
know  what  you  mean  to  do  ?  anything  or  nothing. 

Of  the  State  of  this  country  I  can  only  say,  that, 
besides  the  assassination  of  the  Commandant  of  the  71!1 
(of  which  I  gave  you  an  account,  as  I  took  him 
up,  and  he  died  in  my  house)  that  there  have  been 

I .  Murray  hesitated  whether  or  not  he  should  continue  the  publi- 
cation as  an  anonymous  work,  and  without  his  own  name  as  publisher. 
Croker  (Murray  Memoirs,  vol.  i.  pp.  413-416)  had  written  to  him, 
March  26,   1820,  saying  that  Murray  had  done  the  poem  "great 
'injustice."     "If  you  print  and   sell    Tom  Jones  and   Peregrine 
'  Pickle,  why  did  you  start  at  Don  Juan  ?     Why  smuggle  it  into  the 
'  world,  and,  as  it  were,  pronounce  it  illegitimate  in  its  birth,  and 
'  induce  so  many  of  the  learned  rabble,  when  they  could  find  so 
'  little  specific  offence  in  it,  to  refer  to  its  supposed  original  state  as 
'  one  of  original  sin." 

1821.]  BARRY  CORNWALL.  217 

six  murders  committed  within  twenty  miles — three  last 

Yours  very  truly, 


P.S. — Have  you  gotten  the  Hints,  that  I  may  alter 
parts  and  portions  ? 

I  just  see,  by  the  papers  of  Galignani,  that  there  is 
a  new  tragedy  of  great  expectation,  by  Barry  Cornwall : l 
of  what  I  have  read  of  his  works  I  liked  the  Dramatic 
Sketclies,  but  thought  his  Sicilian  Story  and  Mardan 
Colonna,  in  rhyme,  quite  spoilt  by  I  know  not  what 
affectation  of  Wordsworth,  and  Hunt,  and  Moore,  and 
Myself,  all  mixed  up  into  a  kind  of  Chaos.  I  think  him 
very  likely  to  produce  a  good  tragedy,  if  he  keep  to  a 
natural  style,  and  not  play  tricks  to  form  Harlequinades 
for  an  audience.  As  he  (B.  C.  is  not  his  true  name)  was 
a  school-fellow  of  mine,  I  take  more  than  common 
interest  in  his  success,  and  shall  be  glad  to  hear  of  it 
speedily.  If  I  had  been  aware  that  he  was  in  that  line, 
I  should  have  spoken  of  him  in  the  preface  to  M\arino\ 
F\aliero\ :  he  will  do  a  World's  wonder  if  he  produce  a 
great  tragedy.  I  am,  however,  persuaded,  that  this  is  not 
to  be  done  by  following  the  old  dramatists,  who  are  full 
of  gross  faults,  pardoned  only  for  the  beauty  of  their 
language;  but  by  writing  naturally  and  regularly,  and 
producing  regular  tragedies,  like  the  Greeks ;  but  not  in 
imitation, — merely  the  outline  of  their  conduct,  adapted 

I.  "  I  told  Lord  Byron,"  says  Medwin  (Convei-sations,  ed.  1825, 
vol.  i.  p.  174),  "  that  I  had  had  a  letter  from  Procter,  and  that  he 
'  had  been  jeered  on  the  Duke  of  Mirandola  not  having  been  in- 
'  eluded  in  his  (Lord  B.'s)  enumeration  of  the  dramatic  pieces  of  the 
'  day,  and  that  he  had  added,  he  had  been  at  Harrow  with  him. 
' '  Ay,'  said  Lord  Byron,  '  I  remember  the  name :  he  was  in  the 
'  lower  school,  in  such  a  class.  They  stood  Farrer,  Procter, 
'  Jocelyn  ! '  "  (see  p.  37,  note  2). 


to  our  own  times  and  circumstances,  and  of  course  no 

You  will  laugh,  and  say,  "  why  don't  you  do  so  ?  "  I 
have,  you  see,  tried  a  Sketch  in  Marino  Faliero ;  but 
many  people  think  my  talent  "essentially  undramatic" 
and  I  am  not  at  all  clear  that  they  are  not  right.  If 
Marino  Faliero  don't  fall,  in  the  perusal,  I  shall,  perhaps, 
try  again  (but  not  for  the  Stage) ;  and,  as  I  think  that 
love  is  not  the  principal  passion  for  tragedy  (and  yet 
most  of  ours  turn  upon  it),  you  will  not  find  me  a 
popular  writer.  Unless  it  is  Love,  furious,  criminal, 
and  hapless,  it  ought  not  to  make  a  tragic  subject : 
when  it  is  melting  and  maudlin,  it  does,  but  it  ought 
not  to  do ;  it  is  then  for  the  Gallery  and  second  price 

If  you  want  to  have  a  notion  of  what  I  am  trying, 
take  up  a  translation  of  any  of  the  Greek  tragedians.  If 
I  said  the  original,  it  would  be  an  impudent  presumption 
of  mine ;  but  the  translations  are  so  inferior  to  the 
originals,  that  I  think  I  may  risk  it.  Then  judge  of  the 
"  simplicity  of  plot,  etc.,"  and  do  not  judge  me  by  your 
mad  old  dramatists,  which  is  like  drinking  Usquebaugh 
and  then  proving  a  fountain  :  yet  after  all,  I  suppose  that 
you  do  not  mean  that  spirits  is  a  nobler  element  than  a 
clear  spring  bubbling  in  the  sun;  and  this  I  take  to 
be  the  difference  between  the  Greeks  and  those  turbid 
mountebanks — always  excepting  B.  Jonson,  who  was  a 
Scholar  and  a  Classic.  Or,  take  up  a  translation  of 
Alfieri,  and  try  the  interest,  etc.,  of  these  my  new  attempts 
in  the  old  line,  by  him  in  English.  And  then  tell  me 
fairly  your  opinion.  But  don't  measure  me  by  YOUR 
OWN  old  or  new  tailor's  yards.  Nothing  so  easy  as 
intricate  confusion  of  plot,  and  rant.  Mrs.  Centlivre,  in 
comedy,  has  ten  times  tJie  bustle  of  Congreve  ;  but  are  they 

1 82 1.]  THE  BRAZIERS'  ADDRESS.  219 

to  be  compared  ?  and  yet  she  drove  Congreve  from  the 

860. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  January  6'.h  1821. 

On  the  "Braziers'  Address  to  be  presented  in 
"  Armour  by  the  Company,2  etc.,  etc.,"  as  stated  in  the 
Newspapers : — 

1 .  See  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  426,  note  2. 

2.  The  allusion   is  explained  in   Rivington's   Annual  Register, 
under  the  date  October  30,  1820  (vol.  Ixii.  pp.  114*,  115*). 

"ADDRESSES  TO  THE  QUEEN. — The  Queen's  Chamberlain,  Sir 
'  William  Cell,  and  the  Hon.  Keppel  Craven,  having  notified  to 
'  the  public  that  her  Majesty  had  resolved  .  .  .  not  to  receive  any 
'  addresses  by  deputation  after  Monday,  several  of  the  most  nume- 
'  rous  and  respectable  trades  of  the  metropolis  and  its  vicinity  .  .  . 
'  determined  to  take  advantage  of  the  implied  permission,  and  to 
'  convey  to  her  Majesty,  on  Monday,  the  assurance  of  their  loyalty 
'  and  esteem.  The  first  procession  that  passed  along  the  Strand 
'  was  that  of  the  Youths  of  the  Metropolis  ...  the  next  .  .  .  was 
'  the  Coopers  ...  the  third  ...  the  Spanish  Leather-dressers  .  .  . 
'the  fourth  .  .  .  the  Fellmongers  .  .  .  Then  came  the  Sealskin 
'  Curriers.  But  the  most  splendid  exhibition  of  the  day  was  that  of 
'  the  brass-founders  and  braziers.  The  procession  was  headed  by  a 
'  man  dressed  in  a  suit  of  burnished  plate  armour  of  brass,  and 
'  mounted  on  a  handsome  black  horse,  the  reins  being  held  by 
'  persons  acting  as  pages,  but  wearing  brass  helmets.  This  figure 
'  was  followed  immediately  by  a  large  party,  bearing  beautiful 
'  pieces  of  fancy  work  in  brass  and  copper,  supported  on  brass 
'  wands.  The  brilliancy,  number,  and  variety  of  these  works 
'  excited  much  admiration.  At  regular  intervals  flags  were  borne, 
'  with  various  devices  and  mottoes,  '  The  Queen  and  her  Rights, ' 
' '  Caroline,  God  and  my  Right,'  '  Wood  and  Independence,' 
' '  Thou  shalt  not  bear  false  witness  against  thy  neighbour,'  '  Lying 
'  lips  are  an  abomination  to  the  Lord,'  '  As  a  roaring  lion  and  a 
'raging  bear;  so  is  a  wicked  ruler  over  a  poor  people.'  Then 
'  came  a  man  clothed  in  complete  steel  armour,  followed  by  various 
'  flags,  on  one  of  which  were  the  crowns  of  the  King  and  Queen, 
'  with  this  motto,  '  As  it  should  be,'  '  The  Queen's  Guard  are  men 
'of  metal.'  A  man  in  a  complete  suite  of  brass  armour,  mounted 
'  and  attended  as  the  former,  appeared,  and  was  followed  by  two 
'  persons,  bearing  on  a  cushion  a  most  magnificent  imitation  of  the 
'  imperial  Crown  of  England.  A  small  number  of  the  deputation 
'  of  brass-founders  were  admitted  to  the  presence  of  her  Majesty, 


It  seems  that  the  Braziers  propose  soon  to  pass 
An  Address  and  to  bear  it  themselves  all  in  brass ; 
A  Superfluous  Pageant,  for  by  the  Lord  Harry  ! 
They'll  find,  where  they're  going,  much  more  than  they 


The  Braziers  it  seems  are  determined  to  pass 

An  Address  and  present  it  themselves  All  in  brass, 

A  superfluous  {j^^H  for  by  the  Lord  Harry  ! 

They'll  find,  where  they're  going,  much  more  than  they 

R?  Jy  8'.h  1821. 

ILLUSTRIOUS  SIR, — I  enclose  you  a  long  note x  for  the 
5'-h  Canto  of  Don  Juan ;  you  will  find  where  it  should 
be  placed  on  referring  to  the  MS.,  which  I  sent  to  Mr. 
Kinnaird.  I  had  subscribed  the  authorities — Arrian, 
Plutarch,  Hume,  etc. — for  the  corrections  of  Bacon,  but, 
thinking  it  pedantic  to  do  so,  have  since  erased  them. 

I  have  had  no  letter  from  you  since  one  dated  the 
3r.d  of  Novf  You  are  a  pretty  fellow,  but  I  will  be  even 
with  you  some  day. 

Yours,  etc.,  etc., 


P.S. — The  enclosed  epigram  is  not  for  publication, 

"  and  one  of  the  persons  in  armour  advanced  to  the  throne,  and 
"  bending  on  one  knee,  presented  the  address,  which  was  enclosed 
"in  a  brass  case  of  excellent  workmanship.  A  youth  in  the  pro- 
"  cession  afterwards  presented  to  her  Majesty  an  elegant  gilt  vase, 
"  which  she  seemed  much  to  admire.  Other  deputations  followed." 
I.  See  Appendix  VI.  The  note  was  intended  for  stanza  cxlvii., 
to  illustrate  Byron's  existing  note  on  Bacon's  inaccuracy. 

l82I.]  HINTS  FROM  HORACE.  221 

86 1. — To  John  Murray. 

R?  ]y  iiV  1821. 

D*  M\, — Put  this  : — "  I  am  obliged  for  this  excellent 
"  translation  of  the  old  Chronicle  to  Mr.  Cohen,  to  whom 
"  the  reader  will  find  himself  indebted  for  a  version 
"  which  I  could  not  myself  (though  after  so  many  years 
"  intercourse  with  Italians)  have  given  by  any  means  so 
"  purely  and  so  faithfully."  1 

I  have  looked  over  The  Hints  (of  which,  by  the 
way,  you  have  not  sent  the  whole),  and  see  little  to  alter ; 
I  do  not  see  yet  any  name  which  would  be  offended,  at 
least  of  my  friends.  As  an  advertisement,  a  short  preface, 
say,  as  follows  :  (Let  me  have  the  rest  though  first.) 

"  However  little  this  poem  may  resemble  the  annexed 
"  Latin,  it  has  been  submitted  to  one  of  the  great  rules 
"  of  Horace,  having  been  kept  in  the  desk  for  more  than 
"  nine  years.  It  was  composed  at  Athens  in  the  Spring 
"of  1811,  and  received  some  additions  after  the  author's 
"  return  to  England  in  the  same  year." 

I  protest,  and  desire  you  to  protest  stoutly  and  publicly 
(if  it  be  necessary),  against  any  attempt  to  bring  the 
tragedy  on  any  stage.  It  was  written  solely  for  the 
reader.  It  is  too  regular,  and  too  simple,  and  of  too 
remote  an  interest,  for  the  Stage.  I  will  not  be  exposed 
to  the  insolences  of  an  audience,  without  a  remonstrance. 
As  thus, — 

"  The  Author,  having  heard  that,  notwithstanding  his 
"  request  and  remonstrance,  it  is  the  intention  of  one  of 
"  the  London  Managers  to  attempt  the  introduction  of 
"  the  tragedy  of  M.F.  upon  the  Stage,  does  hereby  protest 

I .  This  note,  with  three  trifling  alterations,  is  added  to  Appendix 
II.  to  Marino  Faliei'o,  after  Cohen's  translation  of  the  Cronica  di 

222       THE    PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

"  publicly  that  such  a  proceeding  is  as  totally  against  his 
"wishes,  as  it  will  prove  against  the  interests  of  the 
"  theatre.  That  Composition  was  intended  for  the  Closet 
"  only,  as  the  reader  will  readily  perceive.  By  no  kind 
"  of  adaptation  can  it  be  made  fit  for  the  present  English 
"  Stage.  If  the  Courtesy  of  the  Manager  is  not  sufficient 
"to  withhold  him  from  exercising  his  power  over  a 
"  published  drama,  which  the  Law  has  not  sufficiently 
"  protected  from  such  usurpation  "  1 

862. — To  John  Murray. 

R?  Jx  n'.h  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  have  read  with  attention  the 
enclosed,  of  which  you  have  not  sent  me,  however,  the 
whole  (which  pray  send),  and  have  made  the  few  correc- 
tions I  shall  make — in  what  I  have  seen  at  least.  I  will 
omit  nothing  and  alter  little :  the  fact  is  (as  I  perceive), 
that  I  wrote  a  great  deal  better  in  1811,  than  I  have  ever 
done  since.  I  care  not  a  sixpence  whether  the  work  is 
popular  or  not — that  is  your  concern  ;  and,  as  I  neither 
name  price,  nor  care  about  terms,  it  can  concern  you 
little  either,  so  that  it  pays  its  expence  of  printing.  I 
leave  all  those  matters  to  your  magnanimity  (which  is  some- 
thing like  Lady  Byron's),  which  will  decide  for  itself. 
You  have  about — I  know  not  what  quantity  of  my  stuff 
on  hand  just  now  (a  5th  Canto  of  Don  Juan  also  by  this 
time),  and  must  cut  according  to  your  cloth. 

Is  not  one  of  the  Seals  meant  for  my  Cranium  ?  and 
the  other — who  or  what  is  he  ? 

Yours  ever  truly, 


I.  The  rest  of  the  letter  is  missing. 

1 82 1.]  NOT   AN    ACTING   PLAY.  223 

P.S. — What  have  you  decided  about  Galignani  ?  I 
think  you  might  at  least  have  acknowledged  my  letter, 
which  would  have  been  civil ;  also  a  letter  on  the  late 
murders  here :  also,  pray  do  not  omit  to  protest  and 
impede  (as  far  as  possible)  any  Stage-playing  with  the 
tragedy.  I  hope  that  the  Histrions  will  see  their  own 
interest  too  well  to  attempt  it  See  my  other  letter. 

P.S. — You  say,  speaking  of  acting,  "  let  me  know 
"  your  pleasure  in  this."  I  reply  that  there  is  no  pleasure 
in  it ;  the  play  is  not  for  acting:  Kemble  or  Kean x  could 
read  it,  but  where  are  they  ?  Do  not  let  me  be  sacrificed 
in  such  a  manner  :  depend  upon  it,  it  is  some  party-work 
to  run  down  you  and  your  favourite  horse.  I  know  some- 
thing of  Harris  and  Elliston  personally ;  and,  if  they  are 
not  Critics  enough  to  see  that  it  would  not  do,  I  think 
them  Gentlemen  enough  to  desist  at  my  request.  Why 
don't  they  bring  out  some  of  the  thousands  of  meritorious 
and  neglected  men,  who  cumber  their  shelves,  instead  of 
dragging  me  out  of  the  library  ? 

Will  you  excuse  the  severe  postage,  with  which  my 
late  letters  will  have  taxed  you  ? 

"  I  had  taken  such  strong  resolutions  against  anything 
"  of  that  kind,  from  seeing  how  much  every  body  that 
"  did  write  for  the  Stage,  was  obliged  to  subject  them- 
"  selves  to  the  players  and  the  town." — Spence's 
Anecdotes •,  page  22. 

I.  "Lord  Byron,"  writes  Mrs.  Piozzi  to  Dr.  Gray,  September  I, 
1820  {Autobiography,  etc.,  vol.  ii.  p.  275),  "is  said  to  be  bringing 
"out  a  tragedy;  unlucky,  if  Mr.  Kean  is  leaving  England  for 
"America.  They  seem  to  be  kindred  souls,  delighting  in  distortion, 
"and  mistaking  it  for  pathos." 


863. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  January  19,  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — Yours  of  y?  2gth  UltT  hath  arrived. 
I  must  really  and  seriously  request  that  you  will  beg  of 
Messrs.  Harris  or  Elliston  to  let  the  Doge  alone  :  it  is 
not  an  acting  play ;  it  will  not  serve  their  purpose ;  it  will 
destroy  yours  (the  Sale) ;  and  it  will  distress  me.  It 
is  not  courteous,  it  is  hardly  even  gentlemanly,  to  persist 
in  this  appropriation  of  a  man's  writings  to  their 

I  have  already  sent  you  by  last  post  a  short  protest 
to  the  Public  (against  this  proceeding) ;  in  case  that  they 
persist,  which  I  trust  that  they  will  not,  you  must  then 
publish  it  in  the  Newspapers.  I  shall  not  let  them  off 
with  that  only,  if  they  go  on ;  but  make  a  longer  appeal 
on  that  subject,  and  state  what  I  think  the  injustice  of 
their  mode  of  behaviour.  It  is  hard  that  I  should  have 
all  the  buffoons  in  Britain  to  deal  with — -pirates  who  will 
publish,  and  players  who  will  act — when  there  are  thou- 
sands of  worthy  and  able  men  who  can  get  neither 
bookseller  nor  manager  for  love  nor  money. 

You  never  answered  me  a  word  about  Galignani :  if 
you  mean  to  use  the  two  documents,  do  ;  if  not,  burn  them. 
I  do  not  choose  to  leave  them  in  any  one's  possession  : 
suppose  some  one  found  them  without  the  letters,  what 
would  they  think  ?  why,  that  /had  been  doing  the  opposite 
of  what  I  have  done,  to  wit,  referred  the  whole  thing  to 
you — an  act  of  civility  at  least,  which  required  saying, 
"  I  have  received  your  letter."  I  thought  that  you  might 
have  some  hold  upon  those  publications  by  this  means  : 
to  me  it  can  be  no  interest  one  way  or  the  other. 

The  third  canto  of  Don  Juan  is  diill,  but  you  must 
really  put  up  with  it :  if  the  two  first  and  the  two  following 

1 82 1.]  A   CONFLICT   OF    CRITICS.  225 

are  tolerable,  what  do  you  expect  ?  particularly  as  I 
neither  dispute  with  you  on  it  as  a  matter  of  criticism, 
or  a  matter  of  business. 

Besides,  what  am  I  to  understand  ?  you  and  D?  Kin- 
naird,  and  others,  write  to  me,  that  the  two  first  published 
Cantos  are  among  the  best  that  I  ever  wrote,  and  are 
reckoned  so :  Mrs.  Leigh  writes  that  they  are  thought 
"  execrable"  (bitter  word  that  for  an  author — Eh,  Murray  !) 
as  a  composition  even,  and  that  she  had  heard  so  much 
against  them  that  she  would  never  read  them,  and  never 
has.  Be  that  as  it  may,  I  can't  alter.  That  is  not  my 
forte.  If  you  publish  the  three  new  ones  without  osten- 
tation, they  may  perhaps  succeed. 

Pray  publish  the  Dante  and  the  Pulci  (the  Prophecy 
of  Dante ,  I  mean) :  I  look  upon  the  Pulci  as  my  grand 
performance.  The  remainder  of  The  Hints,  where  be 
they?  Now  bring  them  all  out  about  the  same  time, 
otherwise  "  the  variety  "  you  wot  of  will  be  less  obvious. 

I  am  in  bad  humour :  some  obstructions  in  business 
with  the  damned  trustees,  who  object  to  an  advantageous 
loan  which  I  was  to  furnish  to  a  Nobleman  on  Mortgage, 
because  his  property  is  in  Ireland,  have  shown  me  how 
a  man  is  treated  in  his  absence.  Oh,  if  I  do  come  back, 
I  will  make  some  of  those,  who  little  dream  of  it,  spin — 
or  they  or  I  shall  go  down. 

The  news  here  is,  that  Col.  Brown1  (the  Witness- 
buyer)  has  been  stabbed  at  Milan,  but  not  mortally.  I 
wonder  that  anybody  should  dirty' their  daggers  in  him. 
They  should  have  beaten  him  with  Sandbags — an  old 
Spanish  fashion. 

I.  Colonel  Brown  was  employed  to  prepare  the  case  against 
Queen  Caroline  in  Italy.  He  was  attacked  at  Milan,  December  9, 
1820,  by  two  persons  as  he  was  returning  alone  from  the  Opera. 
He  received  four  wounds  in  the  head  and  one  in  the  chest,  but 

VOL.  V.  Q 


I  sent  you  a  line  or  two  on  the  Braziers'  Company 
last  week,  not  for  publication. 

Yours  ever, 

The  lines  were  even  worthy 

Of  — dsworth,  the  great  Metaquizzical  poet, 

A  man  of  great  merit  amongst  those  who  know  it, 

Of  whose  works,  as  I  told  Moore  last  autumn  at  *Mestri 

I  owe  all  I  know  to  my  passion  for  Pastry. 

*  Mestri  and  Fusina  are  the  ferry  trajects  to  Venice  : 
I  believe,  however,  that  it  was  at  Fusina  that  Moore  and 
I  embarked  in  1819,  when  Thomas  came  to  Venice,  like 
Coleridge's  Spring  "  slowly  up  this  way."  l 

Omit  the  dedication  to  Goethe. 

864. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  January  20,  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — If  Harris  or  Elliston  persist,2  after 
the  remonstrance  which  I  requested  you  and  Mr. 

1.  Christabel,  Part  I.  lines  20-22— 

"The  night  is  chill,  the  cloud  is  gray  : 
'Tis  a  month  before  the  month  of  May, 
And  the  Spring  comes  slowly  up  this  way." 

2.  On  Saturday,  April  21,  1821,  Murray  published  Marino  Faliero. 
On  Wednesday,  April  25,  the  play  was  represented  by  Elliston, 
at  Drury  Lane.     The  drama,  sheet  by  sheet  from  the  compositors' 
hands,  was  taken  from  the  printing-office  to  the  theatre,  and  the 
whole  play,  in  fact,  studied  before  publication. 

On  Wednesday,  April  25,  Elliston  received  the  formal  licence 
from  the  Lord  Chamberlain.  Half  an  hour  later  he  was  served  with  a 
notice  from  Murray's  solicitor,  announcing  that  the  Lord  Chancellor 
had  granted  an  injunction  against  the  acting  of  Marino  Faliero,  and 
that  the  play  must  be  immediately  withdrawn. 

"  Elliston  was  now  in  his  element — namely,  a  perplexity ;  and, 
"with  his  wonted  activity  in  such  cases,  he  sprang  into  a  hackney- 
"  coach,  with  the  view  of  driving  to  Hamilton  Place,  that  he  might 


Kinnaird  to  make  on  my  behalf,  and  which  I  hope  will 
be  sufficient — but  if,  I  say,  they  do  persist,  then  I  pray  you 
to  present  in  person  the  enclosed  letter  to  the  Lord 
Chamberlain  :  I  have  said  in  person ;  otherwise  I  shall 
have  neither  answer  nor  knowledge  that  it  has  reached 
its  address,  owing  to  "  the  insolence  of  office." 

I  wish  you  would  speak  to  Lord  Holland,  and  to  all 
my  friends  and  yours,  to  interest  themselves  in  prevent- 
ing this  cursed  attempt  at  representation. 

God  help  me !  at  this  distance,  I  am  treated  like  a 

"see  Lord  Eldon  himself  on  the  subject.  He  arrived  in  very  time 
"  to  catch  his  lordship  by  the  skirts  of  his  clothing  as  he  was  mount- 
' '  ing  the  steps  of  his  own  door.  Here  the  defendant  at  once  entered 
"on  the  merits  of  his  case,  and  his  lordship  declared  the  court 
"  sitting — Lord  Eldon  on  the  upper  step,  and  Elliston  on  the  pave- 
"  ment — the  one  all  patience,  the  other  all  animation.  The  chan- 
"  cellor  hesitated  as  to  his  previous  order — Lord  Eldon  doubted — 
"  and  Elliston  redoubled  the  force  of  his  argument.  At  length  he 
"  so  far  succeeded,  that  the  judge  suspended  the  injunction  granted 
"  against  the  acting  of  the  play  for  that  night ;  but,  '  mind,'  observed 
"he,  'you  appear  before  me  in  the  morning  of  to-morrow.'  The 
"manager  hereupon  took  his  respectful  leave,  quitting  the  chan- 
"  cellor,  after  an  interview  more  extraordinary  than  any,  perhaps, 
"recorded  in  Mr.  Twiss's  admirable  Life  of  his  lordship"  (Memoirs 
of  Robert  W.  Elliston  (1845),  pp.  268,  269). 

Elliston's  success  with  Lord  Eldon  was  met  by  the  following  hand- 
bill issued  by  Murray  : — 

"  The  Public  are  respectfully  informed  that  the  representation  of 
'  Lord  Byron's  tragedy,  The  Doge  of  Venice  (Marino  Faliero),  this 
'evening,  takes  place  in  defiance  of  an  injunction  of  the  Lord 
'  Chancellor,  which  was  not  applied  for  until  the  remonstrance  of 
'  the  publisher,  at  the  earnest  desire  of  the  noble  author,  had  failed 
'  in  protecting  this  drama  from  its  intrusion  on  the  stage,  for  which 
"  it  was  never  intended"  (ibid.,  p.  270). 

The  play  was  acted  on  April  25,  but  it  excited  no  enthusiasm, 
and  the  receipts  amounted  to  only  ,£147. 

Subsequently  several  hearings  took  place  before  the  Chancellor, 
"and  it  was  settled  that  the  case  should  be  sent  to  the  Court  of 
"King's  Bench,  to  see  whether  an  action  could  be  maintained. 
'  The  argument  was  to  come  on  in  the  November  following,  when, 
'no  counsel  appearing  on  the  part  of  the  plaintiff,  the  case  was 
'  struck  out.  Marino  Faliero  was  acted  a  second  time  on  the  3Oth 
'  of  April,  under  the  authority  of  the  lord  chancellor,  to  which  all 
'  parties  had  assented.  The  play  was  represented,  on  the  whole, 
'seven  times,  the  greatest  receipt  being ^"160  "  (ibid.,  pp.  270,  271). 


corpse  or  a  fool  by  the  few  people  whom  I  thought  that 
I  could  rely  upon ;  and  I  was  a  fool  to  think  any  better 
of  them  than  of  the  rest  of  mankind. 
Pray  write. 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — I  have  nothing  more  at  heart  (that  is,  in 
literature)  than  to  prevent  this  drama  from  going  upon 
the  Stage :  in  short,  rather  than  permit  it,  it  must  be 
suppressed  altoget/ier,  and  only  forty  copies  struck  off 
privately  for  presents  to  my  friends.  What  damned  fools 
those  speculating  buffoons  must  be  not  to  see  that  it  is 
unfit  for  their  Fair,  or  their  booth  ! 

865. — To  John  Murray. 

January  20,  1821. 

D*  MY, — I  did  not  think  to  have  troubled  you  with 
the  plague  and  postage  of  a  double  letter  this  time,  but  I 
have  just  read  in  an  Italian  paper,  "  That  I/!  B.  has  a 
"  tragedy  coming  out,"  etc.,  etc.,  etc. ;  and  that  the  Courier 
and  Morning  Chronicle,  etc.,  etc.,  are  pulling  one  another 
to  pieces  about  it  and  him,  etc. 

Now  I  do  reiterate  and  desire,  that  every  thing  may 
be  done  to  prevent  it  from  coming  out  on  any  theatre, 
for  which  it  never  was  designed,  and  on  which  (in  the 
present  state  of  the  stage  of  London)  it  could  never 
succeed.  I  have  sent  you  my  appeal  by  last  post,  which 
you  must  publish  in  case  of  need ;  and  I  require  you  even 
in  your  own  name  (if  my  honour  is  dear  to  you)  to 
declare  that  such  representation  would  be  contrary  to  my 
wish  and  my  judgement.  If  you  do  not  wish  to  drive  me 


mad  altogether,  you  will  hit  upon  some  way  to  prevent 


P.S. — I  cannot  conceive  how  Harris  or  Elliston 
should  be  so  insane  as  to  think  of  acting  Marino  Faliero  ; 
they  might  as  well  act  the  Prometheus  of  yEschylus.  I 
speak  of  course  humbly,  and  with  the  greatest  sense  of 
the  distance  of  time  and  merit  between  the  two  per- 
formances ;  but  merely  to  show  the  absurdity  of  the 

The  Italian  paper  speaks  of  a  "  party  against  it ; "  to 
be  sure  there  would  be  a  party :  can  you  imagine,  that 
after  having  never  flattered  man,  nor  beast,  nor  opinion, 
nor  politics,  there  would  not  be  a  party  against  a  man, 
who  is  also  a  popular  writer — at  least  a  successful  ?  why, 
all  parties  would  be  a  party  against. 

866. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  January  22,  1821. 

Pray  get  well.  I  do  not  like  your  complaint.  So, 
let  me  have  a  line  to  say  you  are  up  and  doing  again. 
To-day  I  am  thirty-three  years  of  age. 

Through  life's  road,  so  dim  and  dirty, 
I  have  dragged  to  three-and-thirty. 
What  have  these  years  left  to  me  ? 
Nothing — except  thirty-three. 

Have  you  heard  that  the  "  Braziers'  Company  "  have, 
or  mean  to  present  an  address  at  Brandenburgh  House,1 

I.  Brandenburgh  House,  Fulham,  formerly  called  Crabtree  Hall, 
was  built  by  Captain  Crispe,  slave-trader  and  merchant-adventurer 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  It  passed  through  various  hands — Prince 


"  in  armour,"  and  with  all  possible  variety  and  splendour 
of  brazen  apparel  ? 

The  Braziers,  it  seems,  are  preparing  to  pass 
An  address,  and  present  it  themselves  all  in  brass — 
A  superfluous  pageant — for,  by  the  Lord  Harry, 
They'll  find  where  they're  going  much  more  than  they 

There's  an  Ode  for  you,  is  it  not  ? — worthy 

Of  Wordsworth,  the  grand  metaquizzical  poet, 
A  man  of  vast  merit,  though  few  people  know  it ; 
The  perusal  of  whom  (as  I  told  you  at  Mestri) 
I  owe,  in  great  part,  to  my  passion  for  pastry. 

Mestri  and  Fusina  are  the  "trajects,  or  common 
"  ferries,"  to  Venice ;  but  it  was  from  Fusina  that  you  and 
I  embayed,  though  "  the  wicked  necessity  of  rhyming  " 
has  made  me  press  Mestri  into  the  voyage. 

So,  you  have  had  a  book  dedicated  to  you  ?  I  am 
glad  of  it,  and  shall  be  very  happy  to  see  the  volume. 

I  am  in  a  peck  of  troubles  about  a  tragedy  of  mine, 
which  is  fit  only  for  the  (****)  closet,  and  which  it 
seems  that  the  managers,  assuming  a  right  over  published 
poetry,  are  determined  to  enact,  whether  I  will  or  no, 
with  their  own  alterations  by  Mr.  Dibdin,1  I  presume. 
I  have  written  to  Murray,  to  the  Lord  Chamberlain,  and 
to  others,  to  interfere  and  preserve  me  from  such  an 
exhibition.  I  want  neither  the  impertinence  of  their 

Rupert,  Margaret  Hughes,  and  Bubb  Doddington,  who  changed  the 
name  to  La  Trappe.  From  Doddington  it  eventually  passed  to 
the  Margrave  of  Brandenburgh.  After  Queen  Caroline's  death,  the 
house  was  pulled  down,  and  the  site  is  now  occupied  by  a  distillery. 
I.  Dibdin  (Autobiography,  vol.  ii.  p.  199),  in  opening  the  Surrey 
Theatre  for  Easter,  1821,  announced  "a  new  melodrame  founded 
"  on  Lord  Byron's  recent  play  of  Marifto  Faliero,  Doge  of  Venice" 
He  did  not,  however,  bring  out  the  piece. 

1 82 1.]  THE  PROPHECY  OF  DANTE.  231 

hisses,  nor  the  insolence  of  their  applause.  I  write  only 
for  the  reader,  and  care  for  nothing  but  the  silent  appro- 
bation of  those  who  close  one's  book  with  good  humour 
and  quiet  contentment. 

Now,  if  you  would  also  write  to  our  friend  Perry,  to 
beg  of  him  to  mediate  with  Harris  and  Elliston  to  forbear 
this  intent,  you  will  greatly  oblige  me.  The  play  is  quite 
unfit  for  the  stage,  as  a  single  glance  will  show  them, 
and,  I  hope,  has  shown  them ;  and,  if  it  were  ever  so  fit, 
I  will  never  have  any  thing  to  do  willingly  with  the 

Yours  ever,  in  haste,  etc. 

867. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  J?  27,  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — I  have  mentioned  Mr.  Cohen  in  a 
letter  to  you  last  week,  from  which  the  passage  should 
be  extracted  and  prefixed  to  his  translation.  You  will 
also  have  received  two  or  three  letters  upon  the  subject 
of  the  Managers:  in  one  I  enclosed  an  epistle  for  the 
Lord  Chamberlain  (in  case  of  the  worst),  and  I  even 
prohibited  the  publication  of  the  Tragedy,  limiting  it  to 
a  few  copies  for  my  private  friends.  But  this  would  be 
useless,  after  going  so  far ;  so  you  may  publish  as  we 
intended — only,  (if  the  Managers  attempt  to  act),  pray 
present  my  letter  to  the  \2.  Chamberlain,  and  publish  my 
appeal  in  the  papers,  adding  that  it  has  all  along  been 
against  my  wishes  that  it  should  be  represented. 

I  differ  from  you  about  the  Dante?  which  I  think 
should  be  published  with  the  tragedy.  But  do  as  you 
please :  you  must  be  the  best  judge  of  your  own  craft. 
I  agree  with  you  about  the  title.  The  play  may  be  good 

I.   The  Prophecy  of  Dante  was  published  with  Marino  Faliero, 
Doge  of  Venice^  in  April,  1821. 


or  bad,  but  I  flatter  myself  that  it  is  original  as  a  picture 
of  that  kind  of  passion,  which  to  my  mind  is  so  natural, 
that  I  am  convinced  that  I  should  have  done  precisely 
what  the  Doge  did  on  those  provocations. 

I  am  glad  of  Foscolo's  approbation. 

I  wish  you  would  send  me  the  remainder  of  The 
Hints — you  only  sent  about  half  of  them.  As  to  the 
other  volume,  you  should  publish  them  about  the  same 
period,  or  else  what  becomes  of  the  "  -variety  "  which  you 
talk  so  much  of? 

Excuse  haste.  I  believe  I  mentioned  to  you  that 
I  forget  what  it  was ;  but  no  matter. 

Thanks  for  your  compliments  of  the  year :  I  hope 
that  it  will  be  pleasanter  than  the  last.  I  speak  with 
reference  to  England  only,  as  far  as  regards  myself, 
where  I  had  every  kind  of  disappointment — lost  an 
important  lawsuit — and  the  trustees  of  that  evil  Genius  of 
a  woman,  Ly.  Byron  (who  was  born  for  my  desolation), 
refusing  to  allow  of  an  advantageous  loan  to  be  made 
from  my  property  to  Lord  Blessington,  etc.,  etc.,  by  way 
of  closing  the  four  seasons.  These,  and  a  hundred  other 
such  things,  made  a  year  of  bitter  business  for  me  in 
England :  luckily,  things  were  a  little  pleasanter  for  me 
Jiere^  else  I  should  have  taken  the  liberty  of  Hannibal's 

Pray  thank  Gifford  for  all  his  goodnesses  :  the  winter 
is  as  cold  here  as  Parry's  polarities.2  I  must  now  take  a 
canter  in  the  forest ;  my  horses  are  waiting. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


1.  "  Non  gladii,  non  saxa  dabunt,  nee  tela  ;  sed  ille 

Cannarum  vindex,  ac  tanti  sanguinis  ultor, 

Juvenal,  Sat.  x.  164. 

2.  Captain  Parry  (1790-1855)  published,  in  1821,  his  Journal  of  a 

1 82 1.]  ENGLISH   GUNPOWDER.  233 

P.S. — It  is  exceedingly  strange  that  you  have  never 
acknowledged  the  receipt  of  Galiguants  letters,  which  I 
enclosed  to  you  three  months  ago :  what  the  devil  does 
that  mean? 

868. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  January  28^  1821. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — I  have  not  heard  from  you  for 
a  long  time,  and  now  I  must  trouble  you — as  usual. 
Messrs.  Siri  and  Wilhalm  have  given  up  business.  They 
had  three  cases  of  mine.  I  desired  them  to  consign 
these  cases  to  Missiaglia.  There  were  4  Telescopes,  a 
case  of  Watches  and  a  tin  case  of  English  gunpowder, 
containing  about  five  pounds  of  the  same,  which  I  have 
had  for  five  years.  Messrs.  Siri  and  Wilhalm  own  to  all 
three,  and  the  telescopes  and  watches  they  have  consigned 
to  M.,  of  the  others  (though  they  mention  it  in  a  letter  of 
last  week)  they  now  say  nothing — and  M.  pretends  that 
it  is  not  to  be  found. 

Will  you  make  enquiry  ?  It  is  of  importance  to  me, 
because  I  can  find  no  other  such  in  these  countries,  and 
can  be  of  none  to  the  Government  because  it  is  so  small 
a  quantity.  If  it  has  in  fact  been  seized  by  these  fellows, 
I  will  present  a  slight  memorial  to  the  Governor  of 
Venice  ;  which  (though  it  may  not  get  me  back  my  three 
or  four  pounds  of  powder)  will  at  least  tell  him  some 
truths  upon  things  in  general,  as  I  shall  use  pretty  strong 
terms  in  expressing  myself. 

I  shall  feel  very  much  obliged  by  your  making  this 

Voyage  for  the  Discovery  of  a  North-  West  Passage  from  the  Atlantic 
to  the  Pacific,  performed  in  tJu  Years  1819-20,  in  H.M.  Ships  Hecla 
and  Griper. 


Of  course  upon  other  topics  I  can  say  nothing  at 
present,  except  that  your  Dutch  friends  will  have  their 
hands  full  one  of  these  days  probably. 
Pray  let  me  know  how  you  are. 

I  am,  yours  very  truly, 


My  best  respects  to  Madame  Hoppner.  Could  not 
you  and  I  contrive  to  meet  somewhere  this  spring  ?  I 
should  be  solus. 

P.S. — I  sent  you  all  the  romances  and  light  reading 
which  Murray  has  furnished — except  the  Monastery ',  which 
you  told  me  that  you  had  already  seen.  I  wish  the 
things  which  were  at  Siri  and  W.'s  to  remain  with 
Missiaglia,  and  not  to  be  sent  here,  at  least  for  the 

present.  Pray  do  what  you  can  about  the  p r ;  it  is 

hard  those  rascals  should  seize  the  poor  little  miserable 
canister,  after  the  many  I  shot  in  relieving  their  wretched 
population  at  Venice.  I  did  not  trouble  you  with  the 
things,  because  I  thought  that  they  would  bore  you.  I 
never  got  the  translation  of  the  German  translation^  but 
it  don't  signify  as  you  said  it  was  not  worth  while.  They 
are  printing  some  things  of  mine  in  England,  and  if  any 
parcel  comes  from  London  addressed  to  me  at  Venice, 
pray  take  any  work  of  mine  out  you  like — and  keep  it,  as 
well  as  any  other  books  you  choose. 

They  are  always  addressed  to  Missiaglia. 

869. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Febr?  2,  1821. 

D1?  MORAY, — Your  letter  of  excuses  has  arrived.  I 
receive  the  letter,  but  do  not  admit  the  excuses,  except 

l82I.j          A  MINISTER  OF  STATE.  235 

in  courtesy ;  as  when  a  man  treads  on  your  toes  and  begs 
your  pardon,  the  pardon  is  granted,  but  the  joint  aches, 
especially  if  there  be  a  corn  upon  it.  However,  I  shall 
scold  you  presently. 

In  the  last  speech  of  The  Doge,1  there  occurs  (I  think, 
from  memory)  the  phrase 

"  And  Thou  who  makest  and  unmakest  Suns  ; " 
Change  this  to 
"  And  Thou  who  kindlest  and  who  quenchest  Suns  ; " 

that  is  to  say,  if  the  verse  runs  equally  well,  and  Mr. 
Gifford  thinks  the  expression  improved.  Pray  have  the 
bounty  to  attend  to  this.  You  are  grown  quite  a  minister 
of  State :  mind  if  some  of  these  days  you  are  not  thrown 
out.  God  will  not  be  always  a  Tory,  though  Johnson 
says  the  first  Whig  was  the  Devil. 

You  have  learnt  one  secret  from  Mr.  Galignani's 
(somewhat  tardily  acknowledged)  correspondence.  This 
is,  that  an  English  Author  may  dispose  of  his  exclusive 
copyright  in  France — a  fact  of  some  consequence  (in 
time  of  peace),  in  the  case  of  a  popular  writer.  Now  I 
will  tell  you  what  you  shall  do,  and  take  no  advantage  of 
you,  though  you  were  scurvy  enough  never  to  acknow- 
ledge my  letter  for  three  months.  Offer  Galignani  the 
refusal  of  the  copyright  in  France ;  if  he  refuses,  appoint 
any  bookseller  in  France  you  please,  and  I  will  sign  any 
assignment  you  please,  and  it  shall  never  cost  you  a  Sou 
on  my  account. 

Recollect  that  /  will  have  nothing  to  do  with  it, 
except  as  far  as  it  may  secure  the  copyright  to  yourself. 
I  will  have  no  bargain  but  with  English  publishers,  and  I 
desire  no  interest  out  of  that  country. 

I.  Marino  Faliero,  act  v.  sc.  3. 


Now,  that's  fair  and  open,  and  a  little  handsomer 
than  your  dodging  silence,  to  see  what  would  come  of  it. 
You  are  an  excellent  fellow,  mio  Caro  Moray,  but  there 
is  still  a  little  leaven  of  Fleet-street  about  you  now  and 
then — a  crumb  of  the  old  loaf.  You  have  no  right  to  act 
suspiciously  with  me,  for  I  have  given  you  no  reasons. 
I  shall  always  be  frank  with  you;  as,  for  instance, 
whenever  you  talk  with  the  votaries  of  Apollo  arithme- 
tically, it  should  be  in  guineas,  not  pounds — to  poets  as 
well  as  physicians,  and  bidders  at  Auctions. 

I  shall  say  no  more  at  this  present,  save  that  I  am, 

Yours  very  truly, 


P.S. — If  you  venture,  as  you  say,  to  Ravenna  this 
year,  through  guns,  which  (like  the  Irishman's),  "  shoot 
"  round  a  corner,"  I  will  exercise  the  rites  of  hospitality 
while  you  live,  and  bury  you  handsomely  (though  not  in 
holy  ground),  if  you  get  "  shot  or  slashed  in  a  creagh  or 
"  splore," l  which  are  rather  frequent  here  of  late  among 
the  native  parties.  But  perhaps  your  visit  may  be  anti- 
cipated ;  for  Lady  Medea's  trustees  and  my  Attorneo  do 
so  thwart  all  business  of  mine,  in  despite  of  Mr.  K1!  and 
myself,  that  I  may  probably  come  to  your  country ;  in 
which  case  write  to  her  Ladyship  the  duplicate  of  the 
epistle  the  King  of  France  wrote  to  Prince  John.2  She 
and  her  Scoundrels  shall  find  it  so. 

I.  Evan  Dhu  Maccombich  wished  nothing  better  for  his  friend 
Donald  Bean  than  to  be  hung  on  the  "  kind  gallows  of  Crieff  .  .  . 
"  if  he's  not  shot,  or  slashed,  in  a  creagh  "  ( IVaverley,  chap,  xviii.). 

z.  "  So  soon  as  Philip  heard  of  the  King's  delivery  from  captivity, 
"he  wrote  to  his  confederate  John,  in  these  terms  :  '  Take  care  of 
"yourself:  the  Devil  is  broke  loose'  "  (Hume's  History  of  England, 
ed.  1770,  vol.  ii.  p.  32). 

1821.]        ELIZABETH,    DUCHESS   OF   DEVONSHIRE.  237 

870. — To  John  Murray. 

R?  F?  12?  1821. 

D?  SR, — You  are  requested  to  take  particular  care 
that  the  enclosed  note  is  printed  with  the  drama.  Fos- 
colo  or  Hobhouse  will  correct  the  Italian;  but  do  not 
you  delay :  every  one  of  your  cursed  proofs  is  a  two 
months'  delay,  which  you  only  employ  to  gain  time, 
because  you  think  it  a  bad  speculation. 


P.S. — If  the  thing  fails  in  the  publication,  you  are 
NOT  pinned  even  to  your  own  terms :  merely  print  and 
publish  what  I  desire  you,  and  if  you  don't  succeed,  I 
will  abate  whatever  you  please.  I  care  nothing  about 
that ;  but  I  wish  what  I  desire  to  be  printed,  to  be  so. 

I  have  never  had  the  remaining  sheet  of  the  Hints 
from  H\prace\. 

In  the  letter  on  Bowles,1  after  the  words  "  the  long 
"  walls  of  Palestrina  and  Malamocco,"  add  " /  Murazzi" 
which  is  their  Venetian  title. 

Mr.  M.  is  requested  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  this 
by  return  of  post. 

871. — To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire.2 

Ravenna,  February  15,  1821. 

MADAM, — I  am  about  to  request  a  favor  of  your 
Grace  without  the  smallest  personal  pretensions  to  obtain 

1 .  For  Byron's  controversy  with  Bowles,  and  his  two  Letters ;  see 
Appendix  III. 

2.  For  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire,  see  Letters,  vol.  iv.  p.  178, 
note  I .    Byron's  two  letters  are  printed  from  copies  in  the  possession 
of  Mr.  Murray.     The  first  letter  missed  the  .duchess,  who  had  left 


it.      It  is  not  however  for  myself,  and  yet  I  err — for 
surely  what  we  solicit  for  our  friends  is,  or  ought  to  be, 

Rome  for  Spa.    Byron's  second  letter  and  the  duchess's  answer  are 
given  below  : — 

"To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

"  Ravenna,  July  30,  1821. 

"MADAM, — The  inclosed  letter  (of  Feb.  15,  1821)  which  I  had 
"  the  honour  of  addressing  to  your  Grace,  unfortunately  for  the 
"  subject  of  it  and  for  the  writer, — arrived  after  your  Grace's  de- 
"  parture.  I  venture  to  forward  it  to  Spa  in  the  hope  that  you  may 
"  be  perhaps  tempted  to  interest  yourself  in  favor  of  the  persons 
"  to  whom  it  refers  by  writing  a  few  lines  to  any  of  your  Roman 
"  acquaintances  in  power.  Two  words  from  your  Grace  I  cannot 
"  help  thinking  would  be  sufficient — even  if  the  request  were  still 
"  more  presumptuous. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  with  the  greatest  respect, 

"  Your  most  obed^  very  humble  servant, 


"To  Lord  Byron. 

"  Spa,  August  17,  1821. 

"  I  regret  very  much  that  the  letter  which  your  Lordship  directed 
' '  to  Rome  did  not  arrive  before  I  left  it,  for  it  is  always  easier  to 
"  explain  the  subject  which  one  is  anxious  about  in  conversation 
"  than  by  writing — unless,  indeed,  the  pen  is  held  by  the  author  of 
"  Childe  Harold.  I  will,  however,  certainly  write  to  Rome  about 
"  the  persons  who  interest  you  so  much,  and  shall  be  happy  if  I 
"  can  be  of  any  use  to  them.  I  recollect  Madame  Martinetti's 
"introducing  to  me  a  gentleman  of  the  name  of  Gamba  ;  but  it  is 
"  the  warm  interest  which  you  express,  my  Lord,  that  will  make  me 
"particularly  anxious  to  succeed  for  them.  Lady  Melbourne  had, 
"  I  know,  the  greatest  regard  and  friendship  for  you ;  and  I  had 
"ever  the  sincerest  affection  for  her.  Whatever  regrets  subsequent 
"  occurrences  might  have  occasioned  her,  I  believe  her  friendship 
"  for  you  was  unvaried.  I  have  found  no  difficulty  in  decyphering 
"  your  letter,  without  ever  being  indebted  to  Lady  Bessborough's 
"  letters  for  that  advantage  ;  and  I  have  only  to  wish  that  I  may  be 
"  successful  in  my  application,  and  be  able  to  realize  the  hopes  you 
"have  formed  from  any  influence  I  may  possess  at  Rome.  I  always 
' '  wish  to  do  any  good  I  can,  and  in  that  poor  Gibbon  and  my  other 
"  friends  have  but  done  me  justice  ;  but  believe  me  also,  that  there 
"  is  a  character  of  justice,  goodness,  and  benevolence  in  the  present 
"Government  of  Rome,  which,  if  they  are  convinced  of  the  just 
"  claim  of  the  Comtes  de  Gamba,  will  make  them  grant  their  request. 
"  Of  Cardinal  Gonsalve  it  is  truly  said,  '  II  a  etabli  une  nouvelle 
"politique  formee  sur  la  verite  et  la  franchise;  1'estime  de  toute 
"  1'Europe  le  paye  de  ses  fatigues  ; '  pray  do  not  judge  of  the  holy 

1 82 1.]  AN   APPEAL   FOR  THE   GAMBAS.  239 

nearest  to  ourselves.  If  I  fail  in  this  application,  my 
intrusion  will  be  its  own  reward;  if  I  succeed,  your 
Grace's  reward  will  consist  in  having  done  a  good  action, 
and  mine  in  your  pardon  for  my  presumption.  My 
reason  for  appealing  to  you  is  this — your  Grace  has  been 
long  in  Rome,  and  could  not  be  long  any  where  without 
the  influence  and  the  inclination  to  do  good. 

Among  the  list  of  exiles  on  account  of  the  late 
suspicions — and  the  intrigues  of  the  Austrian  Govern- 
ment (the  most  infamous  in  history)  there  are  many  of 
my  acquaintances  in  Romagna  and  some  of  my  friends  ; 
of  these  more  particularly  are  the  two  Counts  Gamba 
(father  and  son)  of  a  noble  and  respected  family  in  this 
city.  In  common  with  thirty  or  more  of  all  ranks  they 
have  been  hurried  from  their  home  without  process — 
without  hearing — without  accusation.  The  father  is 
universally  respected  and  liked,  his  family  is  numerous 
and  mostly  young — and  these  are  now  left  without  pro- 
tection :  the  son  is  a  very  fine  young  man,  with  very  little 
of  the  vices  of  his  age  or  climate ;  he  has  I  believe  the 
honor  of  an  acquaintance  with  your  Grace — having  been 
presented  by  Madame  Martinetti.  He  is  but  one  and 
twenty  and  lately  returned  from  his  studies  at  Rome. 
Could  your  Grace,  or  would  you — ask  the  repeal  of  both, 
or  at  least  of  one  of  these  from  those  in  power  in  the  holy 

'  City  from  the  reports  of  others  ;  your  own  observation  would  tell 
'  you  more  than  all  the  reports  of  others,  and,  as  no  one  has 
'  described  its  monuments  with  such  beauty  of  poetry  as  yourself,  so 
'  no  one,  I  am  sure,  would  do  more  justice  to  the  merits  of  its 
'  inhabitants  if  you  staid  long  enough  to  know  them.  I  beg  of  you, 
'  my  Lord,  once  more  to  be  assured  of  the  pleasure  with  which  I 
'  shall  undertake,  and  the  satisfaction  which  I  shall  feel,  if  I  obtain 
;  the  recall  of  your  friends  to  their  native  country. 


"  I  give  up  the  Austrian  Government  to  all  you  chuse  to  say  of 
"  them." 

240       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

City  ?  They  are  not  aware  of  my  solicitation  in  their 
behalfs — but  I  will  take  it  upon  me  to  say  that  they  shall 
neither  dishonour  your  goodness  nor  my  request.  If 
only  one  can  be  obtained — let  it  be  the  father  on  account 
of  his  family.  I  can  assure  your  Grace  and  the  very 
pious  Government  in  question  that  there  can  be  no  danger 
in  this  act  of — clemency  shall  I  call  it  ?  It  would  be  but 
justice  with  us — but  here !  let  them  call  it  what  they  will. 
...  I  cannot  express  the  obligation  which  I  should /<?£/ 
— I  say  feel  only — because  I  do  not  see  how  I  could 
repay  it  to  your  Grace — I  have  not  the  slightest  claim 
upon  you,  unless  perhaps  through  the  memory  of  our 
late  friend,  Lady  Melbourne — I  say  friend  only  —  for 
my  relationship  with  her  family  has  not  been  fortunate 
for  them,  nor  for  me.  If  therefore  you  should  be 
disposed  to  grant  my  request  I  shall  set  it  down  to  your 
tenderness  for  her  who  is  gone,  and  who  was  to  me  the 
best  and  kindest  of  friends.  The  persons  for  whom  I 
solicit  will  (in  case  of  success)  neither  be  in  ignorance  of 
their  protectress,  nor  indisposed  to  acknowledge  their 
sense  of  her  kindness  by  a  strict  observance  of  such  con- 
duct as  may  justify  her  interference.  If  my  acquaintance 
with  your  Grace's  character  were  even  slighter  than  it  is 
through  the  medium  of  some  of  our  English  friends,  I 
had  only  to  turn  to  the  letters  of  Gibbon  (now  on  my 
table)  for  a  full  testimony  to  its  high  and  amiable 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect, 

Your  Grace's  most  obedient  very  humble  Servant, 


P.S. — Pray  excuse  my  scrawl  which  perhaps  you 
may  be  enabled  to  decypher  from  a  long  acquaintance 
with  the  handwriting  of  Lady  Bessborough.  I  omitted 

1 82 1.]  TWO    FRIENDS    FROM    ITALY.  241 

to  mention  that  the  measures  taken  here  have  been  as 
blind  as  impolitic — this  I  happen  to  know.  Out  of  the 
list  in  Ravenna — there  are  at  least  ten  not  only  innocent, 
but  even  opposite  in  principles  to  the  liberals.  It  has 
been  the  work  of  some  blundering  Austrian  spy  or  angry 
priest  to  gratify  his  private  hatreds.  Once  more  your 

872. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  February  16,  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — In  the  month  of  March  will  arrive 
from  Barcelona  Signer  Curioni,1  engaged  for  the  Opera. 
He  is  an  acquaintance  of  mine,  and  a  gentlemanly  young 
man,  high  in  his  profession.  I  must  request  your  personal 
kindness  and  patronage  in  his  favour.  Pray  introduce 
him  to  such  of  the  theatrical  people,  Editors  of  Papers, 
and  others,  as  may  be  useful  to  him  in  his  profession, 
publicly  and  privately. 

He  is  accompanied  by  the  Signora  Arpalice  Taruscelli, 
a  Venetian  lady  of  great  beauty  and  celebrity,  and  a 
particular  friend  of  mine :  your  natural  gallantry  will  I 
am  sure  induce  you  to  pay  her  proper  attention.  Tell 
Israeli  that,  as  he  is  fond  of  literary  anecdotes,  she  can 
tell  him  some  of  your  acquaintance  abroad.  I  presume 
that  he  speaks  Italian.  Do  not  neglect  this  request,  but 
do  them  and  me  this  favour  in  their  behalf.  I  shall 
write  to  some  others  to  aid  you  in  assisting  them  with 
your  countenance. 

I  agree  to  your  request  of  leaving  in  abeyance  the 
terms  for  the  three  D.  f.s,  till  you  can  ascertain  the  effect 

I.  Alberico  Curioni,  born  1790,  a  tenor  singer,  sang  in  London 
1821-32.  In  the  Literary  Gazette  for  May  5,  1821  (p.  285),  he  is 
described  as  "a  handsome  man,"  with  "a  voice  flexible,  but  not 
"fine."  See  also  Grove's  Dictionary  of  Music,  vol.  i.  pp.  423,  424. 

VOL.  V.  R 

242       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

of  publication.  If  I  refuse  to  alter,  you  have  a  claim  to 
so  much  courtesy  in  return.  I  had  let  you  off  your 
proposal  about  the  price  of  the  Cantos,  last  year  (the 
3r.d  and  4'!'  always  to  reckon  as  one  only),  and  I  do  not 
call  upon  you  to  renew  it.  You  have  therefore  no 
occasion  to  fight  so  shy  of  such  subjects,  as  I  am  not 
conscious  of  having  given  you  occasion. 

The  5*  is  so  far  from  being  the  last  of  D.  /.,  that  it 
is  hardly  the  beginning.  I  meant  to  take  him  the  tour 
of  Europe,  with  a  proper  mixture  of  siege,  battle,  and 
adventure,  and  to  make  him  finish  as  Anacharsis  Cloots * 
in  the  French  revolution.  To  how  many  cantos  this 
may  extend,  I  know  not,  nor  whether  (even  if  I  live)  I 
shall  complete  it ;  but  this  was  my  notion :  I  meant  to 
have  made  him  a  Cavalier  Servente  in  Italy,  and  a  cause 
for  a  divorce  in  England,  and  a  Sentimental  "  Werther- 
"  faced  man  " 2  in  Germany,  so  as  to  show  the  different 
ridicules  of  the  society  in  each  of  those  countries,  and  to 
have  displayed  him  gradually  gate  and  blas'e  as  he  grew 
older,  as  is  natural.  But  I  had  not  quite  fixed  whether 
to  make  him  end  in  Hell,  or  in  an  unhappy  marriage,  not 
knowing  which  would  be  the  severest.  The  Spanish 

1.  Jean  Baptiste  Clootz  (better  known  by  the  name  of  Anacharsis), 
a  Prussian  baron,  born  at   Cleves,  in    1755,  was  the  nephew   of 
Cornelius   de    Pauw,  author   of  Recherches  Philosophiqties  sur  les 
Amerkains,  etc.     In  1790,  at  the  bar  of  the  National  Convention, 
he  described  himself  as  Forateur  du  genre  kumain.     Falling  under 
the  suspicion  of  Robespierre,  he  was,  in  March,  1 794,  condemned  to 
death.    On  the  scaffold,  he  begged  the  executioner  to  decapitate  him 
the  last,  alleging  that  he  wished  to  make  some  observations  essential 
to  the  establishment  of  certain  principles,  while  the  heads  of  his 
companions  were  falling.     The  request  was  complied  with. 

2.  In  Moore's  Fudge  Family  in  Paris  (1818),  Letter  v.,  occur  the 
lines — 

"  Then  there  came  up — imagine,  dear  Doll,  if  you  can — 
A  fine,  sallow,  sublime,  sort  of  Werther-faced  man, 
With  mustachios  that  gave  (what  we  read  of  so  oft) 
The  dear  Corsair  expression,  half  savage,  half  soft." 

1 82 1.]  f         A  PLAY  WITHOUT  LOVE.  243 

tradition  says  Hell :  but  it  is  probably  only  an  Allegory 
of  the  other  state.1  You  are  now  in  possession  of  my 
notions  on  the  subject. 

You  say  The  Doge  will  not  be  popular:  did  I  ever 
write  tut  popularity  ?  I  defy  you  to  show  a  work  of  mine 
(except  a  tale  or  two)  of  a  popular  style  or  complexion. 
It  appears  to  me  that  there  is  room  for  a  different  style 
of  the  drama;  neither  a  servile  following  of  the  old 
drama,  which  is  a  grossly  erroneous  one,  nor  yet  too 
French^  like  those  who  succeeded  the  older  writers.  It 
appears  to  me,  that  good  English,  and  a  severer  approach 
to  the  rules,  might  combine  something  not  dishonorable 
to  our  literature.  I  have  also  attempted  to  make  a  play 
without  love.  And  there  are  neither  rings,  nor  mistakes, 
nor  starts,  nor  outrageous  ranting  villains,  nor  melodrame, 
in  it.  All  this  will  prevent  it's  popularity,  but  does  not 
persuade  me  that  it  is  therefore  faulty.  Whatever  faults 

I.  Don  Juan  Tenorio  of  Seville  was  the  hero  of  the  Spanish 
mystery-play,  the  Atheista  Fulminato  (see  Coleridge's  Biographia 
Literaria,  vol.  ii.  pp.  262,  seqq.).  The  mystery  was  dramatized  by 
Gabriel  Tellez,  i.e.  Tirso  de  Molina  (1585-1648),  as  El  Burlador 
de  Sevilla  y  Combidado  de  Piedra  (1626).  Moliere's  Don  Juan;  ou 
le  Festin  de  Pierre  (1665),  versified  by  Thomas  Corneille  in  1677, 
was  imitated  from  the  Spanish  play.  In  England  Shadwell  took 
Moliere's  version  as  the  model  of  his  Libertine,  in  1676.  Don  Juan 
was  the  subject  of  a  musical  ballet  by  Gliick,  and  of  Mozart's  famous 
opera  Don  Giovanni  (1787). 

In  Moliere's  Don  Juan  (acti.  sc.  i)  Sganarelle  says  of  his  master, 

'  Par  precaution  je  t'apprends,  inter  nos,  que  tu  vois  en  don  Juan, 

'  mon  maitre,  le  plus  grand  scelerat  que  la  terre  ait  jamais  porte,  un 

'  chien,  un  demon,  un  Turc,  un  heretique  qui  ne  croit  ni  ciel,  ni 

'  Saint,  ni  Dieu,  ni  loup-garou,  qui  passe  cette  vie  en  veritable  bete 

'  brute,  un  pourceau  cl'Epicure,  un  vrai  Sardanapale,  qui  ferme 

'  1'oreille  a  toutes  les  remontrances  Chretiennes  qu'on  lui  peut  faire, 

'  et  traite  de  billevesees  tout  ce  que  nous  croyons."     In  the  old 

Spanish  version  of  the  story,  Don  Juan  seduces  the  daughter  of  the 

governor,  Don  Gonsalvo  de  Ulloa,  and  then  kills  the  father.   Forcing 

his  way  into  the  family  vault  of  the  Ulloas,  in  the  Church  of  St. 

Francis,  he  finds  a  marble  statue  raised  to  the  memory  of  the 

murdered  man.     He  invites  the  statue  to  a  banquet.     His  invitation 

is  accepted  ;  the  guest  delivers  Don  Juan  to  the  devils  to  be  tormented, 

and  he  is  swallowed  up  in  a  cloud  of  fire. 

244       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

it  has  will  arise  from  deficiency  in  the  conduct,  rather 
than  in  the  conception,  which  is  simple  and  severe. 

So  you  epigrammatize  upon  my  epigram  f  I  will  pay 
you  for  tha^  mind  if  I  don't,  some  day.  I  never  let  any 
one  off  in  the  long  run  (who  first  begins) :  remember 
Sam,  and  see  if  I  don't  do  you  as  good  a  turn.  You 
unnatural  publisher !  what !  quiz  your  own  authors  !  You 
are  a  paper  Cannibal. 

In  the  letter  on  Bowles  (which  I  sent  by  Tuesday's 
post)  after  the  words  "  attempts  had  been  made "  (alluding 
to  the  republication  of  English  Bards),  add  the  words 
"  in  Ireland;  "  for  I  believe  that  Cawthorn  did  not  begin 
his  attempts  till  after  I  had  left  England  the  second  time. 
Pray  attend  to  this.  Let  me  know  what  you  and  your 
Squad  think  of  the  letter  on  Bowles.1 

I  did  not  think  the  second  Seal  so  bad :  surely  it  is 
far  better  than  the  Saracen's  head  with  which  you  have 
sealed  your  last  letter ;  the  larger,  in  profile,  was  surely 
much  better  than  that. 

So  Foscolo  says  he  will  get  you  a  seal  cut  better  in 
Italy :  he  means  a  throat — that  is  the  only  thing  they  do 
dexterously.  The  Arts — all  but  Canova's,  and  Mor- 
ghen's,2  and  Ovid's 3  (I  don't  mean  poetry), — are  as  low 
as  need  be  :  look  at  the  Seal  which  I  gave  to  W1?  Bankes, 
and  own  it.  How  came  George  Bankes  to  quote  English 

1.  Gifford's  opinion  of  the  letter  in  defence  of  Pope  is  quoted 
in  the  Memoir  of  John  Murray,  vol.  i.  p.  420:  "It  will  be  unsafe 

'  to  publish  it  as  it  stands.  The  letter  is  not  very  refined,  but  it  is 
'  vigorous  and  to  the  purpose.  Bowles  requires  checking.  I  hope, 
'  however,  that  Lord  B.  will  not  continue  to  squander  himself  thus. 
'  When  will  he  resume  his  majestic  march,  and  shake  the  earth 

2.  Raphael  Morghen  (1758-1835),  born  at  Portici,  near  Naples, 
was  the  famous  engraver.     He  settled  at  Florence  in  1 793,  on  the 
invitation  of  the  Grand-Duke  Ferdinand  III.,  and  lived  there  the 
rest  of  his  life. 

3.  The  Ars  Amatoria. 

1 82 1.]  BELZONI.  245 

Bards  in  the  House  of  Commons  ? l    All  the  World  keep 
flinging  that  poem  in  my  face. 

Belzoni  is  a  grand  traveller,  and  his  English  is  very 
prettily  broken.2 

As  for  News,  the  Barbarians  are  marching  on  Naples, 
and  if  they  lose  a  single  battle,  all  Italy  will  be  up.  It 
will  be  like  the  Spanish  war,  if  they  have  any  bottom. 

Letters  opened! — to  be  sure  they  are,  and  that's  the 
reason  why  I  always  put  in  my  opinion  of  the  German 
Austrian  Scoundrels  :  there  is  not  an  Italian  who  loathes 
them  more  than  I  do;  and  whatever  I  could  do  to 
scour  Italy  and  the  earth  of  their  infamous  oppression, 
would  be  done  con  amore. 

Yours,  ever  and  truly, 


Recollect  that  the  Hints  must  be  printed  with  the 
Latin^  otherwise  there  is  no  sense. 

1.  In  moving  the  address  at  the  opening  of  Parliament  (January 
23,  1821),  speaking  of  the  way  in  which  "the  new  springs  of  know- 
"  ledge  were  endeavoured  to  be  poisoned  at  their  source,"  Bankes 
says  that  he  was  "  reminded  of  the  lines  of  the  poet,  when  he  ex- 
"  pressed  the  keen  pangs  of  the  bird,  wounded  by  the  arrow  feathered 
"  from  his  own  wing — 

"  '  Keen  was  the  pang — but  keener  far  to  feel 

He  nurs'd  the  feather  which  had  winged  the  steel  ! ' " 
So  The  Traveller  (January  24,  1821)  gives  the  quotation  from 
English  Bards,  etc.,  lines  845,  846,  which  should  have  run  thus — 
"  Keen  were  his  pangs,  but  keener  far  to  feel 

He  nursed  the  pinion  which  impelled  the  steel." 
According  to  Hansard  (New  Series,  vol.  iv.  p.  39),  the  quotation 
was  correctly  made. 

2.  Giovanni   Battista  Belzoni  (1778-1823)  died  of  dysentery  at 
Gato,  in  Benin,  on  his  way  to  Timbuctoo.     Murray  published,  in 
1820,  Belzoni's  Narrative  of  the  Operations  and  Recent  Discoveries 
within  the  Pyramids,  Temples,  Tombs,  and  Excavations  in  Egypt 
and  Nubia.     The  book  was  written  without  any  literary  assistance 
beyond  that  of  the  individual  employed  to  copy  out  his  manuscript 
and  correct  the  press.     "  As  I  made  my  discoveries  alone,"  Belzoni 
(Preface,  p.   i.)  says,  "I  have  been  anxious  to  write  my  book  by 

246       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

873. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  February  21,  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — In  the  44l.h  page,  vol.  i?,  of  Turner's 
travels1  (which  you  lately  sent  me),  it  is  stated  that 
"  Lord  Byron,  when  he  expressed  such  confidence  of  it's 
"  practicability,  seems  to  have  forgotten  that  Leander 
"  swam  both  ways,  with  and  against  the  tide ;  whereas  he 
"  (L/?  B.)  only  performed  the  easiest  part  of  the  task  by 
"  swimming  with  it  from  Europe  to  Asia."  2  I  certainly 
could  not  have  forgotten,  what  is  known  to  every  School- 
boy, that  Leander  crossed  in  the  Night  and  returned 
towards  the  morning.  My  object  was,  to  ascertain  that 
the  Hellespont  could  be  crossed  at  all  by  swimming,  and 
in  this  Mr.  Ekenhead  and  myself  both  succeeded,  the 
one  in  an  hour  and  ten  minutes,  and  the  other  in  one 
hour  and  five  minutes.  The  tide  was  not  in  our  favour  : 
on  the  contrary,  the  great  difficulty  was  to  bear  up 
against  the  current,  which,  so  far  from  helping  us  to  the 
Asiatic  side,  set  us  down  right  towards  the  Archipelago. 
Neither  Mr.  Ekenhead,  myself,  nor,  I  will  venture  to 
add,  any  person  on  board  the  frigate,  from  Captain  (now 
Admiral)  Bathurst  downwards,  had  any  notion  of  a 
difference  of  the  current  on  the  Asiatic  side,  of  which 
Mr.  Turner  speaks.  I  never  heard  of  it  till  this  moment, 

'  myself,  though  in  so  doing  the  reader  will  consider  me,  and  with 
'  great  propriety,  guilty  of  temerity ;  but  the  public  will  perhaps 
'  gain  in  the  fidelity  of  my  narrative  what  it  loses  in  elegance.  I 
'  am  not  an  Englishman,  but  I  prefer  that  my  readers  should  receive 
'  from  myself,  as  well  as  I  am  able  to  describe  them,  an  account  of 
'  my  proceedings  in  Egypt,  in  Nubia,  on  the  coast  of  the  Red  Sea, 
'  and  in  the  Oasis ;  rather  than  run  the  risk  of  having  my  meaning 
'  misrepresented  by  another.  If  I  am  intelligible,  it  is  all  that  I 
'  can  expect." 

1.  Journal  of  a  Tour  in  the  Levant ',  by  William  Turner,  3  vols., 
1820.     The  book  was  published  by  Murray. 

2.  See  Letters,  vol.  i.  p.  263,  note  I. 

1 82 1.]  MODERN    LEANDERS.  247 

or  I  would  have  taken  the  other  course.  Lieutenant 
Ekenhead's  sole  motive,  and  mine  also,  for  setting  out 
from  the  European  side  was,  that  the  little  Cape  above 
Sestos  was  a  more  prominent  starting  place,  and  the 
frigate,  which  lay  below,  close  under  the  Asiatic  castle, 
formed  a  better  point  of  view  for  us  to  swim  towards ; 
and,  in  fact,  we  landed  immediately  below  it. 

Mr.  Turner  says,  "Whatever  is  thrown  into  the 
"  Stream  on  this  part  of  the  European  bank  must  arrive 
"at  the  Asiatic  shore."  This  is  so  far  from  being  the 
case,  that  it  imist  arrive  in  the  Archipelago,  if  left  to  the 
Current,  although  a  strong  wind  in  the  Asiatic  direction 
might  have  such  an  effect  occasionally. 

Mr.  Turner  attempted  the  passage  from  the  Asiatic 
side,  and  failed.  "After  five  and  twenty  minutes,  in 
"  which  he  did  not  advance  a  hundred  yards,  he  gave 
"  it  up  from  complete  exhaustion."  This  is  very  pos- 
sible, and  might  have  occurred  to  him  just  as  readily 
on  the  European  side.  He  should  have  set  out  a 
couple  of  miles  higher,  and  could  then  have  come 
out  below  the  European  castle.  I  particularly  stated, 
and  Mr.  Hobhouse  has  done  so  also,  that  we  were 
obliged  to  make  the  real  passage  of  one  mile  extend  to 
between  three  and /our,  owing  to  the  force  of  the  stream. 
I  can  assure  Mr.  Turner,  that  his  Success  would  have 
given  me  great  pleasure,  as  it  would  have  added  one 
more  instance  to  the  proofs  of  the  practicability.  It  is 
not  quite  fair  in  him  to  infer,  that  because  he  failed, 
Leander  could  not  succeed.  There  are  still  four  in- 
stances on  record :  a  Neapolitan,  a  young  Jew,  Mr. 
Ekenhead,  and  myself;  the  two  last  done  in  the  presence 
of  hundreds  of  English  Witnesses. 

With  regard  to  the  difference  of  the  current,  I  per- 
ceived none  :  it  is  favourable  to  the  Swimmer  on  neither 


side,  but  may  be  stemmed  by  plunging  into  the  Sea, 
a  considerable  way  above  the  opposite  point  of  the  coast 
which  the  Swimmer  wishes  to  make,  but  still  bearing  up 
against  it :  it  is  strong,  but  if  you  calculate  well,  you  may 
reach  land.  My  own  experience  and  that  of  others  bids 
me  pronounce  the  passage  of  Leander  perfectly  practi- 
cable :  any  young  man,  in  good  health  and  tolerable 
skill  in  swimming,  might  succeed  in  it  from  either  side. 
I  was  three  hours  in  swimming  across  the  Tagus,  which 
is  much  more  hazardous,  being  two  hours  longer  than 
the  passage  of  the  Hellespont.  Of  what  may  be  done 
in  swimming,  I  will  mention  one  more  instance.  In 
iSiS,1  the  Chevalier  Mengaldo  (a  Gentleman  of  Bas- 
sano),  a  good  Swimmer,  wished  to  swim  with  my  friend 
Mr.  Alexander  Scott  and  myself.  As  he  seemed  par- 
ticularly anxious  on  the  subject,  we  indulged  him.  We 
all  three  started  from  the  Island  of  the  Lido  and  swam 
to  Venice.  At  the  entrance  of  the  Grand  Canal,  Scott 
and  I  were  a  good  way  ahead,  and  we  saw  no  more 
of  our  foreign  friend,  which,  however,  was  of  no  con- 
sequence, as  there  was  a  Gondola  to  hold  his  cloathes 
and  pick  him  up.  Scott  swum  on  till  past  the  Rialto, 
where  he  got  out,  less  from  fatigue  than  from  chill, 
having  been  four  hours  in  the  water,  without  rest  or 
stay,  except  what  is  to  be  obtained  by  floating  on 
one's  back — this  being  the  condition  of  our  performance. 
I  continued  my  course  on  to  Santa  Chiara,  comprizing 
the  whole  of  the  Grand  Canal  (besides  the  distance  from 
the  Lido),  and  got  out  where  the  Laguna  once  more 
opens  to  Fusina.  I  had  been  in  the  water,  by  my  watch, 
without  help  or  rest,  and  never  touching  ground  or  boat, 
four  hours  and  twenty  minutes.  To  this  Match,  and 
during  the  greater  part  of  it's  performance,  Mr.  Hoppner, 
I.  This  was  in  June,  1818. 


the  Consul  General,  was  witness ;  and  it  is  well  known 
to  many  others.  Mr.  Turner  can  easily  verify  the  fact, 
if  he  thinks  it  worth  while,  by  referring  to  Mr.  Hoppner. 
The  distance  we  could  not  accurately  ascertain;  it  was 
of  course  considerable. 

I  crossed  the  Hellespont  in  one  hour  and  ten  minutes 
only.  I  am  now  ten  years  older  in  time,  and  twenty  in 
constitution,  than  I  was  when  I  passed  the  Dardanelles ; 
and  yet  two  years  ago  I  was  capable  of  swimming  four 
hours  and  twenty  minutes ;  and  I  am  sure  that  I  could 
have  continued  two  hours  longer,  though  I  had  on  a  pair 
of  trowsers,  an  accoutrement  which  by  no  means  assists 
the  performance.  My  two  companions  were  also  four 
hours  in  the  water.  Mengaldo  might  be  about  thirty 
years  of  age ;  Scott  about  six  and  twenty. 

With  this  experience  in  swimming  at  different  periods 
of  life,  not  only  upon  the  SPOT,  but  elsewhere,  of  various 
persons,  what  is  there  to  make  me  doubt  that  Leander's 
exploit  was  perfectly  practicable?  If  three  individuals 
did  more  than  the  passage  of  the  Hellespont,  why  should 
he  have  done  less  ?  But  Mr.  Turner  failed,  and,  naturally 
seeking  a  plausible  reason  for  his  failure,  lays  the  blame 
on  the  Asiatic  side  of  the  Strait.  To  me  the  cause  is 
evident.  He  tried  to  swim  directly  across,  instead  of 
going  higher  up  to  take  the  vantage.  He  might  as  well 
have  tried  \afly  over  Mount  Athos. 

That  a  young  Greek  of  the  heroic  times,  in  love,  and 
with  his  limbs  in  full  vigour,  might  have  succeeded  in  such 
an  attempt  is  neither  wonderful  nor  doubtful.1  Whether 

I.  Turner  says  (Tour  in  the  Levant^  vol.  i.  pp.  44,  45),  "  Having 
"  been  accustomed  to  swimming  from  my  childhood,  I  have  no 
"  hesitation  in  asserting  that  no  man  could  have  strength  to  swim  a 
"  mile  and  a  half  (the  breadth  of  the  Strait  in  the  narrowest  spot, 
' '  a  little  northerly  of  the  castles)  against  such  a  current  ;  and  higher 
"up  or  lower  down,  the  Strait  widens  so  considerably,  that  he 


he  attempted  it  or  not  is  another  question,  because  he 
might  have  had  a  small  boat  to  save  him  the  trouble. 

I  am  yours  very  truly, 


P.S. — Mr.  Turner  says  that  the  swimming  from 
Europe  to  Asia  was  "  the  easiest  part  of  the  task."  I 
doubt  whether  Leander  found  it  so,  as  it  was  the  return  : 
however,  he  had  several  hours  between  the  intervals. 
The  argument  of  Mr.  T.,  "  that  higher  up  or  lower  down, 
"  the  strait  widens  so  considerably  that  he  would  save 
"  little  labour  by  his  starting,"  is  only  good  for  indifferent 
swimmers :  a  man  of  any  practice  or  skill  will  always 
consider  the  distance  less  than  the  strength  of  the  stream. 
If  Ekenhead  and  myself  had  thought  of  crossing  at  the 
narrowest  point,  instead  of  going  up  to  the  Cape  above  it, 
we  should  have  been  swept  down  to  Tenedos.  The 
Strait  is,  however,  not  extremely  wide,  even  where  it 
broadens  above  and  below  the  forts.  As  the  frigate  was 
stationed  some  time  in  the  Dardanelles  waiting  for  the 
firman,  I  bathed  often  in  the  strait  subsequently  to  our 
traject,  and  generally  on  the  Asiatic  side,  without  perceiv- 
ing the  greater  Strength  of  the  opposing  Stream  by  which 
the  diplomatic  traveller  palliates  his  own  failure.  An 
amusement  in  the  small  bay  which  opens  immediately 
below  the  Asiatic  fort  was  to  dive  for  the  LAND  tortoises, 
which  we  flung  in  on  purpose,  as  they  amphibiously 
crawled  along  the  bottom.  This  does  not  argue  any 
vaster  violence  of  current  than  on  the  European  shore. 
With  regard  to  the  modest  insinuation  that  we  chose  the 
European  side  as  "easier,"  I  appeal  to  Mr.  Hobhouse 

"would  save  little  labour  by  changing  his  place  of  starting.  I 
"therefore  treat  the  tale  of  Leander's  swimming  across  both  ways 
"  as  one  of  those  fables  to  which  the  Greeks  were  so  ready  to  give 
"  the  name  of  history.  Quidquid  Grczcia  meiidax  audet  in  historid." 


and  Admiral  Bathurst  if  it  be  true  or  no  ?  (poor  Ekenhead 
being  since  dead) :  had  we  been  aware  of  any  such 
difference  of  Current  as  is  asserted,  we  would  at  least 
have  proved  it,  and  were  not  likely  to  have  given  it  up  in 
the  twenty  five  minutes  of  Mr.  T.'s  own  experiment. 
The  secret  of  all  this  is,  that  Mr.  Turner  failed,  and  that 
we  succeeded  ;  and  he  is  consequently  disappointed,  and 
seems  not  unwilling  to  overshadow  whatever  little  merit 
there  might  be  in  our  Success.  Why  did  he  not  try  the 
European  side  ?  If  he  had  succeeded  there,  after  failing 
on  the  Asiatic,  his  plea  would  have  been  more  graceful 
and  gracious.  Mr.  T.  may  find  what  fault  he  pleases 
with  my  poetry,  or  my  politics ;  but  I  recommend  him 
to  leave  aquatic  reflections,  till  he  is  able  to  swim  "  five 
"  and  twenty  minutes "  without  being  " exhausted"  though 
I  believe  he  is  the  first  modern  Tory  who  ever  swam 
"  against  the  Stream  "  for  half  the  time.1 

874. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  February  22,  1821. 

As  I  wish  the  soul  of  the  late  Antoine  Galignani  to 
rest  in  peace,  (you  will  have  read  his  death,  published  by 
himself,  in  his  own  newspaper,)  you  are  requested  parti- 
cularly to  inform  his  children  and  heirs,  that  of  their 
"  Literary  Gazette"  to  which  I  subscribed  more  than  two 
months  ago,  I  have  only  received  one  number^  notwith- 
standing I  have  written  to  them  repeatedly.  If  they  have 
no  regard  for  me,  a  subscriber,  they  ought  to  have  some 
for  their  deceased  parent,  who  is  undoubtedly  no  better 
off  in  his  present  residence  for  this  total  want  of  attention. 

I.  The  above  letter  was  published  in  the  Monthly  Magazine 
for  April,  1821  (pp.  363-365),  and  in  the  Traveller  for  April  3, 
1821.  Turner's  reply,  published  by  Moore,  in  the  Life,  is  given  in 
Appendix  VII. 


If  not,  let  me  have  my  francs.  They  were  paid  by 
Missiaglia,  the  Venetian  bookseller.  You  may  also  hint 
to  them  that  when  a  gentleman  writes  a  letter,  it  is  usual 
to  send  an  answer.  If  not,  I  shall  make  them  "a 
"  speech,"  which  will  comprise  an  eulogy  on  the  deceased. 
We  are  here  full  of  war,  and  within  two  days  of  the 
seat  of  it,  expecting  intelligence  momently.  We  shall 
now  see  if  our  Italian  friends  are  good  for  any  thing  but 
"shooting  round  a  corner,"  like  the  Irishman's  gun. 
Excuse  haste, — I  write  with  my  spurs  putting  on.  My 
horses  are  at  the  door,  and  an  Italian  Count  waiting  to 
accompany  me  in  my  ride. 

Yours,  etc. 

P.S. — Pray,  amongst  my  letters,  did  you  get  one 
detailing  the  death  of  the  commandant  here?  He  was 
killed  near  my  door,  and  died  in  my  house. 


To  the  air  of  " How  now,  Madame  Flirt"  in  the 

Beggars'  Opera.1 

BOWLES.         Why,  how  now,  saucy  Tom, 
If  you  thus  must  ramble, 
I  will  publish  some 

Remarks  on  Mr.  Campbell. 

I.   The  Beggar's  Opera,  act  ii.  sc.  2— 

Air,  "Good  morrow,  Gossip  Joan." 

"  POLLY.   Why,  how  now,  Madam  Flirt  1 

If  you  thus  must  chattel ; 
And  are  for  flinging  dirt, 
Lefs  try  who  best  can  spatter, 

Madam  Flirt! 

"  LUCY.     Why,  7iow  now,  saucy  jade  ? 

Sure  the  wench  is  tipsy  ! 
How  can  you  see  me  made  [To  him. 

The  scoff  of  such  a  gipsy  ? 

Saucy  jatie  !  "    [To  her, 

1 82 1.]  BOWLES   AND   CAMPBELL.  253 


CAMPBELL.    Why,  how  now,  Billy  Bowles  ? 
Sure  the  priest  is  maudlin  ! 
(To  the  public)   How  can  you,  damn  your  souls  ! 
Listen  to  his  twaddling  ? 

875.— To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  February  26'.h  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — Over  the  second  Note,1  viz.  the  one  on 
Lady  M.  Montague,  I  leave  you  a  complete  discretionary 
power  of  omission  altogether,  or  curtailment,  as  you  please, 
since  it  may  be  scarcely  chaste  enough  for  the  Canting 
prudery  of  the  day.  The  ./Err/  note  on  a  different  subject 
you  had  better  append  to  the  letter. 

Let  me  know  what  your  Utican  Senate  say,  and 
acknowledge  all  the  packets. 

Yours  ever, 


Write  to  Moore,  and  ask  him  for  my  lines  to  him 
beginning  with 

"  My  Boat  is  at  the  shore : "  2 

they  have  been  published  incorrectly :  you  may  publish 

I  have  written  twice  to  Thorwalsen  without  any 
answer ! !  Tell  Hobhouse  so ;  he  -was  paid  four  years  ago : 
you  must  address  some  English  at  Rome  upon  the  subject 
— I  know  none  there  myself. 

1.  The  second  note  is  now  for  the  first  time  printed  at  the  end  of 
Byron's  First  Letter  to  John  Murray,  in  Appendix  III. 

2.  The  lines  were  published  in  the  Traveller  for  January  8,  1821. 
Moore,  in  his  Diary  for  January  15,  1821  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p. 
190),  notes:  "Had  seen,  Saturday  (13),  Lord  B.'s  verses  to  me 
"  ('  My  Boat  is  on  the  Shore '),  very  incorrectly  given  in  the  Times  ; 
"  sent  off  a  correct  copy  of  them  to-day  to  Perry." 

254       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

On  the  2"d  January 
Upon  this  day  I  married  and  full  sore 
Repent  that  marriage,  but  my  father's  more. 


Upon  this  day  I  married,  and  deplore 
That  Marriage  deeply,  but  my  father's  more. 

On  the  same  day  to 

This  day  of  all  our  days  has  done 

The  most  for  me  and  you  : 
'Tis  just  six  years  since  We  were  One 
And  Jive  since  we  were  two. 

876.  —  To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  March  15'  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY,  —  After  the  Stanza,2  near  the  close  of 
Canto  5'h,  which  ends  with 

"  Has  quite  the  contrary  effect  on  Vice," 
Insert  the  following  :  — 

Thus  in  the  East  they  are  extremely  strict 
And  Wedlock  and  a  Padlock  mean  the  same, 

Excepting  only  when  the  former's  picked 
It  ne'er  can  be  replaced  in  proper  frame, 

Spoilt,  as  a  pipe  of  Claret  is  when  pricked  — 
But  then  their  own  Polygamy's  to  blame  : 

Why  don't  they  knead  two  virtuous  souls  for  life, 

Into  that  moral  Centaur,  Man  and  Wife  ? 

I  have  received  the  remainder  of  the  Hints  without 
the  Latin^  and  without  the  Note  upon   Pope  from   the 

1.  The  following  lines  are  written  on  the  back  of  the  above  letter. 

2.  Don  Juan,  Canto  V.  stanza  clvii. 

1 82 1.]  HINTS  FROM  HORACE.  255 

Letter  to  the  Edinburgh]  B\lackwood 's]  M\agazine\ 
Instead  of  this  you  send  the  lines  on  Jeffrey?  though  you 
know  so  positively  that  they  were  to  be  omitted,  that  I 
left  the.  direction,  that  they  should  be  cancelled,  appended  to 
my  power  of  Attorney  to  you  previously  to  my  leaving 
England,  and  in  case  of  my  demise  before  the  publica- 
tion of  the  Hints.  Of  course  they  must  be  omitted,  and 
I  feel  vexed  that  they  were  sent. 

Has  the  whole  English  text  been  sent  regularly 
continued  from  the  part  broken  off  in  the  first  proofs  ? 
And,  pray  request  Mr.  Hobhouse  to  adjust  the  Latin  to 
the  English :  the  imitation  is  so  close,  that  I  am  un- 
willing to  deprive  it  of  its  principal  merit — its  closeness. 
I  look  upon  it  and  my  Pulci 2  as  by  far  the  best  things  of 
my  doing :  you  will  not  think  so,  and  get  frightened  for 
fear  I  should  charge  accordingly ;  but  I  know  that  they 
will  not  be  popular,  so  don't  be  afraid — publish  them 

The  enclosed  letter  will  make  you  laugh.  Pray 
answer  it  for  me  and  secretly,  not  to  mortify  him. 

Tell  Mr.  Balfour  that  I  never  wrote  for  a  prize  in  my 
life,  and  that  the  very  thought  of  it  would  make  me  write 
worse  than  the  very  worst  Scribbler.  As  for  the  twenty 
pounds  he  wants  to  gain,  you  may  send  them  to  him  for 
me,  and  deduct  them  in  reckoning  with  Mr.  Kinnaird. 
Deduct  also  your  own  bill  for  books  and  powders,  etc.,  etc., 
which  must  be  considerable. 

Give  my  love  to  Sir  W.  Scott,  and  tell  him  to  write 
more  novels :  pray  send  out  Waverley  and  the  Guy  M., 
and  the  Antiquary.  It  is  five  years  since  I  have  had  a 
copy.  I  have  read  all  the  others  forty  times. 

1.  See  Poems,  vol.  i.  pp.  430-433. 

2.  I.e.  his  translation  of  Canto  I.  of  Luigi   Pulci's   Morgante 


Have  you  received  all  my  packets,  on  Pope,  letters, 
etc.,  etc.,  etc.  ?  I  write  in  great  haste. 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — I  have  had  a  letter  from  Hodgson,  who,  it 
seems,  has  also  taken  up  Pope,  and  adds  "  the  liberties 
"  I  have  taken  with  your  poetry  in  this  pamphlet  are  no 
"  more  than  I  might  have  ventured  in  those  delightful 
"  days,  etc. : "  that  may  very  well  be ;  but  if  he  has  said 
any  thing  that  I  don't  like,  I'll  Archbishop  of  Grenada 
him.  I  am  in  a  polemical  humour. 

877. — To  John  Murray. 

March  2,  1821. 

D"  MURRAY, — This  was  the  beginning  of  a  letter 
which  I  meant  for  Perry,1  but  stopt  short,  hoping  you 
would  be  able  to  prevent  the  theatres.  Of  course  you 
need  not  send  it ;  but  it  explains  to  you  my  feelings  on 
the  subject.  You  say  that  "  there  is  nothing  to  fear,  let 
"  them  do  what  they  please ; "  that  is  to  say,  that  you 
would  see  me  damned  with  great  tranquillity.  You  are  a 
fine  fellow. 

Ravenna,  January  22,  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  have  received  a  strange  piece  of  news, 
which  cannot  be  more  disagreeable  to  your  Public  than 
it  is  to  me.  Letters  and  the  Gazettes  do  me  the  honour 
to  say  that  it  is  the  intention  of  some  of  the  London 
Managers  to  bring  forward  on  their  Stage  the  poem  of 
Marino  Faliero,  etc.t  which  was  never  intended  for  such 
an  exhibition,  and  I  trust  will  never  undergo  it.  It  is 

I.  Editor  of  the  Morning  Chronicle. 

1 82 1.]  AN   APPEAL  TO   THE   PRESS.  257 

certainly  unfit  for  it.  I  have  never  written  but  for  the 
solitary  reader,  and  require  no  experiments  for  applause 
beyond  his  silent  approbation.  Since  such  an  attempt  to 
drag  me  forth  as  a  Gladiator  in  the  Theatrical  Arena  is  a 
violation  of  all  the  courtesies  of  Literature  :  I  trust  that 
the  impartial  part  of  the  Press  will  step  between  me  and 
this  pollution.  I  say  pollution,  because  every  violation 
of  a  right  is  such,  and  I  claim  my  right  as  an  author  to 
prevent  what  I  have  written  from  being  turned  into  a 
Stage-play.  I  have  too  much  respect  for  the  Public  to 
permit  this  of  my  own  free  will.  Had  I  sought  their 
favour,  it  would  have  been  by  a  Pantomime. 

I  have  said  that  I  write  only  for  the  reader.  Beyond 
this  I  cannot  consent  to  any  publication,  or  to  the  abuse 
of  any  publication  of  mine  to  the  purposes  of  Histrionism. 
The  applauses  of  an  audience  would  give  me  no  pleasure  ; 
their  disapprobation  might,  however,  give  me  pain.  The 
wager  is  therefore  not  equal.  You  may,  perhaps,  say, 
"how  can  this  be?  if  their  disapprobation  gives  pain, 
"their  praise  might  afford  pleasure?"  By  no  means. 
The  kick  of  an  Ass  or  the  Sting  of  a  Wasp  may  be  painful 
to  those  who  would  find  nothing  agreeable  in  the  Braying 
of  the  one  or  in  the  Buzzing  of  the  other. 

This  may  not  seem  a  courteous  comparison,  but  I 
have  no  other  ready ;  and  it  occurs  naturally. 

878.— To  John  Murray. 

R?  March  9^h  1821. 

ILLUSTRIOUS  MORAY, — You  are  requested  with  the 
' :  advice  of  friends "  to  continue  to  patch  the  enclosed 
"  Addenda  "  into  my  letter  to  you  on  the  Subject  of  Bill 
Bowles's  Pope,  etc.  I  think  that  it  may  be  inoculated 
into  the  body  of  the  letter  with  a  little  care.  Consult, 
and  engraft  it. 
VOL.  v.  s 

258       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

I  enclose  you  the  proposition  of  a  Mr.  Fearman,1  one 
of  your  brethren :  there  is  a  civil  gentleman  for  you. 

Yours  truly, 

879. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra  M°  12°  l82I. 

DR  MY-, — Insert,  where  they  may  seem  apt,  the 
inclosed  addenda  to  the  Lettei-  on  Bowles^  etc. :  they 
will  come  into  the  body  of  the  letter,  if  you  consult  any 
of  your  Utica  where  to  place  them.  If  there  is  too  much, 
or  too  harsh,  or  not  intelligible,  etc.,  let  me  know,  and  I 
will  alter  or  omit  the  portion  pointed  out. 


P.S. — Please  to  acknowledge  all  packets  containing 
matters  of  print  by  return  of  post :  letters  of  mere  con- 
•venance  may  wait  your  bibliopolar  pleasure  and  leisure. 

880.— To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Marzo,  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — In  my  packet  of  the  i2th  Instant,  in 
the  last  sheet  (not  the  half  sheet),  last  page,  omit  the 
sentence  which  (denning,  or  attempting  to  define,  what 
and  who  are  gentlemanly)  begins, "  I  should  say  at  least  in 
"  life,  that  most  military  men  have  it,  and  few  naval ;  that 
"  several  men  of  rank  have  it,  and  few  lawyers,"  2  etc.,  etc. 

1.  Fearman,  a  publisher,  of  170  New  Bond  Street,  had  offered 
to  publish  Cantos  III.,  IV.,  V.  of  Don  yuan,  about  which  Murray 
was  hesitating. 

2.  The  passage  defining  "what  and  who  are  gentlemanly,"  and 
the  "digression  on  the  vulgar  poets,"  will  be  found  at  the  end  of 
Byron's  second  Letter  to  John  Murray,    (See  Appendix  III.  p.  591.) 

l82I.]       VERY  TRACTABLE — IN  PROSE.          259 

I  say,  omit  the  whole  of  that  Sentence,  because,  like  the 
"  Cosmogony,  or  Creation  of  the  World,"  in  the  Vicar  of 
IVakefield)  it  is  not  much  to  the  purpose. 

In  the  Sentence  above,  too,  almost  at  the  top  of  the 
same  page,  after  the  words  "  that  there  ever  was,  or  can 
"  be,  an  Aristocracy  of  poets,"  add  and  insert  these  words 
— "  I  do  not  mean  that  they  should  write  in  the  Style  of 
"  the  Song  by  a  person  of  Quality,  or  park  Euphuism  ; 
"  but  there  is  a  Nobility  of  thought  and  expression  to  be 
"  found  no  less  in  Shakespeare,  Pope,  and  Burns,  than  in 
"  Dante,  Alfieri,  etc.,  etc.,"  and  so  on.  Or,  if  you  please, 
perhaps  you  had  better  omit  the  whole  of  the  latter 
digression  on  the  -vulgar  poets,  and  insert  only  as  far  as 
the  end  of  the  Sentence  upon  Pope's  Homer,  where  I 
prefer  it  to  Cowper's,  and  quote  Dr.  Clarke  in  favour  of 
its  accuracy. 

Upon  all  these  points,  take  an  opinion — take  the 
Sense  (or  nonsense)  of  your  learned  visitants,  and  act 
thereby.  I  am  very  tractable — in  PROSE. 

Whether  I  have  made  out  the  case  for  Pope,  I  know 
not ;  but  I  am  very  sure  that  I  have  been  zealous  in  the 
attempt.  If  it  comes  to  the  proofs,  we  shall  beat  the 
Blackguards.  I  will  show  more  imagery  in  twenty  lines 
of  Pope  than  in  any  equal  length  of  quotation  in  English 
poesy,  and  that  in  places  where  they  least  expect  it :  for 
instance,  in  his  lines  on  Sporus^ — now,  do  just  read  them 
over — the  subject  is  of  no  consequence  (whether  it  be 
Satire  or  Epic) — we  are  talking  of  poetry  and  imagery 
from  Nature  and  Art.  Now,  mark  the  images  separately 
and  arithmetically : — 

1.  The  thing  of  Silk. 

2.  Curd  of  Ass's  milk. 

3.  The  Butterfly. 

4.  The  Wheel. 

260       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

5.  Bug  with  gilded  wings. 

6.  Painted  Child  of  dirt. 

7.  Whose  Buzz. 

8.  Well-bred  Spaniels. 

9.  Shallow  streams  run  dimpling. 
10.  Florid  impotence. 

n.  Prompter.    Puppet  squeaks . 

12.  The  Ear  of  Eve. 

13.  Familiar  toad. 

14.  Half -frotht  half-venom,  spits  himself  abroad. 

15.  Fop  a&tiae  toilet. 

16.  Flatterer  at  the  board. 

17.  Amphibious  thing. 

18.  Now  tfry)j  a  /dk/p. 

19.  Now  struts  a  Lord. 

20.  A  Cherub's  face. 

21 .  A  tt^A7<?  all  the  rest. 

22.  The  Rabbins. 

23.  Pride  that  /rV/fcj  the  dust. 

"  Beauty  that  shocks  you,  parts  that  none  will  trust, 
Wit  that  can  creep,  and  Pride  that  licks  the  dust." 

Now,  is  there  a  line  of  all  the  passage  without  the 
most  forcible  imagery  (for  his  purpose)  ?  Look  at  the 
variety ',  at  the  poetry p,  of  the  passage — at  the  imagination  ; 
there  is  hardly  a  line  from  which  a  painting  might  not  be 
made,  and  is.  But  this  is  nothing  in  comparison  with  his 
higher  passages  in  the  Essay  on  Man,  and  many  of  his 
other  poems,  serious  and  comic.  There  never  was  such 
an  unjust  outcry  in  this  world  as  that  which  these 
Scoundrels  are  trying  against  Pope. 

In  the  letter  to  you  upon  Bowles,  etc.,  insert  tliese 
which  follow  (under  the  place,  as  a  Note,  where  I  am 
speaking  of  Dyer's  "  Grongar  Hill,"  and  the  use  of  arti- 
ficial imagery  in  illustrating  Nature} : — "  Corneille's  cele- 
"  brated  lines  on  Fortune — 

11  c  Et  comme  elle  a  1'eclat  du  Verre, 
Elle  en  a  la  fragilite" ' '— 


I.  Polyeucte,  acte  iv.  sc.  2. 


"are  a  further  instance  of  the  noble  use  which  may  be 
"  made  of  artificial  imagery,  and  quite  equal  to  any  taken 
"  from  Nature."  l 

Ask  Mr.  Gifford  if,  in  the  5*."  act  of  The  Doge?  you 
could  not  contrive  (where  the  Sentence  of  the  Veil  is 
past)  to  insert  the  following  lines  in  Marino  Faliero's 
answer : — 

But  let  it  be  so.     It  will  be  in  vain : 
The  Veil  which  blackens  o'er  this  blighted  name, 
And  hides,  or  seems  to  hide,  these  lineaments, 
Shall  draw  more  Gazers  than  the  thousand  portraits 
Which  glitter  round  it  in  their  painted  trappings, 
Your  delegated  Slaves — the  people's  tyrants.3 

Which  will  be  best  ?  "  painted  trappings,"  or  "  pictured 
"  purple,"  or  "  pictured  trappings,"  or  "  painted  purple  "  ? 
Perpend,  and  let  me  know. 

I  have  not  had  any  letter  from  you,  which  I  am 
anxious  for,  to  know  whether  you  have  received  my 
letters  and  packets,  the  letter  on  Bowles's  Pope,  etc.,  etc. 
Let  me  hear  from  you. 

Yours  truly, 


P.S. — Upon  public  matters  here  I  say  little  :  You  will 
all  hear  soon  enough  of  a  general  row  throughout  Italy. 
There  never  was  a  more  foolish  step  than  the  Expedition 
to  N.  by  these  fellows. 

1.  The  note  was  not  added.    (See  Appendix  III.  p.  551.) 

2.  Marino  Faliero,  a  Tragedy,  finished  July,  1820,  was  published 
at  the  end  of  the  year,  together  with  the  Prophecy  of  Dante  (Memoir 
of  John  Murray,  vol.  i.  p.  412).    Murray  paid  ^1000  for  the  tragedy 
and  the  poem . 

3.  "These   lines— perhaps   from   some   difficulty  in  introducing 
"  them — were  never  inserted  in  the  Tragedy  "  (Moore).     But  in  the 
first  edition  of  Marino  Faliero  (act  v.  sc.  I,  ad  fin.}  the  lines  will  be 
found.     The  reading  "  pictured  trappings  "  was  adopted. 

262       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

I  wish  you  to  propose  to  Holmes*  the  miniature 
painter,  to  come  out  to  me  this  spring.  I  will  pay  his 
expences,  and  any  sum  in  reason.  I  wish  him  to  take 
my  daughter's  picture  (who  is  in  a  convent)  and  the 
Countess  G.'s,  and  the  head  of  a  peasant  Girl,  which 
latter  would  make  a  study  for  Raphael.  It  is  a  complete 
peasant  face,  but  an  Italian  peasant's,  and  quite  in  the 
Raphael  Fornarina  style.  Her  figure  is  tall,  but  rather 
large,  and  not  at  all  comparable  to  her  face,  which  is 
really  superb.  She  is  not  seventeen,  and  I  am  anxious 
to  have  her  likeness  while  it  lasts.  Madame  G.  is  also 
very  handsome,  but  it  is  quite  in  a  different  style — com- 
pletely blonde  and  fair — very  uncommon  in  Italy :  yet 
not  an  English  fairness,  but  more  like  a  Swede  or  a 
Norwegian.  Her  figure,  too,  particularly  the  bust,  is 
uncommonly  good.  It  must  be  Holmes ;  I  like  him 
because  he  takes  such  inveterate  likenesses.  There  is 
a  war  here ;  but  a  solitary  traveller,  with  little  baggage, 
and  nothing  to  do  with  politics,  has  nothing  to  fear. 
Pack  him  up  in  the  diligence.  Don't  forget. 

88 1. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  April  3,  1821. 

Thanks  for  the  translation.  I  have  sent  you  some 
books,  which  I  do  not  know  whether  you  have  read  or 
no — you  need  not  return  them,  in  any  case.  I  enclose 
you  also  a  letter  from  Pisa.  I  have  neither  spared 
trouble  nor  expense  in  the  care  of  the  child ; 2  and  as 

1.  James  Holmes  (1777-1860),  who  had  already  painted  minia- 
tures of  Byron,  declined  to  leave  England.     "  Don't  be  offended 
"  with  Holmes,"  writes  Murray  to  Byron  (Memoir  of  John  Murray, 
vol.  i.  p.  424) ;  "  you  were  of  great  essential  service  in  putting  him 
"  in  the  way  to  make  a  livelihood  ;  but  it  is  very  long  before,  in  his 
"  profession,  he  can  gain  one." 

2.  Allegra  had  been  placed   at  the  Convent  of  St.   Anna,  at 

1 82 1.]  ALLEGRA   AT   BAGNACAVALLO.  263 

she  was  now  four  years  old  complete,  and  quite  above 
the  control  of  the  servants — and  as  a  man  living  without 

Bagnacavallo,  the  Roman  Tiberiacum,  a  walled  city,  once  famous 
for  the  strength  of  its  castle,  which  lies  between  the  rivers  Senio  and 
Lamone,  in  the  plain  of  Romagna,  about  ten  miles  from  Ravenna. 
Shelley,  in  a  letter  to  Mary  Shelley,  August  15,  1821,  thus  describes 
a  visit  to  Allegra  at  the  Convent  of  Bagnacavallo — 

"  I  went  the  other  day  to  see  Allegra  at  her  convent,  and  stayed 
"  with  her  about  three  hours.  She  is  grown  tall  and  slight  for  her 
"  age,  and  her  face  is  somewhat  altered.  The  traits  have  become 
' '  more  delicate,  and  she  is  much  paler,  probably  from  the  effect  of 
"  improper  food.  She  yet  retains  the  beauty  of  her  deep  blue  eyes 
"  and  of  her  mouth,  but  she  has  a  contemplative  seriousness,  which, 
"  mixed  with  her  excessive  vivacity,  which  has  not  yet  deserted  her, 
"has  a  very  peculiar  effect  in  a  child.  She  is  under  very  strict 
' '  discipline,  as  may  be  observed  from  the  immediate  obedience  she 
"  accords  to  the  will  of  her  attendants.  This  seems  contrary  to  her 
' '  nature,  but  I  do  not  think  it  has  been  obtained  at  the  expense  of 
"much  severity.  Her  hair,  scarcely  darker  than  it  was,  is  beauti- 
'  fully  profuse,  and  hangs  in  large  curls  on  her  neck.  She  was 
'  prettily  dressed  in  white  muslin,  and  an  apron  of  black  silk,  with 
'  trousers.  Her  light  and  airy  figure  and  her  graceful  motions  were 
'  a  striking  contrast  to  the  other  children  there.  She  seemed  a 
'thing  of  a  finer  and  a  higher  order.  At  first  she  was  very  shy, 
'  but  after  a  little  caressing,  and  especially  after  I  had  given  her  a 
'  gold  chain  which  I  had  bought  at  Ravenna  for  her,  she  grew 
'  more  familiar,  and  led  me  all  over  the  garden,  and  all  over  the 
"  convent,  running  and  skipping  so  fast  that  I  could  hardly  keep  up 
'with  her.  She  showed  me  her  little  bed,  and  the  chair  where  she 
'  sat  at  dinner,  and  the  carozzina  in  which  she  and  her  favorite 
'  companions  drew  each  other  along  a  walk  in  the  garden.  I  had 
'brought  her  a  basket  of  sweetmeats,  and,  before  eating  any  of 
'  them,  she  gave  her  companions  and  all  the  nuns  a  portion.  This 
'  is  not  much  like  the  old  Allegra.  I  asked  her  what  I  should  say 
'  from  her  to  her  mamma,  and  she  said — 
"  '  Che  mi  manda  un  bacio  e  un  bel  vestituro.' 
"  '  E  come  vuoi  il  vestituro  sia  fatto  ? ' 
"  '  Tutti  di  seta  e  d'  oro,'  was  her  reply. 

"  Her  predominant  foible  seems  the  love  of  distinction  and  vanity, 
' '  and  this  is  a  plant  which  produces  good  or  evil,  according  to  the 
"gardener's  skill.  I  then  asked  her  what  I  should  say  to  papa? 
"  'Che  venga  farmi  un  visitino  e  che  porta  seco  la  mamminaj  a 
"  message  which  you  may  conjecture  that  I  was  too  discreet  to 
"  deliver.  Before  I  went  away  she  made  me  run  all  over  the  convent 
"  like  a  mad  thing.  The  nuns,  who  were  half  in  bed,  were  ordered 
"to  hide  themselves,  and  on  returning  Allegra  began  ringing  the 
"  bell  which  calls  the  nuns  to  assemble.  The  tocsin  of  the  convent 
"sounded,  and  it  required  all  the  efforts  of  the  prioress  to  prevent 
"  the  spouses  of  God  to  render  themselves,  dressed  or  undressed,  to 

264       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

any  woman  at  the  head  of  his  house  cannot  much  attend 
to  a  nursery — I  had  no  resource  but  to  place  her  for  a 
time  (at  a  high  pension  too)  in  the  convent  of  Bagna- 
Cavalli  (twelve  miles  off),  where  the  air  is  good,  and 
where  she  will,  at  least,  have  her  learning  advanced,  and 
her  morals  and  religion  inculcated.  I  had  also  another 
reason ; — things  were  and  are  in  such  a  state  here,  that 
I  had  no  reason  to  look  upon  my  own  personal  safety  as 
particularly  insurable ;  and  I  thought  the  infant  best  out 
of  harm's  way,  for  the  present. 

It  is  also  fit  that  I  should  add  that  I  by  no  means 
intended,  nor  intend,  to  give  a  natural  child  an  English 
education,  because  with  the  disadvantages  of  her  birth, 
her  after  settlement  would  be  doubly  difficult.  Abroad, 
with  a  fair  foreign  education  and  a  portion  of  five  or  six 
thousand  pounds,  she  might  and  may  marry  very 
respectably.  In  England  such  a  dowry  would  be  a 
pittance,  while  elsewhere  it  is  a  fortune.  It  is,  besides, 
my  wish  that  she  should  be  a  Roman  Catholic,  which 
I  look  upon  as  the  best  religion,  as  it  is  assuredly  the 
oldest  of  the  various  branches  of  Christianity.  I  have 
now  explained  my  notions  as  to  the  place  where  she  now 
is — it  is  the  best  I  could  find  for  the  present ;  but  I  have 
no  prejudices  in  its  favour. 

I  do  not  speak  of  politics,  because  it  seems  a  hopeless 
subject,  as  long  as  those  scoundrels  are  to  be  permitted 
to  bully  states  out  of  their  independence.  Believe  me, 

Yours  ever  and  truly. 

'  the  accustomed  signal .  Nobody  scolded  her  for  these  scafpature, 
'  so  I  suppose  that  she  is  well  treated  as  far  as  temper  is  concerned. 
'  Her  intellect  is  not  much  cultivated.  She  knows  certain  orazioni 
'  by  heart,  and  talks  and  dreams  of  Paradise  and  angels  and  all 
'  sorts  of  things,  and  has  a  prodigious  list  of  saints,  and  is  always 
'  talking  of  the  Bambino.  This  will  do  her  no  harm,  but  the  idea 
'  of  bringing  up  so  sweet  a  creature  in  the  midst  of  such  trash  till 
'sixteen  !  " — Dowden's  Life  of  Shelley,  vol.  ii.  pp.  435,  436. 

l82I.]  SECOND   LETTER    ON    BOWLES.  265 

P.S. — There  is  a  report  here  of  a  change  in  France ; l 
but  with  what  truth  is  not  yet  known. 

P.S. — My  respects  to  Mrs.  H.  I  have  the  "best 
"opinion"  of  her  countrywomen;  and  at  my  time  of 
life,  (three  and  thirty,  22d  January,  1821,)  that  is  to  say, 
after  the  life  I  have  led,  a  good  opinion  is  the  only 
rational  one  which  a  man  should  entertain  of  the  whole 
sex — up  to  thirty,  the  worst  possible  opinion  a  man  can 
have  of  them  in  general^  the  better  for  himself.  After- 
wards, it  is  a  matter  of  no  importance  to  them,  nor  to 
him  either,  what  opinion  he  entertains — his  day  is  over, 
or,  at  least,  should  be. 

You  see  how  sober  I  am  become. 

882.— To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  April  21^  1821. 

ILLUSTRIOUS  MORAY, — I  enclose  you  another  letter 
on  "Bowles?  But  I  premise  that  it  is  not  like  the 
former,  and  that  I  am  not  at  all  sure  how  much,  if  any, 
of  it  should  be  published.2  Upon  this  point  you  can 
consult  with  Mr.  Gifford,  and  think  twice  before  you 
publish  it  at  all.  Pray  send  me  some  more  pounds 
weight  of  Soda  powders :  I  drink  them  in  Summer  by 

Yours  truly, 

P.S. — You  may  make  my  subscription  for  Mr.  Scott's 

1.  After  the  murder  of  the  Due  de  Berri  (February  13,  1820),  the 
Due  de  Richelieu  succeeded  Decazes  as  head  of  a  moderate  adminis- 
tration.    The  elections  of   1821   resulted   in   a  great  accession  of 
strength  to  the  ultra-royalists  and  the  Comte  d'Artois.     Richelieu 
resigned,  December,  1821,  and  the  "Ultras"  under  Villele   came 
into  power. 

2.  See  Appendix  III.     The  second  Letter,  to  which  Byron  here 
refers,  was  not  published  till  1835. 

266       THE   PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

widow,1  etc.,  thirty  instead  of  the  proposed  ten  pounds ; 
but  do  not  put  down  my  name ;  put  down  N.  N.  only. 
The  reason  is,  that,  as  I  have  mentioned  him  in  the 
enclosed  pamphlet,2  it  would  look  indelicate.  I  would 
give  more,  but  my  disappointments  of  last  year,  about 
Rochdale  and  the  transfer  from  the  funds,  render  me 
more  economical  for  the  present. 

P.S.  2*} — By  next  post  I  will  send  you  the  threatening 
Italian  trash  alluded  to  in  the  enclosed  letter ;  you  can 
make  a  note  of  it  for  the  page  alluding  to  the  subject : 
I  had  not  room  for  it  in  this  cover,  nor  time. 

Mr.  M.  is  requested  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  this 
packet  by  return  of  post,  by  way  of  Calais,  as  quickest. 

883.— To  Percy  Bysshe  Shelley. 

Ravenna,  April  26,  1821. 

The  child  continues  doing  well,  and  the  accounts  are 
regular  and  favourable.  It  is  gratifying  to  me  that  you 

1.  John   Scott   (1783-1821)  had  been   Byron's  schoolfellow  at 
Aberdeen.      He  had  been  successively  editor  of  the  Censor,  the 
Stamford  News,   Drakard's  Newspaper  (January  10,    1813).     The 
name  of  the  last  paper  was  changed,  January,  1814,  to  the  Champion, 
Scott  continuing  to  be  the  editor.     In  the  Champion,  "  Fare  thee 
"  Well "  and  "  The  Sketch  "  were  first  published,  and  in  the  numbers 
for  April  7,  14,  21,   1816,  Byron  and  his  defender,  Leigh  Hunt, 
were  vehemently  attacked  at  the  time  of  the  separation.     Scott  lived 
abroad  from  1815  to  1819,  meeting  Byron  at  Venice  (see  the  second 
letter  on  Bowles).     In  1819  he  became  the  first  editor  of  the  London 
Magazine  (January,  1820).     His  attacks  on  Blacbwood's  Magazine, 
as  the  "  Mohock  Magazine,"  led  to  a  quarrel  with  Lockhart,  which 
ended  in  a  duel  between  Scott  and  J.  H.  Christie.     The  duel  took 
place  by  moonlight  at  Chalk  Farm,  February  16,  1821.   Christie  did 
not  fire  the  first  time ;  but  on  the  second  occasion  his  bullet,  striking 
Scott  above  the  right  hip,  inflicted  a  fatal  wound.     A  subscription 
was  raised  for  his  widow  and  children,  to  which  Byron,  under  the 
initials  "  N.  N.,"  contributed  .£30,  instead  of  the  £10  suggested  by 
Murray  {Memoir,  vol.  i.  p.  420).     The  fragment  given  in  Appendix 
VIII.  may  refer  to  Scott. 

2.  See  Byron's  Second  Letter  on  Bowles,  Appendix  III.  p.  576. 

1 82 1.]  DEATH   OF    KEATS.  267 

and  Mrs.  Shelley  do  not  disapprove  of  the  step  which  I 
have  taken,  which  is  merely  temporary. 

I  am  very  sorry  to  hear  what  you  say  of  Keats l — is 
it  actually  true  ?  I  did  not  think  criticism  had  been  so 
killing.  Though  I  differ  from  you  essentially  in  your 
estimate  of  his  performances,  I  so  much  abhor  all  un- 
necessary pain,  that  I  would  rather  he  had  been  seated 
on  the  highest  peak  of  Parnassus  than  have  perished  in 
such  a  manner.  Poor  fellow  !  though  with  such  inordi- 
nate self-love  he  would  probably  have  not  been  very 
happy.  I  read  the  review  of  Endymion  in  the 
Quarterly.  It  was  severe, — but  surely  not  so  severe  as 
many  reviews  in  that  and  other  journals  upon  others. 

I  recollect  the  effect  on  me  of  the  Edinburgh  on  my 
first  poem;  it  was  rage,  and  resistance,  and  redress — 
but  not  despondency  nor  despair.  I  grant  that  those  are 
not  amiable  feelings ;  but,  in  this  world  of  bustle  and 
broil,  and  especially  in  the  career  of  writing,  a  man 
should  calculate  upon  his  powers  of  resistance  before  he 
goes  into  the  arena. 

"  Expect  not  life  from  pain  nor  danger  free, 
Nor  deem  the  doom  of  man  reversed  for  thee."  * 

You  know  my  opinion  of  that  second-hand  school  of 

1.  The  Quarterly  article  on  Endymion  (1818),  written  by  Croker, 
appeared  in  September,  1818.    Two  years  and  a  half  later,  February 
23,   1821,  John  Keats  (1795-1821)  died  at  Rome  of  consumption. 
His  unfortunate  passion  for  Fanny  Brawne,  pecuniary  troubles,  and, 
in  his  enfeebled  health,  the  injustice  of  the  criticism  that  he  had 
received,  accelerated  the  progress  of  a  disease  which  first  declared 
itself  in  February,  1820.     "  A  loose,  slack,  not  well-dressed  youth 

'met  me,"  says  Coleridge,  "  in  a  lane  near  Highgate.  It  was 
1  Keats.  He  was  introduced  to  me,  and  staid  a  minute  or  so. 
'  After  he  had  left  us  a  little  way,  he  came  back,  and  said,  '  Let 
'  me  carry  away  the  memory,  Coleridge,  of  having  pressed  your 
'hand  ! '  '  There  is  death  in  that  hand,'  I  said,  when  Keats  was 
'  gone  ;  yet  this  was,  I  believe,  before  the  consumption  showed 
'  itself  distinctly '"  (Table  Talk,  vol.  ii.  pp.  89,  90). 

2.  Johnson's  Vanity  of  Human  Wishes,  lines  155,  156. 

268       THE    PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

poetry.  You  also  know  my  high  opinion  of  your  own 
poetry, — because  it  is  of  no  school.  I  read  Cenci J — but, 
besides  that  I  think  the  subject  essentially  ^//dramatic,  I 
am  not  an  admirer  of  our  old  dramatists  as  models.  I 
deny  that  the  English  have  hitherto  had  a  drama  at  all. 
Your  Cenci,  however,  was  a  work  of  power,  and  poetry. 
As  to  my  drama,  pray  revenge  yourself  upon  it,  by  being 
as  free  as  I  have  been  with  yours. 

I  have  not  yet  got  your  Prometheus,  which  I  long  to 
see.  I  have  heard  nothing  of  mine,  and  do  not  know 
that  it  is  yet  published.  I  have  published  a  pamphlet  on 
the  Pope  controversy,  which  you  will  not  like.  Had  I 
known  that  Keats  was  dead — or  that  he  was  alive  and  so 
sensitive — I  should  have  omitted  some  remarks  upon  his 
poetry,  to  which  I  was  provoked  by  his  attack  upon  Pope? 
and  my  disapprobation  of  his  own  style  of  writing. 

You  want  me  to  undertake  a  great  poem — I  have  not 
the  inclination  nor  the  power.  As  I  grow  older,  the 

1.  The  Cenci>  a  Tragedy  in  Five  Acts  was  published  at  Leghorn, 
in  1819.      Prometheus  Unbound,  a  Lyrical  Drama  in  Four  Acts, 
was  published  in  1820,  in  London. 

2.  Byron    refers   to   the  well-known    passage  in   "  Sleep    and 
"  Poetry,"  of  which  the  following  are  lines  193-206 — 

"  But  ye  were  dead 

To  things  ye  knew  not  of, — were  closely  wed 
To  musty  laws  lined  out  with  wretched  rule 
And  compass  vile  ;  so  that  ye  taught  a  school 
Of  dolts  to  smooth,  inlay,  and  clip,  and  fit, 
Till,  like  the  certain  wands  of  Jacob's  wit, 
Their  verses  tallied.     Easy  was  the  task ; 
A  thousand  handicraftsmen  wore  the  mask 
Of  Poesy.     Ill-fated,  impious  race  ! 
That  blasphemed  the  bright  Lyrist  to  his  face, 
And  did  not  know  it, — no,  they  went  about, 
Holding  a  poor,  decrepit  standard  out 
Marked  with  most  flimsy  mottos,  and  in  large 
The  name  of  one  Boileau  !  " 
The  allusion  to  Keats  occurs  at  the  end  of  the  Second  Letter  to 

John  Murray.     A  passage,  formerly  suppressed,  is  now  restored  in 

a  note.     (See  Appendix  III.,  pp.  588-9,  note  3.) 

1 82 1.]  HEMLOCK   TO   SUCKING   AUTHORS.  269 

indifference — not  to  life,  for  we  love  it  by  instinct — but 
to  the  stimuli  of  life,  increases.  Besides,  this  late  failure 
of  the  Italians  has  latterly  disappointed  me  for  many 
reasons, — some  public,  some  personal.  My  respects  to 
Mrs.  S. 

Yours  ever, 


P.S. — Could  not  you  and  I  contrive  to  meet  this 
summer  ?  Could  not  you  take  a  run  here  alone  1 

884. — To  John  Murray. 

R?,  April  26,  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — I  sent  you  by  last  postis  a  large 
packet,  which  will  not  do  for  publication  (I  suspect), 
being,  as  the  Apprentices  say,  " damned  low"  I  put  off 
also  for  a  week  or  two  sending  the  Italian  Scrawl  which 
will  form  a  Note  to  it.  The  reason  is  that,  letters  being 
opened,  I  wish  to  "  bide  a  wee." 

Well,  have  you  published  the  Tragedy  ?  and  does  the 
Letter  x  take  ? 

Is  it  true,  what  Shelley  writes  me,  that  poor  John 
Keats  died  at  Rome  of  the  Quarterly  Review?  I  am 
very  sorry  for  it,  though  I  think  he  took  the  wrong  line 
as  a  poet,  and  was  spoilt  by  Cockneyfying,  and  Sub- 
urbing,  and  versifying  Tooke's  Pantheon  and  Lempriere's 
Dictionary.  I  know,  by  experience,  that  a  savage  review 
is  Hemlock  to  a  sucking  author;  and  the  one  on  me 

I.  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magazine  for  May,  1821  (pp.  227- 
233),  condemns  the  Letter  to  *  *  *  *  ******  iy  (fa  j?t.  Hon. 
Lord  Byron  (London,  John  Murray,  1821),  as  "  wholly  unworthy  of 
"the  illustrious  author  of  Childe  Harold."  Bowles's  Two  Letters 
to  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Byron  are  characterized  "  as  a  most 
' '  satisfactory  answer  to  Lord  Byron's  paradoxes,  and  as  evincing 
"  throughout  the  spirit  of  the  scholar  and  the  gentleman.'1 

270       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

(which  produced  the  English  Bards,  etc.}  knocked  me 
down — but  I  got  up  again.  Instead  of  bursting  a  blood- 
vessel, I  drank  three  bottles  of  Claret,  and  began  an 
answer,  finding  that  there  was  nothing  in  the  Article  for 
which  I  could  lawfully  knock  Jeffrey  on  the  head,  in  an 
honourable  way.  However,  I  would  not  be  the  person 
who  wrote  the  homicidal  article,  for  all  the  honour  and 
glory  in  the  World,  though  I  by  no  means  approve  of 
that  School  of  Scribbling  which  it  treats  upon. 

You  see  the  Italians  have  made  a  sad  business  of  it. 
All  owing  to  treachery  and  disunion  amongst  themselves. 
It  has  given  me  great  vexation.  The  Execrations  heaped 
upon  the  Neapolitans  by  the  other  Italians  are  quite  in 
unison  with  those  of  the  rest  of  Europe. 

Mrs.  Leigh  writes  that  Lady  No — ///  is  getting 
well  again.  See  what  it  is  to  have  luck  in  this  world. 

I  hear  that  Rogers  is  not  pleased  with  being  called 
"  venerable  " 1 — a  pretty  fellow  :  if  I  had  thought  that  he 
would  have  been  so  absurd,  I  should  have  spoken  of  him 
as  defunct — as  he  really  is.  Why,  betwixt  the  years  he 
really  lived,  and  those  he  has  been  dead,  Rogers  has 
lived  upon  the  Earth  nearly  seventy  three  years  and 
upwards,  as  I  have  proved  in  a  postscript  of  my  letter,  by 
this  post,  to  Mr.  Kinnaird. 

Let  me  hear  from  you,  and  send  me  some  Soda- 
powders  for  the  Summer  dilution.  Write  soon. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 

P.S. — Your  latest  packet  of  books  is  on  its  way  here, 

I .  In  the  First  Letter  on  Bowles,  Byron  speaks  of  meeting  him  "  in 
"  the  house  of  our  venerable  host"  Rogers,  "the  last  Argonaut  of 
' '  classic  English  poetry,  and  the  Nestor  of  our  inferior  race  of 
•'living  poets."  (See  Appendix  III.  p.  537.) 

l82I.]          COLLAPSE  OF    ITALIAN   REVOLUTION.  271 

but  not  arrived.  Kenilworth *  excellent.  Thanks  for  the 
pocket-books,  of  whilk  I  have  made  presents  to  those 
ladies  who  like  cuts,  and  landscapes,  and  all  that.  I  have 
got  an  Italian  book  or  two  which  I  should  like  to  send 
you  if  I  had  an  opportunity. 

I  am  not  at  present  in  the  very  highest  health. 
Spring  probably ;  so  I  have  lowered  my  diet  and  taken 
to  Epsom  Salts. 

As  you  say  my  prose  is  good,  why  don't  you  treat 
with  Moore  for  the  reversion  of  the  Memoirs  ?  2 — condi- 
tionally ^  recollect ;  not  to  be  published  before  decease. 
He  has  the  permission  to  dispose  of  them,  and  I  advised 
him  to  do  so. 

885.— To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  April  28,  1821. 

You  cannot  have  been  more  disappointed  than 
myself,  nor  so  much  deceived.  I  have  been  so  at  some 
personal  risk  also,  which  is  not  yet  done  away  with. 
However,  no  time  nor  circumstances  shall  alter  my  tone 
nor  my  feelings  of  indignation  against  tyranny  triumphant. 
The  present  business  has  been  as  much  a  work  of 
treachery  as  of  cowardice, — though  both  may  have  done 
their  part.  If  ever  you  and  I  meet  again,  I  will  have  a 
talk  with  you  upon  the  subject.  At  present,  for  obvious 
reasons,  I  can  write  but  little,  as  all  letters  are  opened. 

1.  Kenilworth  was  published  in  1821. 

2.  Murray  (Memoir  of  John   Murray,  vol.    i.  p.    425)   writes, 
September  6,  1821,   "I  forgot  in  my  former  letter  to  notice  a  hint 

'  in  yours  respecting  an  additional  sum  to  Mr.  Moore.  The  purchase 
'  which  I  have  made  of  the  '  Memoirs '  is  perfectly  con  amore. 
'  As  a  matter  of  mere  business,  if  I  placed  the  ^2000  in  the  funds 
'  (supposing  they  did  not  break),  in  fourteen  years  (the  least  annuity 
'  value  of  the  author's  life)  it  would  become  £4000.  Moore  should 
'  not  show  the  '  Memoirs '  to  any  one  now,  1  think." 

272       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

In  mine  they  shall  always  find  my  sentiments,  but  nothing 
that  can  lead  to  the  oppression  of  others. 

You  will  please  to  recollect  that  the  Neapolitans  are 
now  nowhere  more  execrated  than  in  Italy,  and  not 
blame  a  whole  people  for  the  vices  of  a  province.  That 
would  be  like  condemning  Great  Britain  because  they 
plunder  wrecks  in  Cornwall. 

And  now  let  us  be  literary ; — a  sad  falling  off,  but  it 
is  always  a  consolation.  If  "  Othello's  occupation  be 
"  gone,"  let  us  take  to  the  next  best ;  and,  if  we  cannot 
contribute  to  make  mankind  more  free  and  wise,  we  may 
amuse  ourselves  and  those  who  like  it.  What  are  you 
writing  ?  I  have  been  scribbling  at  intervals,  and  Murray 
will  be  publishing  about  now. 

Lady  Noel  has,  as  you  say,  been  dangerously  ill ;  but 
it  may  console  you  to  learn  that  she  is  dangerously  well 

I  have  written  a  sheet  or  two  more  of  Memoranda 
for  you ;  and  I  kept  a  little  Journal  for  about  a  month  or 
two,  till  I  had  filled  the  paper-book.  I  then  left  it  off,  as 
things  grew  busy,  and,  afterwards,  too  gloomy  to  set 
down  without  a  painful  feeling.  This  I  should  be  glad 
to  send  you,  if  I  had  an  opportunity ;  but  a  volume, 
however  small,  don't  go  well  by  such  posts  as  exist  in  this 
Inquisition  of  a  country. 

I  have  no  news.  As  a  very  pretty  woman  said  to  me 
a  few  nights  ago,  with  the  tears  in  her  eyes,  as  she  sat  at 
the  harpsichord,  "  Alas  !  the  Italians  must  now  return  to 
"  making  operas."  I  fear  that  and  maccaroni  are  their 
forte,  and  "motley  their  only  wear."  However,  there 
are  some  high  spirits  among  them  still.  Pray  write. 

And  believe  me,  etc. 

MOORE'S  "LINES."  273 

886.— To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  May  3,  1821. 

Though  I  wrote  to  you  on  the  28th  ultimo,  I  must 
acknowledge  yours  of  this  day,  with  the  lines.1  They  are 
sublime,  as  well  as  beautiful,  and  in  your  very  best  mood 
and  manner.  They  are  also  but  too  true.  However,  do 
not  confound  the  scoundrels  at  the  heel  of  the  boot  with 
their  betters  at  the  top  of  it.  I  assure  you  that  there  are 
some  loftier  spirits. 

Nothing,  however,  can  be  better  than  your  poem,  or 
more  deserved  by  the  Lazzaroni.  They  are  now  abhorred 
and  disclaimed  nowhere  more  than  here.  We  will  talk 
over  these  things  (if  we  meet)  some  day,  and  I  will  recount 
my  own  adventures,  some  of  which  have  been  a  little 
hazardous,  perhaps. 

So,  you  have  got  the  Letter  on  Bowles  ?  I  do  not 
recollect  to  have  said  any  thing  of  yori  that  could  offend, 
— certainly,  nothing  intentionally.  As  for  *  *  [Rogers?], 
I  meant  him  a  compliment.  I  wrote  the  whole  off-hand, 
without  copy  or  correction,  and  expecting  then  every  day 
to  be  called  into  the  field.  What  have  I  said  of  you  ?  I 
am  sure  I  forget.  It  must  be  something  of  regret  for 
your  approbation  of  Bowles.2  And  did  you  not  approve, 

1.  Moore  has  the  following  notes  in  his  Diary  (Memoirs ;  etc.,  vol. 
iii.  p.  214)  : — 

"March  27,  1821. — Heard  of  the  surrender  of  the  Neapolitans, 
"  without  a  blow,  to  the  Austrians.  Can  this  be  true  ?  Then  there 
"is  no  virtue  in  Maccaroni.  .  .  . 

"  28th.  The  news  but  too  true ;  curse  on  the  cowards !  .  .  . 
"  3Oth.  Wrote  a  few  lines  about  the  rascally  Neapolitans." 

These  were  the  "  Lines  written  on  hearing  that  the  Austrians  had 
"entered  Naples,"  beginning  "Aye,  down  to  the  dust  with  them, 
"  slaves  as  they  are."  They  were  printed  in  the  Traveller  for 
April  9,  1821. 

2.  For  the  allusion,  see  the  first  Letter  to  John  Murray,  Esq., 
on  the  Rev.  W.  L.  Bowles's  Strictures  on  the  Life  and  Writings  of 
Pope,  Appendix  III.  p.  558.     On  this  passage  Moore  has  the  two 
following  notes  : — 

VOL.    V.  T 

274       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

as  he  says  ?  Would  I  had  known  that  before  !  I  would 
have  given  him  some  more  gruel.  My  intention  was  to 
make  fun  of  all  these  fellows ;  but  how  I  succeeded,  I 
don't  know. 

As  to  Pope,  I  have  always  regarded  him  as  the  greatest 
name  in  our  poetry.  Depend  upon  it,  the  rest  are  bar- 
barians. He  is  a  Greek  Temple,  with  a  Gothic  Cathedral 
on  one  hand,  and  a  Turkish  Mosque  and  all  sorts  of 
fantastic  pagodas  and  conventicles  about  him.  You  may 
call  Shakspeare  and  Milton  pyramids,  if  you  please,  but 
I  prefer  the  Temple  of  Theseus  or  the  Parthenon  to  a 
mountain  of  burnt  brick-work. 

The  Murray  has  written  to  me  but  once,  the  day  of 
its  publication,  when  it  seemed  prosperous.  But  I  have 
heard  of  late  from  England  but  rarely.  Of  Murray's 
other  publications  (of  mine),  I  know  nothing, — nor 
whether  he  has  published.  He  was  to  have  done  so  a 
month  ago.  I  wish  you  would  do  something, — or  that 
we  were  together. 

Ever  yours  and  affectionately, 


"  I  had  not,  when  I  wrote,  seen  this  pamphlet,  as  he  supposes,  but 
'  had  merely  heard  from  some  friends,  that  his  pen  had  '  run  a-muck  ' 
'  in  it,  and  that  I  myself  had  not  escaped  a  slight  graze  in  its  career. " 

"  It  may  be  sufficient  to  say  of  the  use  to  which  both  Lord  Byron 
'  and  Mr.  Bowles  thought  it  worth  their  while  to  apply  my  name  in 
'  this  controversy,  that,  as  far  as  my  own  knowledge  of  the  subject 
'  extended,  I  was  disposed  to  agree  with  neither  of  the  extreme 
'  opinions  into  which,  as  it  appeared  to  me,  my  distinguished  friends 
'  had  diverged  ; — neither  with  Lord  Byron  in  that  spirit  of  partisan- 
'  ship  which  led  him  to  place  Pope  above  Shakspeare  and  Milton, 
'  nor  with  Mr.  Bowles  in  such  an  application  of  the  '  principles '  of 
'  poetry  as  could  tend  to  sink  Pope,  on  the  scale  of  his  art,  to  any 
'  rank  below  the  very  first.  Such  being  the  middle  state  of  my 
'  opinion  on  the  question,  it  will  not  be  difficult  to  understand  how 
'  one  of  my  controversial  friends  should  be  as  mistaken  in  supposing 
'  me  to  differ  altogether  from  his  views,  as  the  other  was  in  taking 
'  for  granted  that  I  had  ranged  myself  wholly  on  his  side "  (Life. 
P-  503). 


887.— To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  8'.'1,  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — Pray  publish  these  additional  notes.1 
It  is  of  importance  to  the  question  in  dispute,  and  even, 
if  you  can,  print  it  on  a  separate  page  and  distribute  it  to 
the  purchasers  of  the  former  copies. 

I  have  had  no  letters  from  you  for  this  month  past. 
Acknowledge  this  by  post ;  as  this  note  is  worth  the  whole 
pamphlet  as  an  example  of  what  we  are  to  prove  against 
the  Anti-christian  anti-popists. 


P.S. — I  copy  the  following  postscript  from  Moore's 
latest  letter  to  me  of  April  i4'h  "  Since  I  wrote  the 
"  above,  Lady  E.  F.  sent  me  your  letter,  and  I  have  run 
"  through  it.  How  the  devil  could  Bowles  say  that  I 
"  agreed  with  his  twaddling,  and  (still  more  strange)  how 
"  could  you  believe  him  ?"  There  !  what  do  you  think  of 
this  ?  You  may  show  this  to  the  initiated,  but  not  publish 
it  in  print — yet  at  least — till  I  have  M.'s  permission. 

Get  and  send  me,  if  possible,  Tom  Tyers's  amusing 
tracts  upon  Pope  and  Addison.2  I  had  a  copy  in  1812 
which  was,  I  know  not  how,  lost,  and  I  could  not  obtain 
another.  It  is  a  scarce  book,  but  has  run  through  three 
editions  I  think.  It  is  in  the  Boswell  style,  but  more 
rapid ;  very  curious,  and  indeed  necessary  if  you  think 
of  a  new  life  of  Pope.  Why  don't  Gifford  undertake  a 
Life  and  edition  ?  It  is  more  necessary  than  that  of  Ben 

1.  These  "notes"  are  now  printed  as  an  "additional  note"  to 
Byron's  first  Letter  to  John  Murray,  etc.   (See  Appendix  III.,  p.  563.) 

2.  Thomas  Tyers  (1726-1787),  the  "  Tom  Restless"  of  Johnson's 
Idler,  wrote,  among  other  pamphlets,  An  Historical  Rhapsodv  on 
Mr.  Pope  (1781)  and  An  Historical  Essay  on  Mr.  Addison  (1782). 

276       THE    PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

Jonson.  Nobody  can  do  it  but  Gifford,  both  from  his 
qualities  and  turn  of  mind. 

I  have  not  sent  you  the  Italian  Scrap  promised  in  my 
last  letters,  but  will  in  a  few  posts. 

Do  you  recollect  the  air  of  "  How  now,  Madame 
"  Flirt  ?  "  in  the  Beggar's  Of  era  1 l 


"  Why  how  now,  Saucy  Tom, 
If  you  thus  must  ramble, 
I  will  publish  some 

Remarks  on  Thomas  Campbell. — 

Saucy  Tom ! " 


"  Why  how  now,  Billy  Bowles, 
Sure  the  parson's  maudlin. 

How  can  you  (damn  your  souls)       [To  the  public 
Listen  to  his  twaddling  ? 

Billy  Bowks  I" 

Thorwaldsen  sent  off  the  bust  to  be  shipped  from 
Leghorn  last  week.  As  it  is  addressed  to  your  house 
and  care  you  may  be  looking  out  for  it,  though  I  know 
not  the  probable  time  of  the  voyage  in  this  Season  of  the 
year,  which  is  one  of  light  airs  and  breezes  and  calms  in 
the  Mediterranean. 

888.— To  John  Murray. 

May  10,  1821,  Ravenna. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  have  just  got  your  packet.  I  am 
obliged  to  Mr.  Bowles,  and  Mr.  B.  is  obliged  to  me,  for 
having  restored  him  to  good  humour.  He  is  to  write, 

I.  See  p.  252,  note  I. 

1 82 1.]  OCTAVIUS   GILCHRIST.  277 

and  you  to  publish,  what  you  please, — motto  and  subject. 
I  desire  nothing  but  fair  play  for  all  parties.  Of  course, 
after  the  new  tone  of  Mr.  B.,  you  will  not  publish  my 
defence  of  Gilchrist : x  it  would  be  brutal  to  do  so  after  his 
urbanity,  for  it  is  rather  too  rough,  like  his  own  attack 
upon  G.  You  may  tell  him  what  I  say  there  of  his 
Missionary  *  (it  is  praised,  as  it  deserves),  however;  and 
if  there  are  any  passages  not  personal  to  Bowles,  and  yet 
bearing  upon  the  question,  you  may  add  them  to  the 
reprint  (if  it  is  reprinted)  of  my  ist-  letter  to  you.  Upon 
this  consult  Gifford ;  and,  above  all,  don't  let  any  thing 
be  added  which  can  personally  affect  Mr.  B. 

In  the  enclosed  notes,  of  course  what  I  say  of  the 
democracy  of  poetry  cannot  apply  to  Mr.  Bowles,  but  to 
the  Cockney-and- Water  washing-tub  Schools. 

Now,  what  are  we  to  think  of  Bowles's  story,  and 
Moore's ! ! !  they  are  at  issue :  is  it  not  odd  ?  I  have 
copied  M.'s  postscript  literally  in  my  letter  of  the  8'.h. 

I.  I.e.  the  second  Letter  to  John  Murray.    (See  Appendix  III. 

P-  567)- 

Octavius  Graham  Gilchrist  (1779-1823),  a  grocer  at  Stamford, 
published,  in  1805,  a  volume  of  Rhymes,  edited  (1807)  the  Poems  of 
Richard  Corbet,  and  wrote  (1811)  A  Letter  to  IV.  Giffard,  Esq.,  on 
Weber's  edition  of  Ford's  Plays.  He  had  plunged  into  the  Pope 
controversy  by  reviewing  Spencers  Anecdotes  in  the  London  Magazine 
for  February,  1820.  For  further  details  of  his  dispute  with  Bowles, 
see  Appendix  III.  pp.  524,  525.  Gifford  (Introduction  to  Dramatic 
Works  of  yohn  Ford,  p.  lii.  note)  says — 

"This  gentleman,  whom  with  Dr.  Roscoe,  I  lament  to  call  'the 
'  late  ingenious  Mr.  Gilchrist,'  had  not  reached  the  meridian  of  life 
'  when  he  fell  a  sacrifice  to  some  consumptive  complaint,  which 
'  had  long  oppressed  him.  His  last  labour  of  love  was  an  attempt 
'  to  rescue  Pope  from  the  rancorous  persecution  of  his  editor,  the 
'  Rev.  Mr.  Bowles.  I  know  not  why  this  doughty  personage  gives 
'  himself  such  airs  of  superiority  over  Mr.  Gilchrist ;  nor  why, 
'unless  from  pure  taste,  he  clothes  them  in  a  diction  not  often 
'  heard  out  of  the  purlieus  of  St.  Giles.  Mr.  Gilchrist  was  a  man 
'  of  strict  integrity ;  and  in  the  extent  and  accuracy  of  his  critical 
'  knowledge,  and  the  patient  industry  of  his  researches,  as  much 
'  superior  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Bowles,  as  in  good  manners." 
2.  The  Missionary  of  the  Andes  was  published  in  1815. 

278       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

The  anecdote  of  Mr.  B.  is  as  follows,  and  of  course  not 
for  the  public:  After  dinner  at  L?  Lansdowne's,  they 
were  talking,  one  evening,  as  Sir  Robert  Walpole  used 
to  talk  always.  Bowles  said  that,  after  all,  love  was  the 
only  thing  worthy  the  risk  of  damnation. 

This  is  "  the  tale  as  told  to  me "  by  Moore,  and  at 
least  as  good  a  story  as  Gibber's  of  Pope.  You  may  tell 
it  again  to  Mr.  B.,  upon  whom  it  reflects  rather  credit 
than  otherwise,  for  the  humour  of  it. 

I  hope  and  trust  that  Elliston  won't  be  permitted  to 
act  the  drama.1  Surely  Jie  might  have  the  grace  to  wait 
for  Kean's  return  before  he  attempted  it ;  though,  even 
then,  I  should  be  as  much  against  the  attempt  as  ever. 

I  have  got  a  small  packet  of  books,  but  neither 
Waldegrave,2  Orford,  nor  Scott's  Novels  among  them. 
Some  Soda  powders,  pray  ?  Why  don't  you  republish 
Hodgson's  C.  Harold's  Monitor  and  Latino-Mastix  ? 3 

1.  In  opening   the   Surrey  Theatre  for  Easter,    1821,    Thomas 
Dibdin  "announced  a  new  melo-drame  founded  on  Lord  Byron's 
"recent  play  of  Marino  Faliero,  Doge  of  Venice  "  {Autobiography 
of  Thomas  Dibdin,  vol.  ii.  p.  199).     He  was  immediately  warned 
by  Mr.   Murray's   solicitor  that  an   injunction   had  been  obtained 
against  Robert  William  Elliston,  to  restrain  "  the  performance  of 
"  that  play  or  any  part  thereof,"  and  that  similar  proceedings  would 
be  taken  against  him. 

2.  Memoirs  from  1754  to  1758,  by  James,  Earl  Waldegrave,  K.G., 
and   Memoirs  of  the  Last   Ten    Years  of  George  II.,   by  Horace 
Walpole,  Lord  Orford,  were  published  in  1822  by  Murray.     Both 
were  edited  by  Lord  Holland.     Byron  was  indignant  that  Murray 
had  given  more  for  them  than  the  £2000  which  he  offered  for  Don 
Juan  (Cantos  III.,  IV.,  and  V.),  The  Two  Foscari,  and  Sardana- 
palus.     As  a  matter  of  fact,  Murray  gave  ^2500  for  the  Waldegrave 
and  Walpole  Memoirs  (Memoirs,  vol.  ii.  p.  90),  and .£2710  (ibid.,  vol. 
i.  p.  425)  for  the  three  tragedies  of  Sardanapalus,  Foscari,  and  Cain. 

3.  Hodgson's  Childe  Harold's  Monitor,  or  Lines  occasioned  by  the 
Last  Canto  of  Childe  Harold,  including  Hints  to  other  Contemporaries, 
was  published  in  1818.     His  S&culo  Mastix,  or  the  Lash  of  the  Age 
Vf  live  in,  appeared  in  the  same  year. 

1821.]     THE  CONVENT  AT  BAGNACAVALLO.       279 

they   are   excellent  :    think   of    this — they   are    all    for 

Yours  truly, 


-To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  May  n,  1821. 

If  I  had  but  known  your  notion  about  Switzerland 
before,  I  should  have  adopted  it  at  once.  As  it  is,  I 
shall  let  the  child  remain  in  her  convent,1  where  she 
seems  healthy  and  happy,  for  the  present ;  but  I  shall  feel 
much  obliged  if  you  will  enquire,  when  you  are  in  the 
cantons,  about  the  usual  and  better  modes  of  education 
there  for  females,  and  let  me  know  the  result  of  your 
opinions.  It  is  some  consolation  that  both  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Shelley  have  written  to  approve  entirely  my  placing  the 
child  with  the  nuns  for  the  present.  I  can  refer  to  my 
whole  conduct,  as  having  neither  spared  care,  kindness, 

I.  See  p.  262,  note  2.  From  1336  to  1796  the  conventual  build- 
ings of  St.  John  the  Baptist  at  Bagnacavallo  were  occupied  as  a 
Camaldolese  Monastery.  When  religious  houses  were  suppressed  by 
the  French  Revolutionary  armies,  the  convent  passed  into  the  hands 
of  Count  Paolo  Gaiani,  who,  in  1818,  made  it  over  to  Sister 
Marianna  delle  Vergine  Addolorata,  known  in  the  world  as  Cate- 
rina  Fabbri  (died  1849).  This  lady  founded  the  Capuchin  Convent 
of  St.  John  as  a  place  of  education  for  girls  of  noble  family. 
Allegra  was  brought  to  the  convent  (January  22,  1821),  not  by 
her  father,  but  by  a  Ravennese  named  Ghigi  (La  Figlia  di  Lord 
£yron,  Emilio  Biondi,  Faenza,  1899).  It  was  a  fashionable  school. 
Sig.  Biondi  writes  that  Allegra  had  among  her  schoolfellows  "  una 
"marchesa  Ghislieri  di  Bologna,  una  contessa  Loreta  di  Ravenna, 
"ed  una  nostra  concittadina,  morta  da  non  molti  anni  in  avanzata 
"  eta,  la  nobil  donna  Ippolita  Rusconi — nata  contessa  Biancoli." 
During  her  fatal  illness  the  child  was  attended  by  two  doctors,  and 
had  every  possible  care.  But  popular  tradition,  probably  distorting 
medical  orders  that  the  invalid  should  be  fed  sparingly,  asserted 
that  she  was  starved  to  death.  Allegra  died  April  20,  1822.  Sig. 
Biondi  thinks  that  he  has  discovered  evidence  that  Byron,  under  an 
assumed  name,  visited  the  convent  in  August,  1823  (p.  26).  Pro- 
bably the  date  is  a  misprint  for  1822. 

280       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

nor  expense,  since  the  child  was  sent  to  me.  The  people 
may  say  what  they  please,  I  must  content  myself  with 
not  deserving  (in  this  instance)  that  they  should  speak  ill. 

The  place  is  a  country  town  in  a  good  air,  where  there 
is  a  large  establishment  for  education,  and  many  children, 
some  of  considerable  rank,  placed  in  it.  As  a  country 
town,  it  is  less  liable  to  objections  of  every  kind.  It  has 
always  appeared  to  me,  that  the  moral  defect  in  Italy 
does  not  proceed  from  a  conventual  education, — because, 
to  my  certain  knowledge,  they  come  out  of  their  convents 
innocent  even  to  ignorance  of  moral  evil, — but  to  the 
state  of  society  into  which  they  are  directly  plunged  on 
coming  out  of  it.  It  is  like  educating  an  infant  on  a 
mountain-top,  and  then  taking  him  to  the  sea  and  throw- 
ing him  into  it  and  desiring  him  to  swim.  The  evil, 
however,  though  still  too  general,  is  partly  wearing  away, 
as  the  women  are  more  permitted  to  marry  from  attach- 
ment :  this  is,  I  believe,  the  case  also  in  France.  And 
after  all,  what  is  the  higher  society  of  England  ?  Accord- 
ing to  my  own  experience,  and  to  all  that  I  have  seen  and 
heard  (and  I  have  lived  there  in  the  very  highest  and 
what  is  called  the  best),  no  way  of  life  can  be  more 
corrupt.  In  Italy,  however,  it  is,  or  rather  was,  more 
systematised ;  but  now,  they  themselves  are  ashamed  of 
regular  Serventism.  In  England,  the  only  homage  which 
they  pay  to  virtue  is  hypocrisy.  I  speak  of  course  of  the 
tone  of  high  life ; — the  middle  ranks  may  be  very  virtuous. 

I  have  not  got  any  copy  (nor  have  yet  had)  of  the 
letter  on  Bowles;  of  course  I  should  be  delighted  to 
send  it  to  you.  How  is  Mrs.  H.  ?  well  again,  I  hope. 
Let  me  know  when  you  set  out.  I  regret  that  I  cannot 
meet  you  in  the  Bernese  Alps  this  summer,  as  I  once 
hoped  and  intended.  With  my  best  respects  to  madam, 

I  am  ever,  etc. 

1821.]  CH1LDE  HAROLD'S  MONITOR.  281 

P.S. — I  gave  to  a  musicians  a  letter  for  you  some  time 
ago — has  he  presented  himself?  Perhaps  you  could 
introduce  him  to  the  Ingrams  and  other  dilettanti.  He 
is  simple  and  unassuming — two  strange  things  in  his  pro- 
fession— and  he  fiddles  like  Orpheus  himself  or  Amphion  : 
't  is  a  pity  that  he  can't  make  Venice  dance  away  from 
the  brutal  tyrant  who  tramples  upon  it. 

890. — To  Francis  Hodgson. 

Ravenna,  May  12,  1821. 

DEAR  HODGSON, — At  length  your  two  poems x  have 
been  sent.  I  have  read  them  over  (with  the  notes)  with 
great  pleasure.  I  receive  your  compliments  kindly  and 
your  censures  temperately,  which  I  suppose  is  all  that 
can  be  expected  among  poets.  Your  poem  is,  however, 
excellent,2  and  if  not  popular  only  proves  that  there  is 

1.  Probably  Childe  Harold's  Monitor  and  S&culo  Mastix,  or  the 
Lash  of  the  Age  we  live  in, 

2.  In  Hodgson's  Childe  Harold'' 's  Monitor  (1818)  occurs  a  passage 
in  praise  of  Pope — 

"  What !  shall  the  bard  majestically  sweet, 
Who  on  the  pallid  walls  of  Paraclete 
Hung  an  undying  wreath  of  softest  green, 
While,  sadly  murmuring  through  the  enchanted  scene, 
Fell  with  new  charm  the  solitary  floods, 
And  holier  moonlight  veiled  the  sleeping  woods, — 

Shall  he  be  summoned  to  the  bar  of  shame, 
And  slander  fix  false  tinsel  on  his  fame  ? 

True,  that  the  wealth  of  wit  at  times  betrays 
The  balanced  numbers  to  too  rich  a  blaze  ; 
True  that  those  numbers  might,  at  times,  have  flown 
With  Dryden's  notes  o'er  regions  scarce  their  own  ; 
Dared  the  contrasted  pause,  and  streamed  more  free 
In  soul-o'erflowing  tides  of  harmony  : 

But  shall  we  vilify  the  morning  star, 
Bright  as  he  shines  o'er  earth's  dim  clouds  afar, 
Because  unequal  to  the  noonday  sun, 
And  doomed  a  humbler  course  in  Heaven  to  run  ?  " 
This  praise,  and  some  of  the  criticism  on  contemporary  poets, 

282        THE    PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

a  fortune  in  fame  as  in  every  thing  else  in  this  world. 
Much,  too,  depends  upon  a  publisher,  and  much  upon 
luck ;  and  the  number  of  writers  is  such,  that  as  the  mind 
of  a  reader  can  only  contain  a  certain  quantum  of  poetry 
and  poet's  glories,  he  is  sometimes  saturated,  and  allows 
many  good  dishes  to  go  away  untouched  (as  happens  at 
great  dinners),  and  this  not  from  fastidiousness  but 

You  will  have  seen  from  my  pamphlet  on  Bowles 
that  our  opinions  are  not  very  different.  Indeed,  my 
modesty  would  naturally  look  at  least  bashfully  on  being 
termed  the  "  first  of  living  minstrels  " 1  (by  a  brother  of 
the  art)  if  both  our  estimates  of  "living  minstrels"  in 
general  did  not  leaven  the  praise  to  a  sober  compliment. 
It  is  something  like  the  priority  in  a  retreat.  There  is 
but  one  of  your  tests  which  is  not  infallible  :  Translation. 
There  are  three  or  four  French  translations,  and  several 
German  and  Italian  which  I  have  seen.  Moore  wrote  to 
me  from  Paris  months  ago  that  "  the  French  had  caught 
"the  contagion  of  Byronism  to  the  highest  pitch"  and 
has  written  since  to  say  that  nothing  was  ever  like  their 
"entusymusy"  (you  remember  Braham)  on  the  subject, 

pleased  Byron,  and  made  him  forgive  the  severity  with  which  his 
own  poetry  is  criticized.  In  the  notes  Hodgson  says  that  the  third 
canto  of  Childe  Harold  is  disfigured  with  "  violations  of  the  true  tone 
'of  poetic  diction,"  and  "rambling  metaphysical  sentences  of 
'  broken  prose  borrowed  from  the  most  worthless  of  his  contem- 
'poraries."  "Manfred  absolutely  teems  with  them,"  etc.  (p.  69). 
'  That  Harold's  occasional  images,  even  in  his  idlest  moments,  are 
'  as  brilliant  as  ever,  nobody  can  deny ;  but  long  indulgence,  and 
'  the  unaccountable  imitation  of  inferior  writers  .  .  .  have,  assuredly, 
'  deteriorated  his  style  to  a  most  lamentable  degree.  Concerning 
'  Beppo,  the  less  that  is  said  the  better  "  (p.  74),  etc. 

I.  Hodgson  had  written,  towards  the  beginning  of  his  Childe 
Harolds  Monitor — 

"Yet,  oh  !  that,  rising  at  some  awful  hour, 
The  warning  voice  could  breathe  resistless  power  ; 
And  touch  at  once,  in  Truth's  and  Friendship's  key, 
The  first  of  living  minstrels — Harold,  thee  !  " 

l82I.]          NEAPOLITAN  TREACHERY.  283 

even  through  the  "  slaver  of  a  prose  translation  : "  these 
are  his  words.  The  Paris  translation  is  also  very  inferior 
to  the  Geneva  one,  which  is  very  fair,  although  in  prose 
also,  so  you  see  that  your  test  of  "  translateable  or  not " 
is  not  so  sound  as  could  be  wished.  It  is  no  pleasure, 
however,  you  may  suppose,  to  be  criticised  through  such 
a  translation,  or  indeed  through  any.  I  give  up  Beppo, 
though  you  know  that  it  is  no  more  than  an  imitation  of 
Pulci  and  of  a  style  common  and  esteemed  in  Italy.  I 
have  just  published  a  drama,  which  is  at  least  good 
English,  I  presume,  for  Gilford  lays  great  stress  on  the 
purity  of  its  diction. 

I  have  been  latterly  employed  a  good  deal  more  on 
politics  than  on  anything  else,  for  the  Neapolitan  treachery 
and  desertion  have  spoilt  all  our  hopes  here,  as  well  as 
our  preparations.  The  whole  country  was  ready.  Of 
course  I  should  not  have  sate  still  with  my  hands  in  my 
breeches'  pockets.  In  fact  they  were  full ;  that  is  to  say, 
the  hands.  I  cannot  explain  further  now,  for  obvious 
reasons,  as  all  letters  of  all  people  are  opened.  Some 
day  or  other  we  may  have  a  talk  over  that  and  other 
matters.  In  the  mean  time  there  did  not  want  a  great 
deal  of  my  having  to  finish  like  Lara. 

Are  you  doing  nothing?  I  have  scribbled  a  good 
deal  in  the  early  part  of  last  year,  most  of  which  scrawls 
will  now  be  published,  and  part  is,  I  believe,  actually 
printed.  Do  you  mean  to  sit  still  about  Pope  ?  If  you 
do,  it  will  be  the  first  time.  I  have  got  such  a  headache 
from  a  cold  and  swelled  face,  that  I  must  take  a  gallop 
into  the  forest  and  jumble  it  into  torpor.  My  horses  are 
waiting.  So  good-bye  to  you. 

Yours  ever, 


284       THE    PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

Two  hours  after  the  Ave  Maria,  the  Italian  date  of  twilight. 

DEAR  HODGSON, — I  have  taken  my  canter,  and  am 
better  of  my  headache.  I  have  also  dined,  and  turned 
over  your  notes.  In  answer  to  your  note  of  page  90  l  I 
must  remark  from  Aristotle  and  Rymer,  that  the  hero  of 
tragedy  and  (I  add  meo  periculo)  a  tragic  poem  must  be 
guilty,  to  excite  " terror  and  pity"  the  end  of  tragic 
poetry.  But  hear  not  me,  but  my  betters.  "The  pity 
"  which  the  poet  is  to  labour  for  is  for  the  criminal.  The 
"  terror  is  likewise  in  the  punishment  of  the  said  criminal, 
"  who,  if  he  be  represented  too  great  an  offender,  will  not 
"  be  pitied ;  if  altogether  innocent  his  punishment  will  be 
"  unjust."  2  In  the  Greek  Tragedy  innocence  is  unhappy 
often,  and  the  offender  escapes.  I  must  also  ask  you  is 
Achilles  a  good  character?  or  is  even  JEnesLS  anything 
but  a  successful  runaway  ?  It  is  for  Turnus  men  feel  and 
not  for  the  Trojan.  Who  is  the  hero  of  Paradise  Lost? 
Why  Satan, — and  Macbeth,  and  Richard,  and  Othello, 
Pierre,  and  Lothario,  and  Zanga  ?  If  you  talk  so,  I  shall 
"  cut  you  up  like  a  gourd,"  as  the  Mamelukes  say.  But 
never  mind,  go  on  with  it. 

1.  To  the  line  in  Childe  Harolds  Monitor — 

"  In  plundering  heroes  of  the  Marmion  strain  " — 

Hodgson  adds  a  note  (p.  90),  in  which  he  says,  "  Charles  Moor,  in 
'  the  Robbers,  is  the  worthy  mirror  and  glass  of  fashion,  in  which 
'  the  poetical  heroes  of  the  day  have  dressed  themselves.  .  .  .  The 
'  long  series  of  depraved  heroes  :  of  profligates  adorned  with  courage, 
'  and  rendered  interesting  by  all  the  warmth  and  tenderness  of  love  ; 
'  who  have  formed  the  prominent  object  in  our  more  popular  litera- 
'  ture  for  many  years,  cannot  but  have  had  the  worst  effect  on  the 
'  minds  of  the  young,"  etc.,  etc. 

2.  "  Dryden's  Life  "  in  Johnson's  Lives  of  the  Poets,  p.  203,  etc. 

1 82 1.]  A    FORCED    REPRESENTATION.  285 

891. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  14"?  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — A  Milan  paper  states  that  the  play 
has  been  represented  and  universally  condemned.  As 
remonstrance  has  been  vain,  complaint  would  be  useless. 
I  presume,  however,  for  your  own  sake  (if  not  for  mine), 
that  you  and  my  other  friends  will  have  at  least  published 
my  different  protests  against  its  being  brought  upon  the 
stage  at  all ;  and  have  shown  that  Elliston  (in  spite  of  the 
writer)  forced  it  upon  the  theatre.  It  would  be  nonsense 
to  say  that  this  has  not  vexed  me  a  good  deal ;  but  I  am 
not  dejected,  and  I  shall  not  take  the  usual  resource  of 
blaming  the  public  (which  was  in  the  right),  or  my  friends 
for  not  preventing — what  they  could  not  help,  nor  I 
neither — a  forced  representation  by  a  Speculating  Man- 
ager. It  is  a  pity  that  you  did  not  show  them  its  unfitness 
for  yf  stage  before  the  play  was  published^  and  exact  a 
promise  from  the  managers  not  to  act  it.1  In  case  of 
their  refusal,  we  would  not  have  published  it  at  all.  But 
this  is  too  late. 


P.S. — I  enclose  Mr.  Bowles's  letters :  thank  him  in 
my  name  for  their  candour  and  kindness.  Also  a  letter 
for  Hodgson,  which  pray  forward.  The  Milan  paper 
states  that  "  /  brought  forward  the  play  /  /  /  "  This  is 

I .  Goethe  ( Conversations  -with  Eckermann  and  Soret,  translated  by 
John  Oxenford,  vol.  i.  pp.  204,  205)  said,  February  24,  1825, 
'  If  I  were  still  superintendent  of  the  theatre,  I  would  bring  out 
'  Byron's  Doge  of  Venice.  The  piece  is,  indeed,  long,  and  would 
'  require  shortening.  Nothing,  however,  should  be  cut  out,  but  the 
'  import  of  each  scene  should  be  taken,  and  expressed  more  con- 
'  cisely.  The  piece  would  thus  be  brought  closer  together,  without 
'  being  damaged  by  alterations,  and  it  would  gain  a  powerful  effect, 
'  without  any  essential  loss  of  beauty." 

286       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

pleasanter  still.  But  don't  let  yourself  be  worried  about 
it ;  and  if  (as  is  likely)  the  folly  of  Elliston  checks  the 
sale,  I  am  ready  to  make  any  deduction,  or  the  entire 
cancel  of  your  agreement. 

You  will  of  course  not  publish  my  defence  of  Gilchrist, 
as,  after  Bowles's  good  humour  upon  the  subject,  it  would 
be  too  savage. 

Let  me  hear  from  you  the  particulars ;  for,  as  yet,  I 
have  only  the  simple  fact. 

If  you  knew  what  I  have  had  to  go  through  here,  on 
account  of  the  failure  of  these  rascally  Neapolitans,  you 
would  be  amused.  But  it  is  now  apparently  over.  They 
seemed  disposed  to  throw  the  whole  project  and  plans  of 
these  parts  upon  me  chiefly. 

892. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

May  14,  1821. 

If  any  part  of  the  letter  to  Bowles  has  (unintentionally, 
as  far  as  I  remember  the  contents)  vexed  you,  you  are 
fully  avenged;  for  I  see  by  an  Italian  paper  that,  not- 
withstanding all  my  remonstrances  through  all  my  friends 
(and  yourself  among  the  rest),  the  managers  persisted  in 
attempting  the  tragedy,  and  that  it  has  been  "  unani- 
"  mously  hissed  ! ! "  This  is  the  consolatory  phrase  of 
the  Milan  paper,  (which  detests  me  cordially,  and  abuses 
me,  on  all  occasions,  as  a  Liberal,)  with  the  addition, 
that  /  "  brought  the  play  out "  of  my  own  good  will. 

All  this  is  vexatious  enough,  and  seems  a  sort  of 
dramatic  Calvinism — predestined  damnation,  without  a 
sinner's  own  fault.  I  took  all  the  pains  poor  mortal 
could  to  prevent  this  inevitable  catastrophe — partly  by 
appeals  of  all  kinds,  up  to  the  Lord  Chamberlain,  and 
partly  to  the  fellows  themselves.  But,  as  remonstrance 

l82I.]         "  EIGHT-AND-TWENTY   MISFORTUNES."  287 

was  vain,  complaint  is  useless.  I  do  not  understand  it 
— for  Murray's  letter  of  the  24th,  and  all  his  preceding 
ones,  gave  me  the  strongest  hopes  that  there  would  be  no 
representation.  As  yet,  I  know  nothing  but  the  fact,  which 
I  presume  to  be  true,  as  the  date  is  Paris,  and  the  3oth. 
They  must  have  been  in  a  hell  of  a  hurry  for  this  damna- 
tion, since  I  did  not  even  know  that  it  was  published ; 
and,  without  its  being  first  published,  the  histrions  could 
not  have  got  hold  of  it.  Any  one  might  have  seen,  at 
a  glance,  that  it  was  utterly  impracticable  for  the  stage ; 
and  this  little  accident  will  by  no  means  enhance  its 
merit  in  the  closet. 

Well,  patience  is  a  virtue,  and,  I  suppose,  practice 
will  make  it  perfect.  Since  last  year  (spring,  that  is)  I 
have  lost  a  lawsuit,  of  great  importance,  on  Rochdale 
collieries — have  occasioned  a  divorce — have  had  my  poesy 
disparaged  by  Murray  and  the  critics — my  fortune  refused 
to  be  placed  on  an  advantageous  settlement  (in  Ireland) 
by  the  trustees ; — my  life  threatened  last  month  (they  put 
about  a  paper  here  to  excite  an  attempt  at  my  assassina- 
tion, on  account  of  politics,  and  a  notion  which  the 
priests  disseminated  that  I  was  in  a  league  against  the 
Germans,) — and,  finally,  my  mother-in-law  recovered  last 
fortnight,  and  my  play  was  damned  last  week !  These 
are  like  "  the  eight-and-twenty  misfortunes  of  Harlequin." a 
But  they  must  be  borne.  If  I  give  in,  it  shall  be  after 
keeping  up  a  spirit  at  least.  I  should  not  have  cared  so 
much  about  it,  if  our  southern  neighbours  had  not  bungled 
us  all  out  of  freedom  for  these  five  hundred  years  to 

Did  you  know  John  Keats  ?  They  say  that  he  was 
killed  by  a  review  of  him  in  the  Quarterly — if  he  be 

i.  See  Le  disgratie  d1  Arlecchino :  viz.  Harlequin's  Misfortunes. 
London,  1726,  Svo. 

288       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

dead,  which  I  really  don't  know.  I  don't  understand 
that  yielding  sensitiveness.  What  I  feel  (as  at  this 
present)  is  an  immense  rage  for  eight-and-forty  hours, 
and  then,  as  usual — unless  this  time  it  should  last  longer. 
I  must  get  on  horseback  to  quiet  me. 

Yours,  etc. 

Francis  I.  wrote,  after  the  battle  of  Pavia,  "All  is 
"  lost  except  our  honour." *  A  hissed  author  may  reverse 
it — "  Nothing  is  lost,  except  our  honour."  But  the  horses 
are  waiting,  and  the  paper  full.  I  wrote  last  week  to 

893. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  May  17'!*  1821. 

MY  DEAR  HOPPNER, — You  will  have  seen  a  para- 
graph in  the  Italian  papers  stating  that  "  L?  B.  had  exposed 
"  his  t[ragedy]  of  M\arino\  F\aliero\  etc.,  and  that  it  was 
"  universally  hissed."  You  will  have  also  seen  in  Galignani 
(what  is  confirmed  by  my  letters  from  London),  that  this 
is  twice  false ;  for,  in  the  first  place,  /  opposed  the  repre- 
sentation at  all,  and  in  the  next,  it  was  not  hissed,  but  is 
continued  to  be  acted,  in  spite  of  Author,  publisher,  and 
the  Lord  Chancellor's  injunction. 

I .  The  famous  note  of  Francis  I.  to  his  mother  after  the  Battle  of 
Pavia,  "  Tout  est  perdu  fors  Fhonneur"  is  not  historical.  The  real 
letter  begins  thus— 

"  MADAME, — Pour  vous  advertir  comment  se  porte  le  ressort 
"  de  mon  infortune,  de  toutes  choses  n'  m'est  demoure  que  1'  honneur 
"  et  la  vie  qui  est  saulve,  et  pour  ce  que  en  nostre  adversite  cette 
"  nouvelle  vous  fera  quelque  resconfort,  j'ay  prie  qu'on  me  laissast 
"  pour  escrire  ces  lettres,  ce  qu'on  m'a  agreablement  accorde." 

The  whole  letter  is  printed  by  Fournier,  L }  Esprit  dans  F  Histoire 
(ed.  1857,  p.  90).  Fournier  suggests  that  the  phrase  may  possibly 
be  traced  to  the  Spanish  historian,  Antonio  de  Vera,  who  translates 
the  alleged  billet :  "  Madama,  toto  se  ha  perdido  sino  es  la  honra  " 
(Viday  luchos  de  Carlos  V.,  p.  123). 

l82I.]  APPEAL  TO   THE   BRITISH    CONSUL.  289 

Now  I  wish  you  to  obtain  a  statement  of  this  short 
and  simple  truth  in  the  Venetian  and  Milan  papers,  as  a 
contradiction  to  their  former  lie.  I  say  you,  because 
your  consular  dignity  will  obtain  this  justice,  which  out  of 
their  hatred  to  me  (as  a  liberal)  they  would  not  concede 
to  an  unofficial  Individual. 

Will  you  take  this  trouble  ?  I  think  two  words  from 
you  to  those  in  power  will  do  it,  because  I  require  nothing 
but  the  statement  of  what  we  both  know  to  be  the  fact, 
and  that  a.  fact  in  no  way  political.  Am  I  presuming  too 
much  upon  your  good  nature  ? 

I  suppose  that  I  have  no  other  resource,  and  to  whom 
can  an  Englishman  apply,  in  a  case  of  ignorant  insult  like 
this  (where  no  personal  redress  is  to  be  had),  but  to  the 
person  resident  most  nearly  connected  with  his  own 
government  ? 

I  wrote  to  you  last  week,  and  am  now,  in  all  haste, 
Yours  ever  and  most  truly, 


P.S. — Humble  reverences  to  Madame.  Pray  favour 
me  with  a  line  in  answer. 

If  the  play  had  been  condemned,  the  injunction 
would  be  superfluous  against  the  continuance  of  the 

894. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  IQ1,'1  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Enclosed  is  a  letter  of  Valpy's, 
which  it  is  for  you  to  answer.  I  have  nothing  further 
to  do  with  the  mode  of  publication.  By  the  papers  of 
Thursday,  and  two  letters  from  Mr.  K'1,  I  perceive  that 
the  Italian  Gazette  had  lied  most  7/0/*Vally,  and  that  the 
drama  had  not  been  hissed,  and  that  my  friends  had 
VOL.  v.  u 

2  90       THE  PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

interfered  to  prevent  the  representation.  So  it  seems 
they  continue  to  act  it,  in  spite  of  us  all.  For  this  we 
must  "  trouble  them  at  'Size : "  let  it  by  all  means  be 
brought  to  a  plea :  I  am  determined  to  try  the  right,  and 
will  meet  the  expences.  The  reason  of  the  Lombard  lie 
was  that  the  Austrians — who  keep  up  an  Inquisition 
throughout  Italy,  and  a  list  of  names  of  all  who  think  or 
speak  of  any  thing  but  in  favour  of  their  despotism — have 
for  five  years  past  abused  me  in  every  form  in  the 
Gazette  of  Milan,  etc.  I  wrote  to  you  a  week  ago  upon 
the  subject. 

Now,  I  should  be  glad  to  know  what  compensation 
Mr.  Elliston  could  make  me,  not  only  for  dragging  my 
writings  on  the  stage  in  five  days,  but  for  being  the  cause 
that  I  was  kept  for  four  days  (from  Sunday  to  Thursday 
morning,  the  only  post  days)  in  the  belief  that  the  tragedy 
had  been  acted  and  "unanimously  hissed;"  and  this 
with  the  addition  that  "  /  had  brought  it  upon  the  stage," 
and  consequently  that  none  of  my  friends  had  attended 
to  my  request  to  the  contrary.  Suppose  that  I  had  burst 
a  blood  vessel,  like  John  Keats,  or  blown  [out]  my  brains 
in  a  fit  of  rage, — neither  of  which  would  have  been  unlikely 
a  few  years  ago.  At  present  I  am,  luckily,  calmer  than 
I  used  to  be,  and  yet  I  would  not  pass  those  four  days 
over  again  for — I  know  not  what. 

I  wrote  to  you  to  keep  up  your  spirits,  for  reproach  is 
useless  always,  and  irritating ;  but  my  feelings  were  very 
much  hurt,  to  be  dragged  like  a  Gladiator  to  the  fate  of  a 
Gladiator  by  that  "  Retiarius"  Mr.  Elliston.  As  to  his 
defence  and  offers  of  compensation,  what  is  all  this  to  the 
purpose  ?  It  is  like  Louis  the  i4'h,  who  insisted  upon 
buying  at  any  price  Algernon  Sydney's  horse,1  and,  on 

I.  Byron  refers  to  a  discredited  anecdote  of  Sydney  and  Louis — 
"  It  is  said  that  Louis,  seeing  Sydney  mounted  on  a  splendid 

l82I.]  A   LETTER   BY   LIGHTNING-LIGHT.  291 

refusal,  on  taking  it  by  force,  Sydney  shot  his  horse.  I 
could  not  shoot  my  tragedy,  but  I  would  have  flung  it 
into  the  fire  rather  than  have  had  it  represented. 

I  have  now  written  nearly  three  acts  of  another  (in- 
tending to  complete  it  in  five),  and  am  more  anxious 
than  ever  to  be  preserved  from  such  a  breach  of  all 
literary  courtesy  and  gentlemanly  consideration. 

If  we  succeed,  well :  if  not,  previous  to  any  future 
publication,  we  will  request  a  promise  not  to  be  acted, 
which  I  would  even  pay  for  (as  money  is  their  object),  or 
I  will  not  publish — which,  however,  you  will  probably  not 
much  regret. 

The  Chancellor l  has  behaved  nobly.  You  have  also 
conducted  yourself  in  the  most  satisfactory  manner ;  and 
I  have  no  fault  to  find  with  any  body  but  the  Stage-players 
and  their  proprietor.  I  was  always  so  civil  to  Elliston 
personally,  that  he  ought  to  have  been  the  last  to  attempt 
to  injure  me. 

There  is  a  most  rattling  thunder-storm  pelting  away 
at  this  present  writing ;  so  that  I  write  neither  by  day, 
nor  by  candle,  nor  torch  light,  but  by  lightning-\igM, :  the 
flashes  are  as  brilliant  as  the  most  Gaseous  glow  of  the 
Gas-light  company.  My  chimney-board  has  just  been 
thrown  down  by  a  gust  of  wind :  I  thought  that  it  was 

'  English  thorough-bred,  was  so  enchanted  with  the  animal  that  he 
'  immediately  expressed  a  desire  to  become  its  purchaser.  Sydney 
'  declined  to  part  with  it,  whereupon  the  haughty  monarch  gave 
'orders  that  money  should  be  tendered  and  the  horse  seized. 
'  Sydney,  burning  with  indignation  and  passion,  when  this  command 
'  was  brought  to  him,  instantly  took  a  pistol  and  shot  the  magnificent 
'  steed,  saying  that  his  horse  was  born  a  free  creature,  had  served  a 
'  free  man,  and  should  not  be  mastered  by  a  king  of  slaves  "  (Ewald, 
Life  and  Times  of  Algernon  Sydney,  vol.  ii.  p.  17). 

I.  "By  the  way,"  writes  Murray  to  Byron,  March  20,  1821 
(Memoir,  vol.  i.  pp.  420,  421),  "  Hobhouse  spoke  to  Lord  Grey 
"  about  the  impropriety  of  allowing  a  play,  not  intended  for  per- 
"  formance,  to  be  acted  on  the  stage.  Earl  Grey  spoke  to  the  Lord 
"  Chancellor,  who  said  that  he  would  grant  an  injunction." 

292       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

the  "  bold  Thunder  "  and  "  brisk  Lightning  "  in  person — 
three  of  us  would  be  too  many.  There  it  goes—flas/i 
again !  but, 

I  tax  not  you,  ye  elements,  with  unkindness ; 
I  never  gave  yefran&s,  nor  called  upon  you ; * 

as  I  have  done  by  and  upon  Mr.  Elliston. 

Why  do  not  you  write?  You  should  have  at  least 
sent  me  a  line  of  particulars :  I  know  nothing  yet  but  by 
Galignani  and  the  honourable  Douglas. 

Hobhouse  has  been  paying  back  Mr.  Canning's  assault.2 

1.  "I  tax  not  you,  ye  elements,  with  unkindness, 

I  never  gave  you  kingdom,  call'd  you  children, 
You  owe  me  no  subscription  ;  why  then  let  fall 
Your  horrible  pleasure." 

King  Lear,  act  iii.  sc.  2. 

2.  In  the  House  of  Commons,  April  17,  1821,  Mr.  Lambton, 
seconded  by  Mr.  S.  C.  Whitbread,  proposed  "That  this  House  do 
"  resolve  itself  into  a  Committee  of  the  whole  House  to  consider  the 
"state  of  the  representation  of  the  people  in  Parliament."    The 
motion  was  supported  by  Hobhouse,  who,  in  meeting  the  objection 
that  the  House  would  be  inundated  by  demagogues,  said,  as  reported 
in  the  Traveller,  April  18,  1821 — 

" .  .  .  If,  however,  the  demagogue  is  but  six  months  in  finding 
"  his  level,  in  shrinking  to  his  proper  dimensions,  there  is  a  descrip- 
"  tion  of  persons  that  do  not  in  six  months,  no,  nor  in  thirty  years, 
"  find  their  level,  and  sink  to  their  proper  dimensions  here.  These 
"  are  the  regular  adventurers,  the  downright  trading  politicians.  The 
"  House  will  easily  suggest  to  itself  the  sort  of  which  I  allude ; 
"  but  to  prevent  mistakes,  I  would  presume  to  attempt  a  portrait, 
"  not  finished,  but  not  exaggerated.  A  smart  sixth-form  boy,  the 
"  little  hero  of  a  little  world,  matures  his  precocious  parts  at  college, 
"  and  sends  before  him  his  fame  to  the  metropolis  ;  a  Minister,  or 
"  some  Borough-holder  of  the  day  thinks  him  worth  saving  from  his 
"  democratic  associates,  and  from  the  unprofitable  principles  which 
".the  thoughtless  enthusiasm  of  youth  may  have  inclined  him  hitherto 
"  to  adopt.  The  hopeful  youth  yields  at  once;  and,  placed  in  the 
"true  line  of  promotion,  he  takes  his  beat  with  the  more  veteran 
"  prostitutes  of  Parliament.  There  he  rounds  his  periods  ;  there  he 
"balances  his  antitheses;  there  he  adjusts  his  alliterations;  and, 
"  plastering  up  the  interstices  of  his  piebald  patchwork  rhetoric  with 
"froth  and  foam — this  master  of  pompous  nothings  becomes  first 
"  favourite  of  the  great  Council  of  the  Nation.  His  very  want  of 
"  sincerity  and  virtue  qualifies  him  for  a  corrupted  audience,  who 

l82I.]  HOBHOUSE   ON    CANNING.  293 

He  was  right;  for  Canning  had  been,  like  Addison, 
trying  to  "  cuff  down  new-fledged  merit" l  Hobhouse  has 
in  him  "  something  dangerous  "  2  if  not  let  alone. 

Well,  and  how  does  our  Pope  Controversy  go  on,  and 

'  look  upon  his  parts  as  an  excuse  for  their  degeneracy,  and  regard 
'  him,  not  only  as  the  partner,  but  as  the  apologist  of  their  common 
'  degradation.  Such  a  man  may  have  notoriously  spurned  at  every 
'  principle  of  public  morality  and  public  honour  ;  he  may  have  by 
'  turns  insulted,  derided,  betrayed,  and  crouched  to  every  party,  or 
'  at  least  every  politician,  in  the  State.  Sometimes  he  may  have 
1  shown  all  the  arrogance  of  success,  at  other  times  have  dis- 
'  played  the  true  tameness  of  an  underling,  and  have  submitted  to 
'  serve  under  those  in  public  whom  he  has  conspired  in  private  to 
1  ruin  and  destroy.  Yet  this  man — with 

"  '  Beauty  that  shocks  you,  parts  that  none  can  trust, 
Wit  that  can  creep,  and  pride  that  licks  the  dust,' — 

'  this  man,  I  say,  shall  be  courted  and  caressed  in  Parliament,  and 
'  he  shall  never  be  so  much  admired,  never  so  much  applauded,  as 
'  when  playing  off  his  buffoonery  at  the  expense  of  public  virtue — as 
'  when  depreciating  the  understandings  or  mocking  the  sufferings  of 
'  the  people.  Such  a  man  does  not  find  his  level  ;  he  does  not 
'  shrink  to  his  proper  dimensions  in  the  unreformed  House  ;  on  the 
4  contrary,  he  is  the  true  House  of  Commons  hero.  Despised  and 
'  detected  as  he  may  be  without  doors,  he  finds  a  shelter  in  the 
'  bosom  of  the  Senate  :  sunk  as  he  may  be  in  public  opinion,  he 
'  there  attains  to  an  eminence  which  raises  him  for  the  time  above 
'  the  scorn  of  his  fellow-countrymen.  True,  his  fame  is  not  lasting, 
'  but  for  the  moment  he  is  the  glory  and  the  shame  of  Parliament  : 
'  no  one  equals  him  on  that  stage. 

"  ( Him,  thus  exalted,  for  a  wit  we  own, 
And  court  him  as  top-fiddle  of  the  town.' 

'  Such  a  man,  I  say,  sir,  would  have  no  place  in  a  reformed  Parlia- 
'  ment ;  and  if  he  be  either  useful  or  ornamental  in  a  deliberative 
'  assembly,  it  is  for  him  that  should  be  reserved  that  nest  of 
'  boroughs  which  it  has  been  proposed  to  keep  solely  for  the 
'  demagogues.  Talents  without  character  would  be  banished  from 
'  such  an  assembly,  and  the  honest  discharge  of  a  sacred  trust  would 
'  be  the  first,  instead  of  the  last,  requisite  of  a  public  man." 

1.  Byron  probably  alludes  to  Venice  Preserved,  act  ii.  sc.  2 — 

"...  those  baleful  unclean  birds, 
Those  lazy  owls,  who,  perch'd  near  fortune's  top, 
Sit  only  watchful  with  their  heavy  wings 
To  cuff  down  new-fledg'd  virtues,  that  would  rise 
To  nobler  heights,  and  make  the  grove  harmonious." 

2.  Hamlet,  act  v.  sc.  i. 

294       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

the  pamphlet  ?    It  is  impossible  to  write  any  news :  the 
Austrian  scoundrels  rummage  all  letters. 


P.S. — I  could  have  sent  you  a  good  deal  of  Gossip 
and  some  real  information,  were  it  not  that  all  letters  pass 
through  the  Barbarians'  inspection,  and  I  have  no  wish 
to  inform  them  of  any  thing  but  my  utter  abhorrence 
of  them  and  theirs.  They  have  only  conquered  by 
treachery,  however. 

Send  me  some  Soda-powders,  some  of  "  Acton's  Corn- 
"  rubbers,"  and  W.  Scott's  romances.  And  do  pray 
write  :  when  there  is  anything  to  interest,  you  are  always 

895. — To  Madame  Guiccioli.1 


Ecco  la  verita  di  cib  che  io  vi  dissi  pochi  giorni  fa, 
come  vengo  sacrificato  in  tutte  le  maniere  senza  sapere  il 

I.  Of  this  extract  Moore  (Life,  p.  510)  gives  the  following  trans- 
lation, prefaced  by  Countess  Guiccioli's  account  of  Byron's  anxiety 
on  the  occasion  : — 

"His  quiet  was,  in  spite  of  himself,  often  disturbed  by  public 
'  events,  and  by  the  attacks  which,  principally  in  his  character  of 
'  author,  the  journals  levelled  at  him.  In  vain  did  he  protest  that 
'  he  was  indifferent  to  these  attacks.  The  impression  was,  it  is 
'  true,  but  momentary  ;  and  he,  from  a  feeling  of  noble  pride,  but 
'  too  much  disdained  to  reply  to  his  detractors.  But,  however  brief 
'  his  annoyance  was,  it  was  sufficiently  acute  to  occasion  him  much 
'  pain,  and  to  afflict  those  who  loved  him.  Every  occurrence  rela- 
'  live  to  the  bringing  Marino  Faliero  on  the  stage  caused  him 
'  excessive  inquietude.  On  the  occasion  of  an  article  in  the  Milan 
'  Gazette,  in  which  mention  was  made  of  this  affair,  he  wrote  to  me 
'  in  the  following  manner  : — '  You  will  see  here  confirmation  of  what 
'  I  told  you  the  other  day  !  I  am  sacrificed  in  every  way,  without 
'  knowing  the  why  or  the  wherefore.  The  tragedy  in  question  is  not 
'  (nor  ever  was)  written  for,  or  adapted  to,  the  stage  ;  nevertheless, 
'  the  plan  is  not  romantic  ;  it  is  rather  regular  than  otherwise  ; — in 

1 82 1.]  SUSCEPTIBILITY.  2  95 

perche  e  il  come.  La  tragedia  di  cui  si  parla  non  e  (e 
non  era  mai)  ne  scritta  nb  adatta  al  teatro ;  ma  non  e 
perb  romantico  il  disegno,  e  piuttosto  regolare — regolaris- 
simo  per  1*  unitk  del  tempo,  e  mancando  poco  a  quella 
del  sito.  Voi  sapete  bene  se  io  aveva  intenzione  di  farla 
rappresentare,  poiche  era  scritta  al  vostro  fianco  e  nei 
momenti  per  certo  piu  tragici  per  me  come  uomo  che 
come  autore, — perche  voi  eravate  in  affanno  ed  in  pericolo. 
Intanto  sento  dalla  vostra  Gazetta  che  sia  nata  una  cabala, 
un  partito,  e  senza  ch'  io  vi  abbia  presa  la  minima  parte. 
Si  dice  che  Tautore  ne  fece  la  kttnra  !  !  ! — qu\  forse  ?  a 
Ravenna?— ed  a  chi?  forse  a  Fletcher!!!  quel  illustre 
litterato,  etc.,  etc. 

896. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  May  20,  1821. 

Since  I  wrote  to  you  last  week  I  have  received 
English  letters  and  papers,  by  which  I  perceive  that  what 
I  took  for  an  Italian  truth  is,  after  all,  a  French  lie  of  the 
Gazette  de  France.  It  contains  two  ultra-falsehoods  in  as 
many  lines.  In  the  first  place,  Lord  B.  did  not  bring 
forward  his  play,  but  opposed  the  same ;  and,  secondly, 
it  was  not  condemned,  but  is  continued  to  be  acted,  in 
despite  of  publisher,  author,  Lord  Chancellor,  and  (for 
aught  I  know  to  the  contrary)  of  audience,  up  to  the  first 
of  May,  at  least — the  latest  date  of  my  letters.  You  will 

'  point  of  unity  of  time,  indeed,  perfectly  regular,  and  failing  but 
'  slightly  in  unity  of  place.  You  well  know  whether  it  was  ever  my 
'  intention  to  have  it  acted,  since  it  was  written  at  your  side,  and  at 
'  a  period  assuredly  rather  more  tragical  to  me  as  a  man  than  as  an 
'  author ;  {Q\  you  were  in  affliction  and  peril.  In  the  mean  time,  I 
'  learn  from  your  Gazette  that  a  cabal  and  party  has  been  formed, 
'  while  I  myself  have  never  taken  the  slightest  step  in  the  business. 
'  It  is  said  that  the  author  read  it  aloud  I !  ! — here,  probably,  at 
'  Ravenna  ? — and  to  whom  ?  perhaps  to  Fletcher  !  !  ! — that  illustrious 
'  literary  character,"  etc.,  etc. 


oblige  me,  then,  by  causing  Mr.  Gazette  of  France  to 
contradict  himself,  which,  I  suppose,  he  is  used  to.  I 
never  answer  a  foreign  criticism  ;  but  this  is  a  mere  matter 
of  fact,  and  not  of  opinions,  I  presume  that  you  have 
English  and  French  interest  enough  to  do  this  for  me — 
though,  to  be  sure,  as  it  is  nothing  but  the  truth  which 
we  wish  to  state,  the  insertion  may  be  more  difficult. 

As  I  have  written  to  you  often  lately  at  some  length, 
I  won't  bore  you  further  now,  than  by  begging  you  to 
comply  with  my  request;  and  I  presume  the  esprit  du 
corps  (is  it  " du"  or  "de"?  for  this  is  more  than  I  know) 
will  sufficiently  urge  you,  as  one  of  " ours"  to  set  this 
affair  in  its  real  aspect.  Believe  me  always  yours  ever 
and  most  affectionately, 


897. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  May  25,  1821. 

I  am  very  much  pleased  with  what  you  say  of  Switzer- 
land, and  will  ponder  upon  it.  I  would  rather  she 
married  there  than  here  for  that  matter.  For  fortune,  I 
shall  make  all  that  I  can  spare  (if  I  live  and  she  is  correct 
in  her  conduct) ;  and  if  I  die  before  she  is  settled,  I  have 
left  her  by  will  five  thousand  pounds,  which  is  a  fair 
provision  out  of  England  for  a  natural  child.  I  shall 
increase  it  all  I  can,  if  circumstances  permit  me ;  but,  of 
course  (like  all  other  human  things),  this  is  very  uncertain. 

You  will  oblige  me  very  much  by  interfering  to  have 
the  FACTS  of  the  play-acting  stated,  as  these  scoundrels 
appear  to  be  organising  a  system  of  abuse  against  me, 
because  I  am  in  their  "list"  I  care  nothing  for  their 
criticism,  but  the  matter  of  fact.  I  have  written  four  acts 
of  another  tragedy,  so  you  see  they  can't  bully  me. 

l82I.]  THE   CHIEF   OF   THE   LIBERALS.  297 

You  know,  I  suppose,  that  they  actually  keep  a  list  of 
all  individuals  in  Italy  who  dislike  them — it  must  be 
numerous.  Their  suspicions  and  actual  alarms,  about 
my  conduct  and  presumed  intentions  in  the  late  row,  were 
truly  ludicrous — though,  not  to  bore  you,  I  touched  upon 
them  lightly.  They  believed,  and  still  believe  here,  or 
affect  to  believe  it,  that  the  whole  plan  and  project  of 
rising  was  settled  by  me,  and  the  means  furnished,  etc., 
etc.  All  this  was  more  fomented  by  the  barbarian  agents, 
who  are  numerous  here  (one  of  them  was  stabbed  yester- 
day, by  the  way,  but  not  dangerously) : — and  although 
when  the  Commandant  was  shot  here  before  my  door  in 
December,  I  took  him  into  my  house,  where  he  had 
every  assistance,  till  he  died  on  Fletcher's  bed;  and 
although  not  one  of  them  dared  to  receive  him  into  their 
houses  but  myself,  they  leaving  him  to  perish  in  the  night 
in  the  streets,  they  put  up  a  paper  about  three  months 
ago,  denouncing  me  as  the  Chief  of  the  Liberals,  and 
stirring  up  persons  to  assassinate  me.  But  this  shall 
never  silence  nor  bully  my  opinions.  All  this  came  from 
the  German  Barbarians. 

898.— To  John  Murray. 

R?  Mayas11?  1821. 

MR.  MORAY, — Since  I  wrote  the  enclosed  a  week 
ago,  and  for  some  weeks  before,  I  have  not  had  a  line 
from  you.  Now  I  should  be  glad  to  know  upon  what 
principle  of  common  or  /^common  feeling,  you  leave  me 
without  any  information  but  what  I  derive  from  garbled 
gazettes  in  English,  and  abusive  ones  in  Italian  (the 
Germans  hating  me  as  a  Coal-heaver 1),  while  all  this  kick 
up  has  been  going  on  about  the  play?  You  SHABBY 

I .  I.e.  a  carbonaro. 


fellow ! ! !  Were  it  not  for  two  letters  from  Douglas 
Kinnaird,  I  should  have  been  as  ignorant  as  you  are 

I  send  you  an  Elegy  as  follows : — 

Behold  the  blessings  of  a  lucky  lot ! 
My  play  is  damned,  and  Lady  Noel  not. 

So,  I  hear  Bowles  has  been  abusing  Hobhouse : l  if 

I.  Hobhouse  contributed  to  the  first  edition  of  English  Bards, 
and  Scotch  Reviewers  (Poems,  vol.  i.  p.  327,  note  I,  and  Appendix 
III.  of  this  volume)  some  couplets  on  Bowles.  These  couplets 
were  afterwards  exchanged  for  Byron's  own  lines,  thus  quoted  by  the 
Quarterly  reviewer  in  his  article  on  Spence's  Anecdotes  of  Books 
and  Men  (Quarterly  Review  for  July,  1820,  p.  425) — 

"  If  Pope,  whose  fame  and  genius  from  the  first 

Have  foil'd  the  best  of  critics,  needs  the  worst, 

Do  thou  essay — 

Let  all  the  scandal  of  a  former  age 

Perch  on  thy  pen,  and  flutter  o'er  thy  page  ; 

Affect  a  candour  which  thou  canst  not  feel, 

Clothe  envy  in  the  garb  of  honest  zeal ; 

Write  as  if  St.  John's  soul  could  still  inspire, 

And  do  from  hate  what  Mallet  did  for  hire." 

In  the  second  of  his  Two  Letters  to  the  Right  Honourable  Lord 
Byron  (1821),  pp.  103,  104,  Bowles,  referring  to  the  attack  on  him- 
self in  English  Bards  and  Scotch  Reviewers,  says,   "The  task  of 
'bestowing  the  'heaviest*  and  heartiest  lashes,  I  find  devolved  on 
'your   friend   the  gallant   and   puissant  Knight   of  Westminster. 
'  Can  I,  then,  pass  over  entirely  this  your  coadjutor,  now  my  lance 
'  is  in  its  rest  ?    I  do  not  know  whether  Hobhouse  or  your  Lordship 
'wrote  the  lines  quoted  in  the  Quarterly.     If  Hobhouse  did  not 
'  write  these,  I  find  he  wrote  others  more  severe,  and  therefore  I 
'  take  them  as  they  stand."    He  then  quotes  the  lines  given  above, 
and  adapts  them  thus — 

"  If  snow-white  innocence,  that  from  the  first 

Has  foil'd  the  best  defenders,  need  the  worst, 

Hobhouse,  essay — 

Let  all  the  pertness  of  palav'ring  prose 

Froth  on  thy  lips,  and  perch  upon  thy  nose  ; 

Affect  a  virtue  that  thou  can'st  not  feel ; 

Clothe  faction  in  the  garb  of  patriot  zeal ; 

Against  King,  Commons,  Lords, — and  Canning, — bray 

And  do  for  HATE  what  Santerre  did  for  pay  !  " 

To  this  Hobhouse  replied  with  the  following  lines,  quoted  in  the 
Memoir  of  John  Murray  (vol.  i.  p.  421) — 

1 82 1.]  FOUR   ACTS   OF   SARDANAPALUS.  299 

that's  the  case,  he  has  broken  the  truce,  like  Morillo's 
successor,  and  I  will  cut  him  out,  as  Cochrane  did  the 

Since  I  wrote  the  enclosed  packet,  I  have  completed 
(but  not  copied  out)  four  acts  of  a  new  tragedy.  When  I 
have  finished  the  fifth,  I  will  copy  it  out.  It  is  on  the 
subject  of  Sardanapalus?  the  last  king  of  the  Assyrians. 
The  words  Queen  and  pavilion  occur,  but  it  is  not  an 
allusion  to  his  Britannic  Majesty,  as  you  may  tremulously 
(for  the  admiralty  custom)  imagine.  This  you  will  one 
day  see  (if  I  finish  it),  as  I  have  made  Sardanapalus  brave ^ 
(though  voluptuous,  as  history  represents  him,)  and  also 
as  amiable  as  my  poor  powers  could  render  him.  So  that 
it  could  neither  be  truth  nor  satire  on  any  living  monarch. 
I  have  strictly  preserved  all  the  unities  hitherto,  and  mean 
to  continue  them  in  the  fifth,  if  possible ;  but  not  for  the 
Stage,  Yours,  in  haste  and  hatred,  you  scrubby  corre- 
spondent ! 


"  Should  Parson  Bowles  yourself  or  friend  compare 
To  some  French  cut-throat,  if  you  please,  Santerre — 
Or  heap,  malignant,  on  your  living  head 
The  smut  and  trash  he  pour'd  on  Pope  when  dead, 
Say  what  reply — or  how  with  him  to  deal — 
Sot  without  shame  and  fool  that  cannot  feel  ? 
You  would  not  parley  with  a  printers'  hack — 
You  cannot  cane  him,  for  his  coat  is  black  ; 
Reproof  and  chastisement  are  idly  spent 
On  one  who  calls  a  kick  a  compliment. 
Unwhipp'd,  then,  leave  him  to  lampoon  and  lie 
Safe  in  his  parson's  guise  and  infamy." 

1.  Lord  Cochrane,  who,  in  1817,  had  undertaken  the  command 
and  organization  of  the  Chilian  navy,  cut  out  the  Spanish  frigate 
Esmeralda,  which  was  lying  under  the  batteries  of  Callao,  on  the 
night  of  November  5,  1820. 

2.  Between  May  and  September  10,  1821,  Byron  sent  to  Murray 
the  three  dramas  of  Sardanapahts,   The  Two  Foscari,  and    Cain. 
They  were  published  together  in  December,  1821,  Murray  paying 
for  them  £2  710. 

300       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

899. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  May  28'?*  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — Since  my  last  of  the  2  6th  or  25th,  I 
have  dashed  off  my  fifth  act  of  the  tragedy  called  Sarda- 
napalus.  But  now  comes  the  copying  over,  which  may 
prove  heavy  work — heavy  to  the  writer  as  to  the  reader. 
I  have  written  to  you  at  least  6  times  sans  answer,  which 
proves  you  to  be  a — bookseller.  I  pray  you  to  send  me 
a  copy  of  Mr.  "  WranghanHs  "  reformation  of  "LanghornJs 
"  Plutarch : J "  I  have  the  Greek,  which  is  somewhat  small 
of  print,  and  the  Italian,  which  is  too  heavy  in  style,  and 
as  false  as  a  Neapolitan  patriot  proclamation.  I  pray 
you  also  to  send  me  a  life,  published  some  years  ago,  of 
the  Magician  Apollormis  of  T[yana],  etc.,  etc.2  It  is  in 
English,  and  I  think  edited  or  written  by  what  "  Martin 
"  Marprelate  "  calls  "  a  bouncing  priest"  I  shall  trouble 
you  no  further  with  this  sheet  than  y?  postage. 

Yours,  etc., 

P.S. — Since  I  wrote  this,  I  determined  to  inclose  it 
(as  a  half  sheet)  to  Mr.  K.,  who  will  have  the  goodness 
to  forward  it.  Besides,  it  saves  sealing  wax. 

900. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra  May  30".'  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — You  say  you  have  written  often :  I 
have  only  received  yours  of  the  eleventh,  which  is  very 

1.  The   Rev.  John  Langhorne's   translation   of  Plutarch's  Lives 
(1770)  was  edited  by  the  Rev.  Francis  Wrangham  in  1810. 

2.  The  Life  of  Apollonius  of  Tyana,  of  whom   Gibbon  wrote 
(Decline  and  Fall,  eel.  1854,  vol.  ii.  p.  22,  note),  "  We  are  at  a  loss  to 
"discover  whether  he  was  a  sage,  an  impostor,  or  a  fanatic,"  was 
translated  into  English,  from  the  Greek  of  Philostratus,  by  Charles 
Blount  in  1680,  and  by  the  Rev.  Edward  Berwick  in  1810. 

1 82 1.]  SARDANAPALUS   FINISHED.  30! 

short.  By  this  post,  mfive  packets,  I  send  you  the  tragedy 
of  Sardanapalus,  which  is  written  in  a  rough  hand :  perhaps 
Mrs.  Leigh  can  help  you  to  decypher  it.  You  will  please 
to  acknowledge  it  by  return  of  post.  You  will  remark 
that  the  Unities  are  all  strictly  observed.  The  Scene 
passes  in  the  same  Hall  always.  The  time,  a  Summer's 
night,  about  nine  hours,  or  less,  though  it  begins  before 
Sunset  and  ends  after  Sunrise.  In  the  third  act,  when 
Sardanapalus  calls  for  a  mirror  to  look  at  himself  in  his 
armour,  recollect  to  quote  the  Latin  passage  from  Juvenal 
upon  Otho  (a  similar  character,  who  did  the  same  thing) : 
Gifford  will  help  you  to  it.1  The  trait  is  perhaps  too 
familiar,  but  it  is  historical  (of  Otho,  at  least,)  and  natural 
in  an  effeminate  character. 

Preface,  etc.,  etc.,  will  be  sent  when  I  know  of  the 
arrival.  For  the  historical  account,  I  refer  you  to  Dio- 
dorus  Siculus,  from  which  you  must  have  the  chapters  of 
the  Story  translated,  as  an  explanation  and  a  note  to  the 

You  write  so  seldom  and  so  shortly,  that  you  can 
hardly  expect  from  me  more  than  I  receive. 

Yours  truly,  etc. 

P.S. — Remember  me  to  Gifford,  and  say  that  I  doubt 
that  this  MSS.  will  puzzle  him  to  decypher  it.  The 
Characters  are  quite  different  from  any  I  have  hitherto 
attempted  to  delineate. 

1.  The  quotation  was  not  apparently  made  in  the  early  edition 
(1821).     It  is  from  Juvenal,  Sat.  ii.  lines  99-103 — 

"Ille  tenet  speculum,  pathici  gestamen  Othonis, 
Actoris  Aurunci  spolium,  quo  se  ille  videbat 
Armatum,  cum  jam  tolli  vexilla  juberet. 
Res  memoranda  novis  annalibus,  atque  recenti 
Historia,  speculum  civilis  sarcina  belli." 

2.  Instead  of  the  chapters  from  Diodorus  Siculus,  the  explanatory 
note  gives  a  quotation  from  Mitford's  History  of  Greece,  vol.   ix. 
PP-  3JI-3I3- 

302       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

You  must  have  it  copied  out  directly,  as  you  best  can, 
and  printed  off  in  proofs  (more  than  one),  as  I  have 
retained  no  copy  in  my  hands. 

With  regard  to  the  publication,  I  can  only  protest  as 
heretofore  against  its  being  acted,  it  being  expressly 
written  not  for  the  theatre. 

901. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  May  31,  1821. 

I  enclose  you  another  letter,  which  will  only  confirm 
what  I  have  said  to  you. 

About  Allegra — I  will  take  some  decisive  step  in  the 
course  of  the  year ;  at  present,  she  is  so  happy  where  she 
is,  that  perhaps  she  had  better  have  her  alphabet  imparted 
in  her  convent. 

What  you  say  of  the  Dante  is  the  first  I  have  heard 
of  it — all  seeming  to  be  merged  in  the  row  about  the 
tragedy.  Continue  it ! — Alas  !  what  could  Dante  himself 
now  prophesy  about  Italy  ?  I  am  glad  you  like  it,  how- 
ever, but  doubt  that  you  will  be  singular  in  your  opinion. 
My  new  tragedy  is  completed. 

The  B[enzoni]  is  right,1 — I  ought  to  have  mentioned 
her  humour  and  amiability,  but  I  thought  at  her  sixty, 
beauty  would  be  most  agreeable  or  least  likely.  How- 
ever, it  shall  be  rectified  in  a  new  edition;  and  if  any 
of  the  parties  have  either  looks  or  qualities  which  they 
wish  to  be  noticed,  let  me  have  a  minute  of  them.  I 

I.  This  refers  to  the  following  passage  in  Note  V.  appended  to 
Marino  Faliero:  "From  the  present  decay  and  degeneracy  of 
'  Venice  under  the  Barbarians,  there  are  some  honourable  individual 
'  exceptions.  .  .  .  There  is  Alvise  Querini,  who,  after  a  long  and 
'  honourable  diplomatic  career,  finds  some  consolation  for  the 
'  wrongs  of  his  country,  in  the  pursuits  of  literature  with  his  nephew, 
'  Vittor  Benzon,  the  son  of  the  celebrated  beauty,  the  heroine  of 
' '  La  Biondina  in  Gondoletta,'  etc." 

1 82 1.]  ELEGY   ON    LADY   NOEL'S   RECOVERY.  303 

have  no  private  nor  personal  dislike  to  Venice,  rather  the 
contrary :  but  I  merely  speak  of  what  is  the  subject  of  all 
remarks  and  all  writers  upon  her  present  state.  Let  me 
hear  from  you  before  you  start. 

Believe  me  ever,  etc. 

P.S. — Did  you  receive  two  letters  of  Douglas  Kin- 
naird's  in  an  endorse  from  me?  Remember  me  to 
Mengaldo,  Seranzo,  and  all  who  care  that  I  should 
remember  them.  The  letter  alluded  to  in  the  enclosed, 
"  to  the  Cardinal"  was  in  answer  to  some  queries  of  the 
government,  about  a  poor  devil  of  a  Neapolitan,  arrested 
at  Sinigaglia  on  suspicion,  who  came  to  beg  of  me  here ; 
being  without  breeches,  and  consequently  without  pockets 
for  halfpence,  I  relieved  and  forwarded  him  to  his  country, 
and  they  arrested  him  at  Pesaro  on  suspicion,  and  have 
since  interrogated  me  (civilly  and  politely,  however,)  about 
him.  I  sent  them  the  poor  man's  petition,  and  such  in- 
formation as  I  had  about  him,  which  I  trust  will  get  him 
out  again,  that  is  to  say,  if  they  give  him  a  fair  hearing. 

I  am  content  with  the  article.  Pray,  did  you  receive, 
some  posts  ago,  Moore's  lines  which  I  enclosed  to  you, 
written  at  Paris  ?  l 

902. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  June  4,  1821. 

You  have  not  written  lately,  as  is  the  usual  custom 
with  literary  gentlemen,  to  console  their  friends  with  their 
observations  in  cases  of  magnitude.  I  do  not  know 
whether  I  sent  you  my  "  Elegy  on  the  recovery  of  Lady 
"  Noel :  "— 

I.  Probably  the  "Lines  written   on  hearing  that  the  Austrians 
"  had  entered  Naples,"  with  the  motto  "  Carbons  Notati !  " 

304       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

Behold  the  blessings  of  a  lucky  lot — 
My  play  is  damn'd,  and  Lady  Noel  not. 

The  papers  (and  perhaps  your  letters)  will  have  put 
you  in  possession  of  Muster  Elliston's  dramatic  behaviour. 
It  is  to  be  presumed  that  the  play  was  fitted  for  the  stage 
by  Mr.  Dibdin,  who  is  the  tailor  upon  such  occasions, 
and  will  have  taken  measure  with  his  usual  accuracy.  I 
hear  that  it  is  still  continued  to  be  performed — a  piece  of 
obstinacy  for  which  it  is  some  consolation  to  think  that 
the  discourteous  histrio  will  be  out  of  pocket. 

You  will  be  surprised  to  hear  that  I  have  finished 
another  tragedy  in  five  acts,  observing  all  the  unities 
strictly.  It  is  called  Sardanapalus,  and  was  sent  by  last 
post  to  England.  It  is  not  for  the  stage,  any  more  than 
the  other  was  intended  for  it — and  I  shall  take  better  care 
this  time  that  they  don't  get  hold  on't. 

I  have  also  sent,  two  months  ago,  a  further  letter  on 
Bowles,  etc. ;  but  he  seems  to  be  so  taken  up  with  my 
"  respect "  (as  he  calls  it)  towards  him  in  the  former  case, 
that  I  am  not  sure  that  it  will  be  published,  being  some- 
what too  full  of  "  pastime  and  prodigality."  I  learn  from 
some  private  letters  of  Bowles's,  that  you  were  "the 
"  gentleman  in  asterisks."  Who  would  have  dreamed  it  ? 
you  see  what  mischief  that  clergyman  has  done  by  print- 
ing notes  without  names.  How  the  deuce  was  I  to 
suppose  that  the  first  four  asterisks  meant  "Campbell" 
and  not  '•'•Pope"  and  that  the  blank  signature  meant 
Thomas  Moore  ? x  You  see  what  comes  of  being  familiar 

I.  "In  their  eagerness,  like  true  controversialists,  to  avail  them- 
'  selves  of  every  passing  advantage,  and  convert  even  straws  into 
'  weapons  on  an  emergency,  my  two  friends,  during  their  short  war- 
'  fare,  contrived  to  place  me  in  that  sort  of  embarrassing  position, 
'  the  most  provoking  feature  of  which  is,  that  it  excites  more  amuse- 
'  ment  than  sympathy.  On  the  one  side,  Mr.  Bowles  chose  to  cite, 
'  as  a  support  to  his  argument,  a  short  fragment  of  a  note,  addressed 
''to  him,  as  he  stated,  by  '  a  gentleman  of  the  highest  literary,'  etc., 

1 82 1.]  THE   GENTLEMAN    IN   ASTERISKS.  305 

with  parsons.  His  answers  have  not  yet  reached  me>  but 
I  understand  from  Hobhouse,  that  he  (H.)  is  attacked  in 
them.  If  that  be  the  case,  Bowles  has  broken  the  truce, 
(which  he  himself  proclaimed,  by  the  way,)  and  I  must 
have  at  him  again. 

Did  you  receive  my  letters  with  the  two  or  three 
concluding  sheets  of  Memoranda  ? 

There  are  no  news  here  to  interest  much.  A  German 
spy  (boasting  himself  such)  was  stabbed  last  week,  but  not 

'etc.,  and  saying,  in  reference  to  Mr.  Bowles's  former  pamphlet, 
' '  You  have  hit  the  right  nail  on  the  head,  and  *  *  *  *  too.' 
'  This  short  scrap  was  signed  with  four  asterisks  ;  and  when,  on  the 
'  appearance  of  Mr.  Bowles's  Letter,  I  met  with  it  in  his  pages,  not 
'  the  slightest  suspicion  ever  crossed  my  mind  that  I  had  been  myself 
'  the  writer  of  it ; — my  communications  with  my  reverend  friend  and 
'  neighbour  having  been  (for  years,  I  am  proud  to  say)  sufficiently 
'  frequent  to  allow  of  such  a  hasty  compliment  to  his  disputative 
'powers  passing  from  my  memory.  When  Lord  Byron  took  the 
'  field  against  Mr.  Bowles's  Letter,  this  unlucky  scrap,  so  authorita- 
'  lively  brought  forward,  was,  of  course,  too  tempting  a  mark  for 
'  his  facetiousness  to  be  resisted  ;  more  especially  as  the  person 
'mentioned  in  it,  as  having  suffered  from  the  reverend  critic's 
'  vigour,  appeared,  from  the  number  of  asterisks  employed  in  de- 
'  signaling  him,  to  have  been  Pope  himself,  though,  in  reality,  the 
'  name  was  that  of  Mr.  Bowles's  former  antagonist,  Mr.  Campbell. 
'  The  noble  assailant,  it  is  needless  to  say,  made  the  most  of  this 
'  vulnerable  point ;  and  few  readers  could  have  been  more  diverted 
'  than  I  was  with  his  happy  ridicule  of  '  the  gentleman  in  asterisks,' 
'  little  thinking  that  I  was  myself,  all  the  while,  this  veiled  victim, 
'  — nor  was  it  till  about  the  time  of  the  receipt  of  the  above  letter, 
'  that,  by  some  communication  on  the  subject  from  a  friend  in 
'  England,  I  was  startled  into  the  recollection  of  my  own  share  in 
'  the  transaction. 

"  While  by  one  friend  I  was  thus  unconsciously,  if  not  innocently, 
"drawn  into  the  scrape,  the  other  was  not  slow  in  rendering  me  the 
"same  friendly  service; — for,  on  the  appearance  of  Lord  Byron's 
"  answer  to  Mr.  Bowles,  I  had  the  mortification  of  finding  that, 
"  with  a  far  less  pardonable  want  of  reserve,  he  had  all  but  named 
"me  as  his  authority  for  an  anecdote  of  his  reverend  opponent's 
"early  days,  which  I  had,  in  the  course  of  an  after-dinner  con  versa  - 
"  tion,  told  him  at  Venice,  and  which, — pleasant  in  itself,  and, 
"whether  true  or  false,  harmless, — derived  its  sole  sting  from  the 
"manner  in  which  the  noble  disputant  triumphantly  applied  it. 
"  Such  are  the  consequences  of  one's  near  and  dear  friends  taking  to 
"  controversy." — Moore. 

VOL.  V.  X 


mortally.  The  moment  I  heard  that  he  went  about 
bullying  and  boasting,  it  was  easy  for  me,  or  any  one 
else,  to  foretell  what  would  occur  to  him,  which  I  did, 
and  it  came  to  pass  in  two  days  after.  He  has  got  off, 
however,  for  a  slight  incision. 

A  row  the  other  night,  about  a  lady  of  the  place, 
between  her  various  lovers,  occasioned  a  midnight  dis- 
charge of  pistols,  but  nobody  wounded.  Great  scandal, 
however — planted  by  her  lover — to  be  thrashed  by  her 
husband,  for  inconstancy  to  her  regular  Servente,  who  is 
coming  home  post  about  it,  and  she  herself  retired  in 
confusion  into  the  country,  although  it  is  the  acme  of  the 
opera  season.  All  the  women  furious  against  her  (she 
herself  having  been  censorious)  for  being  found  out.  She 
is  a  pretty  woman — a  Countess  Rasponi — a  fine  old 
Visigoth  name,  or  Ostrogoth. 

The  Greeks!1  what  think  you?    They  are  my  old 

I.  The  Greek  Revolution  broke  out  in  the  provinces  of  Moldavia 
and  Wallachia,  under  the  leadership  of  Alexander  Hypsilantes 
(1782-1828),  son  of  the  Hospodar  of  Wallachia,  whose  deposition 
(1805-6)  served  Russia  as  an  excuse  for  war  with  Turkey  (Finlay, 
History  of  the  Greek  Revolution,  ed.  1877,  vol.  vi.  p.  no).  He  was 
selected  as  leader  of  the  movement  by  the  Philike  Hetairia,  a  secret 
society,  founded  at  Odessa  in  1814,  which  helped  to  prepare  the  Greek 
Revolution.  He  had  served  in  the  Russian  army,  become  a  major- 
general,  and  lost  his  right  arm  at  the  battle  of  Culm  (1813).  But  in 
spite  of  military  experience,  he  proved  himself  an  incapable  leader, 
irresolute,  vain,  treacherous,  untrustworthy.  Crossing  the  Pruth 
(February  22)  March  6,  1821,  he  established  himself  at  Jassy,  whence 
he  issued  a  proclamation,  March  7,  calling  the  Greeks  "to  arms  for 
"  our  country  and  our  religion,"  and  boasting  of  Russian  support. 
(See  the  proclamation,  dated  February  23  (March  7)  from  Jassy,  trans- 
lated in  the  Traveller  for  April  13,  1821.)  At  Bucharest,  which  he 
reached  April  9,  he  remained  inactive,  distrusted  by  local  leaders, 
and  publicly  repudiated  by  the  Emperor  Alexander.  As  the  Turkish 
forces  advanced,  he  crept  back  towards  the  Austrian  frontier.  When 
news  of  his  defeat  at  Dragashan  (June  20)  reached  him,  nine  miles 
in  the  rear  of  his  army,  he  escaped  (June  26)  into  Austrian  territory, 
where  he  was  treated  as  a  Russian  deserter,  and  imprisoned  at 
Mongatz  till  1827.  He  died  at  Vienna,  January  31,  1828. 

In  the  Morea,  where  the  rising  broke  out  towards  the  end  of 

1 82 1.]  THE   GREEK   REVOLUTION.  307 

acquaintances — but  what  to  think  I  know  not.     Let  us 
hope  howsomever. 


903. — To  Giovanni  Battista  Missiaglia. 

June  12,  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — Tell  Count  V.  Benzone  (with  my  respects 
to  him  and  to  his  Mother)  that  I  have  received  his  books 
— and  that  I  shall  write  to  thank  him  in  a  few  days. 

Murray  sends  me  books  of  travels — I  do  not  know 
why;  for  I  have  travelled  enough  myself  to  know  that 
such  books  VtefitBqfBet. 

If  you  come  here  you  will  find  me  very  glad  to  see 
you,  and  very  ready  to  dispute  with  you. 

Yours  ever, 


March,  1821,  the  Greeks  were  more  successful.  On  April  5,  at 
Kalamata,  a  solemn  service  of  the  Greek  Church  was  held  as  a 
thanksgiving  for  victories,  and,  four  days  later  (April  9),  an  appeal 
was  issued  to  Christendom  to  aid  the  Greek  Christians  against  the 
Mussulman.  Spreading  northwards,  the  whole  country  south  of 
Thermopylae,  by  June,  1821,  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Greeks,  whose 
fleet,  under  Miaoulis  and  Kanaris,  swept  the  seas.  But  patriotic 
efforts  were  too  often  defeated  by  the  rivalries  of  leaders  like 
Germanos,  Primate  of  Patras,  Demetrius  Hypsilantes  (1793-1832), 
younger  brother  of  Alexander,  who  claimed  to  be  viceroy,  popular 
leaders  like  Kolokotrones,  or  politicians  like  Alexander  Mavrocor- 
datos  (1791-1865),  the  statesman  of  the  movement,  who  had  been 
Mary  Shelley's  Greek  teacher  at  Pisa.  (For  a  description  of  Mavro- 
cordatos,  see  Millingen's  Memoirs  of  the  Affairs  of  Greece,  pp.  65,  66.) 
A  government  and  constitution  were  needed.  A  National  Assembly, 
summoned  at  Tripolitza,  and  removed  to  Piada,  near  Epidaurus, 
met  in  December,  1821,  and  framed  a  constitution,  which  was  pro- 
claimed January  13,  1822,  the  New  Year's  day  of  Eastern  Christians. 
It  consisted  of  a  Legislative  Assembly,  and  an  executive  body  of  five 
members,  presided  over  by  Mavrocordatos,  with  the  title  of  President 
of  Greece.  (For  Byron's  share  in  the  subsequent  history  of  the 
movement,  see  Letters,  vol.  vi.) 

308       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

904. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  June  14"?  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  have  resumed  my  "majestic 
march  "  (as  Gifford  is  pleased  to  call  it)  in  Sardanapalus, 
which  by  the  favour  of  Providence  and  the  Post  Office 
should  be  arrived  by  this  time,  if  not  interrupted.  It  was 
sent  on  the  2"d  June,  12  days  ago. 

Let  me  know,  because  I  had  but  that  one  copy. 

Can  your  printers  make  out  the  MS.?  I  suppose 
long  acquaintance  with  my  scrawl  may  help  them ;  if  not, 
ask  Mrs.  Leigh,  or  Hobhouse,  or  D.  K. :  they  know  my 

The  whole  five  acts  were  sent  in  one  cover,  ensured 
to  England,  paying  forty  five  scudi  here  for  the  insurance. 

I  received  some  of  your  parcels :  the  Doge  is  longer 
than  I  expected:  pray,  why  did  you  print  the  face  of 
M[argarita]  C[ogni]  by  way  of  frontispiece?  It  has 
almost  caused  a  row  between  the  Countess  G.  and  myself. 
And  pray,  why  did  you  add  the  note  about  the  Kelso 
woman's  Sketches  ?  Did  I  not  request  you  to  omit  it,  the 
instant  I  was  aware  that  the  writer  was  a  female  ? 

The  whole  volume  looks  very  respectable,  and  suffi- 
ciently dear  in  price,  but  you  do  not  tell  me  whether  it 
succeeds :  your  first  letter  (before  the  performance)  said 
that  it  was  succeeding  far  beyond  all  anticipation;  but 
this  was  before  the  piracy  of  Elliston,  which  (for  anything 
I  know,  as  I  have  had  no  news — your  letter  with  papers 
not  coming)  may  have  affected  the  circulation. 

I  have  read  Bowles's  answer :  I  could  easily  reply, 
but  it  would  lead  to  a  long  discussion,  in  the  course  of 
which  I  should  perhaps  lose  my  temper,  which  I  would 
rather  not  do  with  so  civil  and  forbearing  an  antagonist. 
I  suppose  he  will  mistake  being  silent  for  silenced. 

1 82 1.]  A   NEW   JOURNAL   OF   TR^VOUX.  309 

I  wish  to  know  when  you  publish  the  remaining  things 
in  MS.  ?  I  do  not  mean  theflrose,  but  the  verse. 

I  am  truly  sorry  to  hear  of  your  domestic  loss ;  but  (as 
I  know  by  experience),  all  attempts  at  condolence  in  such 
cases  are  merely  varieties  of  solemn  impertinence.  There 
is  nothing  in  this  world  but  Time. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 

P.S. — You  have  never  answered  me  about  Holmes •, 
the  Miniature  painter :  can  he  come  or  no  ?  I  want  him 
to  paint  the  miniatures  of  my  daughter  and  two  other 

In  the  i?  pamphlet  it  is  printed  "  a  Mr.  J.  S." :  it 
should  be  "  Mr.  J.  S.,"  and  not  "  a"  which  is  con- 
temptuous ;  it  is  a  printer's  error  and  was  not  thus 

905. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  June  22,  1821. 

Your  dwarf  of  a  letter  came  yesterday.  That  is 
right ; — keep  to  your  magnum  opus — magnoperate  away. 
Now,  if  we  were  but  together  a  little  to  combine  our 
Journal  of  Trevoux  !  *  But  it  is  useless  to  sigh,  and  yet 
very  natural, — for  I  think  you  and  I  draw  better  together, 
in  the  social  line,  than  any  two  other  living  authors. 

I  forgot  to  ask  you,  if  you  had  seen  your  own  pane- 
gyric in  the  correspondence  of  Mrs.  Waterhouse  and 

I.  At  Trevoux,  on  the  Saone  in  the  Department  of  Ain,  the  Jesuits 
founded  the  literary  journal,  Mtmoires  de  Trevoux,  which  began  to 
appear  in  1701.  By  the  same  printing-press,  established  in  1695 
by  Louis  Aug.  de  Bourbon,  Prince  de  Dombes,  was  printed  the 
Dictionnaire  de  Trevoux,  the  first  edition  of  which,  in  three  folio 
volumes,  appeared  in  1704. 

310       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

Colonel  Berkeley  ?  l  To  be  sure  their  moral  is  not  quite 
exact ;  but  your  passion  is  fully  effective ;  and  all  poetry 
of  the  Asiatic  kind — I  mean  Asiatic,  as  the  Romans 
called  "  Asiatic  oratory,"  and  not  because  the  scenery  is 
Oriental — must  be  tried  by  that  test  only.  I  am  not 
quite  sure  that  I  shall  allow  the  Miss  Byrons  (legitimate 
or  illegitimate)  to  read  Lalla  Rookh — in  the  first  place, 
on  account  of  this  said  passion  ;  and,  in  the  second,  that 
they  may'nt  discover  that  there  was  a  better  poet  than 

You  say  nothing  of  politics — but,  alas  !  what  can  be 

The  world  is  a  bundle  of  hay, 
Mankind  are  the  asses  who  pull, 

Each  tugs  it  a  different  way, — 

And  the  greatest  of  all  is  John  Bull ! 

How  do  you  call  your  new  project?8  I  have  sent 
Murray  a  new  tragedy,  ycleped  Sardanapalus,  writ 
according  to  Aristotle — all,  save  the  chorus — I  could  not 
reconcile  me  to  that.  I  have  begun  another,  and  am  in 
the  second  act ; — so  you  see  I  saunter  on  as  usual. 

Bowles's  answers  have  reached  me;  but  I  can't  go 
on  disputing  for  ever, — particularly  in  a  polite  manner. 
I  suppose  he  will  take  being  silent  for  silenced.  He  has 
been  so  civil  that  I  can't  find  it  in  my  liver  to  be  facetious 
with  him, — else  I  had  a  savage  joke  or  two  at  his  service. 

I  can't  send  you  the  little  journal,  because  it  is  in 

1.  The  case  of  Waterhouse  v.  Berkeley  was  tried  at  Gloucester 
Assizes  in  April,  1821.     It  was  an  action  for  damages  brought  by 
John  Waterhouse  for  the  seduction  of  his  wife  by  Colonel  Berkeley. 
The  jury  returned  a  verdict  for  the  plaintiff,  to  whom  they  awarded 
;£iooo  damages. 

2.  The  "  project  "  was  probably  Alciphron,  which  Moore  planned 
in  July,  1820,  rewrote  in  prose  as  The  Epicurean  (1827),  and  did 
not  publish  till  1839. 


boards,  and  I  can't  trust  it  per  post.  Don't  suppose  it 
is  any  thing  particular ;  but  it  will  show  the  intentions  of 
the  natives  at  that  time — and  one  or  two  other  things, 
chiefly  personal,  like  the  former  one. 

So,  Longman  don't  bite. — It  was  my  wish  to  have 
made  that  work  of  use.  Could  you  not  raise  a  sum  upon 
it  (however  small),  reserving  the  power  of  redeeming  it, 
on  repayment  ? 

Are  you  in  Paris,  or  a  villaging?  If  you  are  in  the 
city,  you  will  never  resist  the  Anglo-invasion  you  speak 
of.  I  do  not  see  an  Englishman  in  half  a  year,  and, 
when  I  do,  I  turn  my  horse's  head  the  other  way.  The 
fact,  which  you  will  find  in  the  last  note  to  the  Doge,  has 
given  me  a  good  excuse  for  quite  dropping  the  least 
connection  with  travellers.1 

I  do  not  recollect  the  speech  you  speak  of,  but 
suspect  it  is  not  the  Doge's,  but  one  of  Israel  Bertuccio 
to  Calendaro.  I  hope  you  think  that  Elliston  behaved 
shamefully — it  is  my  only  consolation.  I  made  the 
Milanese  fellows  contradict  their  lie,  which  they  did  with 

the  grace  of  people  used  to  it. 

Yours,  etc., 

906. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  June  29".'  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — From  the  last  parcel  of  books,  the 
two  first  volumes  of  Butler's  Catholics  2  are  missing.  As 

1.  "  The  fact  is,"  says  Byron,  in  the  note  to  Marino  Faliero  here 
referred  to,  "  that  I  hold  in  utter  abhorrence  any  contact  with  the 

'  travelling  English.  ...  I  was  persecuted  by  these  tourists  even  to 
'  my  riding  ground  at  Lido,  and  reduced  to  the  most  disagreeable 
'  circuits  to  avoid  them.  At  Madame  Benzoni's  I  repeatedly  refused 
'  to  be  introduced  to  them  ; — of  a  thousand  such  presentations  pressed 
'upon  me,  I  accepted  two,  and  both  were  to  Irish  women,"  etc., 

2.  Charles  Butler  (1750-1832),  after  practising  as  a  conveyancer, 

312       THE   PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

the  book  is  '•'•from  the  author,"  in  thanking  him  for  me, 
mention  this  circumstance.  Waldegrave  and  Walpole  are 
not  arrived ;  Scott's  novels  all  safe. 

By  the  time  you  receive  this  letter,  the  Coronation l 
will  be  over,  and  you  will  be  able  to  think  of  business. 
Long  before  this  you  ought  to  have  received  the  MSS.  of 
Sardanapalus.  It  was  sent  on  the  2?  Inst.  By  the  way, 
you  must  permit  me  to  choose  my  own  seasons  of  pub- 
lication. All  that  you  have  a  right  to  on  such  occasions 
is  the  mere  matter  of  barter :  if  you  think  you  are  likely 
to  lose  by  such  or  such  a  time  of  printing,  you  will  have 
full  allowance  made  for  it,  on  statement.  It  is  now  two 
years  nearly  that  MSS.  of  mine  have  been  in  your  hands 

was  called  to  the  Bar  in  1791,  the  first  Roman  Catholic  admitted  to 
the  profession  since  1688.  As  a  real  property  lawyer,  he  held  a 
high  position,  and  had  frequently  advised  on  Byron's  behalf.  His 
Historical  Memoirs  respecting  tlie  English,  Irish,  and  Scottish 
Catholics  from  the  Reformation  to  the  Present  Time  (4  vols.)  was 
published  in  1819-21. 

I.  The  Coronation  of  George  IV.  was  originally  fixed  for  August  I, 
1820.  But,  owing  to  the  proceedings  against  the  Queen,  the  cere- 
mony did  not  take  place  till  July  19,  1821.  On  the  night  before, 
the  King  slept  at  the  Speaker's  house.  Seats  to  view  the  procession 
sold  from  one  guinea  to  twenty  guineas  ;  stages  rose  as  high  as 
the  chimneys  of  adjoining  houses ;  and  sight-seers  began  to  be  in 
their  places  by  one  o'clock  in  the  morning.  Westminster  Abbey 
was  opened  at  4  a.m.  The  procession  passed  out  of  Westminster 
Hall  at  10.25,  headed  by  the  King's  herb-woman  and  her  six 
maids,  strewing  the  way  with  herbs.  It  proceeded  along  a  raised 
platform  from  the  north  door  of  Westminster  Hall  to  the  west  door 
of  the  Abbey,  the  King  walking  "  in  the  Royal  Robes,  wearing  a  Cap 
"of  Estate  adorned  with  jewels,  under  a  Canopy  of  Cloth  of  Gold 
"  borne  by  sixteen  Barons  of  the  Cinque  Ports."  The  service  ended  at 
four  o'clock,  the  King  looking  "  like  one  expiring  when  he  returned 
"from  the  Abbey  to  the  Hall"  (Letters  of  Joseph  Jekyll,  p.  115). 
After  the  service  in  the  Abbey  the  banquet,  with  its  attendant  cere- 
monies, was  held  in  Westminster  Hall.  A  brig  of  war,  lying  off 
Norfolk  Street,  Strand,  "  armed  with  guns  of  the  heaviest  calibre," 
fired  the  salutes.  An  air-balloon  in  the  Green  Park,  a  boat  race  in 
Hyde  Park,  fireworks,  and  illuminations  in  the  street,  provided 
amusements  for  the  sight-seers. 

The  enormous  expenses  of  the  Coronation,  which  was  modelled  on 
that  of  James  II.,  caused  an  outcry  in  and  out  of  Parliament.  The 
new  crown  was  said  to  have  cost  £54,coo,  and  the  robes  ,£24,000. 

1 82 1.]  SUCCESS   OR   FAILURE?  313 

in  statu  quo.  Whatever  I  may  have  thought  (and,  not 
being  on  the  spot,  nor  having  any  exact  means  of  ascer- 
taining the  thermometer  of  success  or  failure,  I  have 
had  no  determinate  opinion  upon  the  subject),  I  have 
allowed  you  to  go  on  in  your  own  way,  and  acquiesced 
in  all  your  arrangements  hitherto. 

I  pray  you  to  forward  the  proofs  of  Sardanapalus  as 
soon  as  you  can,  and  let  me  know  if  it  be  deemed  press- 
and  print-worthy.  I  am  quite  ignorant  how  far  the 
Doge  did  or  did  not  succeed :  your  first  letters  seemed  to 
say  yes — your  last  say  nothing.  My  own  immediate 
friends  are  naturally  partial :  one  review  (Blackwood's) 
speaks  highly  of  it,1  another  pamphlet  calls  it  "  a  failure." 
It  is  proper  that  you  should  apprize  me  of  this,  because 
I  am  in  the  third  act  of  a  third  drama ;  and  if  I  have 
nothing  to  expect  but  coldness  from  the  public  and  hesi- 
tation from  yourself,  it  were  better  to  break  off  in  time. 
I  had  proposed  to  myself  to  go  on,  as  far  as  my  Mind 
would  carry  me,  and  I  have  thought  of  plenty  of  subjects. 
But  if  I  am  trying  an  impracticable  experiment,  it  is 
better  to  say  so  at  once. 

So  Canning  and  Burdett  have  been  quarrelling : 2  if  I 

1.  In  Blackwood's  Magazine  for  April,   1821  (pp.  93-103),  the 
reviewer  praises  the  play  vigorously  :  "  Without  question,  no  such 
"  tragedy  as  this  of  Marino  Faliero  has  appeared  in  English  since 
"  the  day  when  Otway  also  was  inspired  to  his  masterpiece  by  the 
"  interests  of  a  Venetian  story  and  a  Venetian  conspiracy."     On 
the  other  hand,  the  Literary  Gazette  for  April  28,  1821,  speaks  of 
the  play  as  "a  drawling  story,  stagnating  through  five  boggy  acts, 
"with  hardly  here  and  there  an  ignis  fatuus  or  Jack-o-Lanthern  to 
"relieve  the  level  and  dismal  monotony." 

2.  On  May  2,  1807,  Burdett  fought  a  duel  with  James  Paull  over 
the  candidature  for  Westminster,   and  was  wounded  in  the  thigh. 
On  September  21,  1809,  Canning  fought  Lord  Castlereagh,  and  was 
wounded  in  the  thigh.     But  on  the  occasion  to  which  Byron  alludes, 
no  duel  took  place.     From  the  King's  Bench  prison,  in  the  spring  of 
1821,  Burdett  addressed  a  letter  to  a  company  of  Reformers,  who 
met  at  the  City  of  London  Tavern,  April  4,  to  eat  and  drink  in  the 
cause  of  Parliamentary  Reform.     The  letter  contained  the  following 


mistake  not,  the  last  time  of  their  single  combats,  each 
was  shot  in  the  thigh  by  his  Antagonist;  and  their 
Correspondence  might  be  headed  thus,  by  any  wicked 

wag  :— 

Brave  Champions  !  go  on  with  the  farce ! 

Reversing  the  spot  where  you  bled ; 
Last  time  both  were  shot  in  the  * ; 

Now  (damn  you)  get  knocked  on  the  Jiead! 

I  have  not  heard  from  you  for  some  weeks ;  but  I  can 
easily  excuse  the  silence  from  it's  occasion. 

Believe  me,  yours  ever  and  truly, 


P.S. — Do  you  or  do  you  not  mean  to  print  the  MSS. 
Cantos — Pulci,  etc.  ? 

P.S.  2? — To  save  you  the  bore  of  writing  yourself, 
when  you  are  "  not  i"  the  vein,"  make  one  of  your  Clerks 
send  me  a  few  lines  to  apprize  me  of  arrivals,  etc.,  of 
MSS.,  and  matters  of  business.  I  shan't  take  it  ill; 
and  I  know  that  a  bookseller  in  large  business  must 

passage  :  "  Gentlemen,  that  Mr.  Canning — I  mention  him  as  the 
"champion  of  the  party — apart  for  the  whole — should  defend,  to 
"  the  uttermost,  a  system,  by  the  hocus  pocus  tricks  of  which  he  and 
' '  his  family  get  so  much  public  money,  can  cause  neither  me,  nor 
"  any  man,  surprise  or  anger  ; — 

"  '  For  'tis  their  duty,  all  the  learned  think, 

To  espouse  that  cause  by  which  they  eat  and  drink.' " 

As  soon  as  Burdett  was  released  from  prison,  and  Canning  re- 
turned from  the  Continent,  the  latter  demanded  (June  7,  1821)  an 
explanation  or  satisfaction.     Burdett,  in  reply  (June  8,  1821)  wrote, 
'  The  letter  in  question  is  now  before  me  ;  and  I  am  at  a  loss  for  a 
'  form  of  words  in  which  I  could  have  more  guardedly  marked  the 
'  disqualification  under  which  I  conceive  yourself  and  others  to  be 
'  from  giving  authority  to  your  opinions  on  Parliamentary  Reform, 
'  and  at  the  same  time  have  avoided  making  any  allusion  whatever 
'to  personal  character"  (The  Courier,  June  12,  1821).     With  this 
disclaimer   Canning  was  satisfied.      Lord  \V.   Bentinck   acted   for 
Canning,  and  Douglas  Kinnaird  for  Burdett. 

1 82 1.]  JOHN  BULL'S  LETTER.  315 

have  his  time  too  over-occupied  to  answer  every  body 

P.S.  3?— -I  have  just  read  "  John  Bull's  letter : " l  it  is 

I .  Byron  alludes  to  a  Letter  to  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Byron.  By  John 
Bull.  The  pamphlet  (London,  1821,  8vo.  64  pp.).  which  was  not 
by  Peacock  (see  p.  317,  note  l),  was  published  by  William  Wright, 
and  the  second  page  contains  this  announcement :  "  The  Following 
"  Letter  is  the  First  of  a  Series  to  be  continued  occasionally.  The 
"  Second  Letter  is  addressed  to  Mr.  Thomas  Campbell.  The  Third 
"is  to  His  Majesty  the  King.  And  the  Fourth  is  also  to  Lord 
"Byron."  No  copy  is  catalogued  in  the  British  Museum,  but 
one  is  to  be  found  in  the  Bodleian  Library.  The  pamphlet  is 
reviewed  in  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magazine,  vol.  ix. 

The  pamphleteer  agrees  with  Byron  that  "  cant,"  or,  as  he  prefers 

to  call  it,  "humbug,"  is  the  primum  mobile  of  the  present  age,  and 

thinks  that  Byron,  himself  the  prince  of  humbugs,  is  in  nothing  a 

greater  humbug  than  in  his  affectation  of  saying  that  he  is  not  "a 

"great  poet."    The  whole  of  Byron's  misanthropy,  again,  is,  he 

says,  humbug.     "  You  thought  it  would  be  a  fine  interesting  thing 

"for  a  handsome  young  Lord  to  depict  himself  as  a  dark-souled, 

"  melancholy,  morbid  being,  and  you  have  done  so,  it  must  be 

"  admitted,  with  exceeding  cleverness.     In  spite  of  all  your  pranks 

"  (Beppo,  etc.,  Don  Juan  included),  every  boarding-school  in  the 

'  Empire  still  contains  many  devout  believers  in  the  amazing  misery 

'of  the  black-haired,  high-browed,  blue-eyed,  bare-throated  Lord 

'  Byron.     How  melancholy  you  look  in  the  prints  ! "     "  Stick  to 

'  Don  Juan,"  he  continues  :  "it  is  the  only  sincere  thing  you  have 

'  ever  written  ;  and  it  will  live  many  years  after  all  your  humbug 

'  Harolds  have  ceased  to  be,  in  your  own  words,  '  a  schoolgirl's  tale 

'  — the  wonder  of  an  hour.' "    The  pamphleteer  compares  Don 

Juan  and    Whistlecraft :   "Mr.  Frere  writes  elegantly,  playfully, 

'  very  like  a  gentleman,  and  a  scholar,  and  a  respectable  man,  and 

1  his  poems  never  sold,  nor  ever  will  sell.     Your  Don  Juan,  again, 

'  is  written  strongly,  lasciviously,  fiercely,  laughingly — everybody 

'  sees  in  a  moment  that  nobody  could  have  written  it  but  a  man  of 

'  the  first  order,  both  in  genius  and  dissipation  ; — a  real  master  of 

'  all  his  tools — a  profligate,  pernicious,  irresistible,  charming  Devil — 

'  and,  accordingly,  the  Don  sells,  and  will  sell  to  the  end  of  time, 

'  whether  our  good  friend  Mr.  John  Murray  honours  it  with  his 

'  imprimatur,  or  doth  not  so  honour  it.  ...  I  had  really  no  idea 

'  what  a  very  clever  fellow  you  were  till  I  read  Don  Juan.     In  my 

'  humble  opinion,  there  is  very  little  in  the  literature  of  the  present 

'  day  that  will  really  stand  the  test  of  half  a  century,  except  the 

1  Scotch  novels  of  Sir  Walter  Scott  and  Don  Juan."     He  advises 

Scott  to  stick  to  Scotland,  and  Byron  to  write  in  the  key  of  Don 

Juan  on  England  of  the  day.     "  There  is  nobody  but  yourself  who 

"has  any  chance  of  conveying  to  posterity  a  true  idea  of  the  spirit 

"  of  England  in  the  days  of  His  Majesty  George  IV."   He  concludes 

31 6      THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

diabolically  well  written,  and  full  of  fun  and  ferocity.     I 
must  forgive  the  dog,  whoever  he  is.     I  suspect  three 

with  criticizing  Byron's  conduct  at  the  time  of  his  divorce,  con- 
demning it  as  an  unsuccessful  part  of  his  humbug.  "If,"  he  says, 
'  I  were  to  permit  myself  to  hazard  an  opinion  on  a  matter,  with 
'  which,  I  confess,  I  have  so  very  little  to  do,  I  should  certainly 
'  say  that  I  think  it  quite  possible  you  were  in  the  right  in  the 
'quarrel  with  Lady  Byron, — nay,  that  I  think  the  odds  are  very 
'  decidedly  in  favour  of  your  having  been  so  ;  and  that  was  the 
'  opinion,  I  remember  it  very  well,  of  by  far  the  shrewdest  person 
'  of  my  acquaintance  (I  need  not  say  woman),  at  the  time  when  the 
'story  happened.  But  this  is  nothing.  The  world  had  nothing 
'  whatever  to  do  with  a  quarrel  between  you  and  Lady  Byron,  and 
'  you  were  the  last  man  that  should  have  set  about  persuading  the 
'  world  that  the  world  had  or  could  have  anything  to  do  with  such 
'  a  quarrel.  What  does  a  respectable  English  nobleman  or  gentle- 
'  man  commonly  do,  when  his  wife  and  he  become  so  disagreeable 
'  to  each  other  that  they  must  separate  ?  Why  did  you  not  ask  of 
'  yourself  that  plain  question,  the  morning  you  found  you  and  Lady 
'  Byron  could  not  get  on  together  any  longer  ?  I  wish  you  had 
'  done  so,  and  acted  upon  it,  from  my  soul :  for  I  think  the  whole 
'  of  what  you  did  on  that  unhappy  occasion  was  in  the  very  worst 
'  possible  taste,  and  that  it  is  a  great  shame  you  have  never  been 
'  told  so  in  print — I  mean  in  a  plain,  sensible,  anti-humbug  manner 
'  — from  that  day  to  this.  What  did  the  world  care  whether  you 
"  quarrelled  with  your  wife  or  not? — at  least,  what  business  had  you 
1  to  suppose  that  the  world  cared  a  single  farthing  about  any  such 
'  affair  ?  It  is  surely  a  very  good  thing  to  be  a  clever  poet :  but 
'  it  is  a  much  more  essential  thing  to  be  a  gentleman ;  and  why, 
'  then,  did  you,  who  are  both  a  gentleman  and  a  nobleman,  act 
'  upon  this,  the  most  delicate  occasion,  in  all  probability,  your  life 
"  was  ever  to  present,  as  if  you  had  been  neither  a  nobleman  nor  a 
'  gentleman,  but  some  mere  overweeningly  conceited  poet  ?  To 
'  quarrel  with  your  wife  overnight,  and  communicate  all  your 
'  quarrel  to  the  public  the  next  morning,  in  a  sentimental  copy  of 
'  verses  !  To  affect  utter  broken-heartedness,  and  yet  be  snatching 
'  the  happy  occasion  to  make  another  good  bargain  with  Mr.  John 
'  Murray  !  To  solicit  the  compassion  of  your  private  friends  for  a 
'most  lugubrious  calamity,  and  to  solicit  the  consolation  of  the 
'  public,  in  the  shape  of  five  shillings  sterling  per  head — or,  perhaps, 
'  I  should  rather  say,  per  bottom  !  To  pretend  dismay  and  despair, 
'  and  get  up  for  the  nonce  a  clear  pamphlet  !  O,  my  Lord,  I  have 
'  heard  of  mean  fellows  making  money  of  their  wives  (more  particu- 
larly in  the  army  of  a  certain  noble  duke),  but  I  never  heard  even 
"  of  a  commissary  seeking  to  make  money  of  his  wife  in  a  meaner 
"manner  than  this  of  yours  !  And  then  consider,  for  a  moment, 
' '  what  beastliness  it  was  of  you  to  introduce  her  Ladyship  in  Don 
"  yuan — indeed,  if  I  be  not  much  mistaken,  you  have  said  things 
' '  in  that  part  of  the  poem  for  which,  were  I  her  brother,  I  should 

1 82 1.]  THOMAS   LOVE   PEACOCK.  317 

people  :  one  is  Hobhouse,  the  other  Mr.  Peacock l  (a  very 
clever  fellow),  and  lastly  Israeli ;  there  are  parts  very  like 
Israeli,  and  he  has  a  present  grudge  with  Bowles  and 
Southey,  etc.  There  is  something  too  of  the  author  of 
the  Sketch-book  2  in  the  Style.  Find  him  out. 

The  packet  or  letter  addressed  under  cov*  to  Mr.  H. 
has  never  arrived,  and  never  will.  You  should  address 
directly  to  me  here^  and  by  the  post. 

"  be  very  well  entitled  to  pull  your  nose, — which  (don't  alarm 
' '  yourself)  I  have  not  at  present  the  smallest  inclination  or  intention 
"to  do,"  etc.,  etc. 

1.  Thomas  Love  Peacock  (1785-1866),  poet,  novelist,  friend  and 
at  one  time  pensioner  of  Shelley,  had,  in  1819,  obtained  an  appoint- 
ment in  the  East  India  House.     He  had  already  satirized  Byron, 
without  the  good  humour  with  which,  in  other  instances,  his  powers 
were  relieved.      In  Nightmare  Abbey   (1818)    Byron    appears   as 
"Mr.  Cypress;"  and  in  the  same  novel  Jane  Clairmont  probably 
appears,   though  the  lover  of  "Stella"   is  not   "Cypress,"   but 
"  Scythrop."     Peacock  had  also  dedicated  to  Byron  his  Sir  Proteus 
(see  Letters,  vol.  iii.  p.  89,  note  2),  if,  indeed,  he  was  really  the 
author  of  that  very  inferior  poem.    Byron  told  Shelley  his  suspicions 
about  the  pamphlet.   Writing  to  Peacock  from  Ravenna,  in  August, 
1821,  Shelley  says  (Prose  Works  of  Shelley,  ed.  H.  Buxton  Forman, 
vol.  iv.  p.  222),  "  Lord  B.  thinks  you  wrote  a  pamphlet  signed  John 

'  Bull ;  he  says  he  knew  it  by  the  style  resembling  Melincourt,  of 
'  which  he  is  a  great  admirer."  Melincourt  was  published  in  1817. 
To  the  quoted  passage  Peacock  adds  the  following  note  :  "  Most 
'  probably  Shelley's  partiality  for  me  and  my  book  put  too  favour- 
'  able  a  construction  on  what  Lord  Byron  may  have  said.  Lord 
'  Byron  told  Captain  Medwin  that  a  friend  of  Shelley's  had  written 
'  a  novel,  of  which  he  had  forgotten  the  name,  founded  on  his  bear. 
'  He  described  it  sufficiently  to  identify  it,  and  Captain  Medwin 
'  supplied  the  title  in  a  note  :  but  assuredly,  when  I  condensed  Lord 
'  Monboddo's  views  of  the  humanity  of  the  Oran  Outang  into  the 
'  character  of  Sir  Oran  Haul-ton,  I  thought  neither  of  Lord  Byron's 
'  bear  nor  of  Caligula's  horse.  But  Lord  Byron  was  much  in  the 
'  habit  of  fancying  that  all  the  world  was  spinning  on  his  pivot. 
'  As  to  the  pamphlet  signed  'John  Bull,'  I  certainly  did  not  write  it. 
'  I  never  even  saw  it,  and  do  not  know  what  it  was  about."  Byron 

may  have  liked  Melincourt  for  the  vigorous  fashion  in  which  Peacock 

assails  Southey  in  that  novel. 

2.  Washington  Irving. 


907. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  July  5,  1821. 

How  could  you  suppose  that  I  ever  would  allow  any 
thing  that  could  be  said  on  your  account  to  weigh  with 
mel  I  only  regret  that  Bowles  had  not  said  that  you 
were  the  writer  of  that  note,  until  afterwards,  when  out 
he  comes  with  it,  in  a  private  letter  to  Murray,  which 
Murray  sends  to  me.  D — n  the  controversy  ! 

"  D— n  Twizzle, 
D— n  the  bell, 

And  d — n  the  fool  who  rung  it — Well  ! 
From  all  such  plagues  I'll  quickly  be  delivered."  ' 

I  have  had  a  friend  of  your  Mr.  Irving's — a  very 
pretty  lad — a  Mr.  Coolidge,2  of  Boston — only  somewhat 
too  full  of  poesy  and  "  entusymusy."  I  was  very  civil  to 
him  during  his  few  hours'  stay,  and  talked  with  him  much 
of  Irving,  whose  writings  are  my  delight.  But  I  suspect 
that  he  did  not  take  quite  so  much  to  me,  from  his  having 
expected  to  meet  a  misanthropical  gentleman,  in  wolf- 
skin breeches,  and  answering  in  fierce  monosyllables, 
instead  of  a  man  of  this  world.  I  can  never  get  people 
to  understand  that  poetry  is  the  expression  of  excited 
passion,  and  that  there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  life  of  passion 
any  more  than  a  continuous  earthquake,  or  an  eternal 
fever.  Besides,  who  would  ever  shave  themselves  in  such 
a  state  ? 

I   have   had  a  curious  letter  to-day  from  a  girl  in 

1.  Byron  quotes  from  "The  Elder  Brother"  in  Broad  Grins,  by 
George  Colman  the  Younger  (1811) — 

"  Which  Shove  repeated  warmly,  tho'  he  shiver'd  : — 
'  Damn  Twizzle's  house  !  and  damn  the  Bell ! 
And  damn  the  fool  who  rang  it ! — Well, 
From  all  such  plagues  I'll  quickly  be  delivered.'  " 

2.  See  Detached  Thoughts,  p.  421,  (25). 

l82I.]  A   GRATIFYING  TRIBUTE.  319 

England  (I  never  saw  her),  who  says  she  is  given  over 
of  a  decline,  but  could  not  go  out  of  the  world  without 
thanking  me  for  the  delight  which  my  poesy  for  several 
years,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.  It  is  signed  simply  N.  N.  A.  and  has 
not  a  word  of  "cant"  or  preachment  in  it  upon  any 
opinions.  She  merely  says  that  she  is  dying,  and  that  as 
I  had  contributed  so  highly  to  her  existing  pleasure, 
she  thought  that  she  might  say  so,  begging  me  to  burn 
her  letter — which,  by  the  way,  I  can  not  do,  as  I  look 
upon  such  a  letter  in  -such  circumstances  as  better  than 
a  diploma  from  Gottingen.  I  once  had  a  letter  from 
Drontheim  in  Norway1  (but  not  from  a  dying  woman), 
in  verse,  on  the  same  score  of  gratulation.  These  are 
the  things  which  make  one  at  times  believe  one's  self  a 
poet.  But  if  I  must  believe  that  *  *  *  *  *,  and  such 
fellows,  are  poets  also,  it  is  better  to  be  out  of  the  corps. 
I  am  now  in  the  fifth  act  of  Foscari,  being  the  third 
tragedy  in  twelve  months,  besides  proses  ;  so  you  perceive 
that  I  am  not  at  all  idle.  And  are  you,  too,  busy  ?  I 
doubt  that  your  life  at  Paris  draws  too  much  upon  your 
time,  which  is  a  pity.  Can't  you  divide  your  day,  so  as 
to  combine  both?  I  have  had  plenty  of  all  sorts  of 
worldly  business  on  my  hands  last  year,  and  yet  it  is  not 
so  difficult  to  give  a  few  hours  to  the  Muses.  This 

sentence  is  so  like  *  *  *  *  that 

Ever,  etc. 

If  we  were  together,  I  should  publish  both  my  plays 
(periodically)  in  our  joint  journal.  It  should  be  our  plan 
to  publish  all  our  best  things  in  that  way. 

I.  See  Detached  Thoughts,  p.  425,  (34). 

320       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

908. — To  John  Murray. 

R»  July  6'*  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — In  agreement  with  a  wish  expressed  by 
Mr.  Hobhouse,  it  is  my  determination  to  omit  the  Stanza 
upon  the  horse  of  Semiramis  in  the  fifth  Canto  of  Don 
Juan.1  I  mention  this  in  case  you  are,  or  intend  to  be, 
the  publisher  of  the  remaining  Cantos. 

By  yesterday's  post,  I  ought  in  point  of  time,  to  have 
had  an  acknowledgement  of  the  arrival  of  the  MSS.  of 
Sardanapahis.  If  it  has  arrived,  and  you  have  delayed 
the  few  lines  necessary  for  this,  I  can  only  say  that  you 
are  keeping  two  people  in  hot  water — the  postmaster 
here,  because  the  packet  was  insured,  and  myself,  because 
I  had  but  that  one  copy. 

I  am  in  the  fifth  act  of  a  play  on  the  subject  of  the 
Foscaris,  father  and  son :  Foscolo  can  tell  you  their 


I  am,  yours,  etc., 

P.S. — At  the  particular  request  of  the  Contessa  G.  I 
have  promised  not  to  continue  Don  Juan,'2'  You  will 

1.  Don  yuan,  Canto  V.  stanzas  lx.,  Ixi. 

2.  The  following  is  the  note  from  the  Countess  Guiccioli : — 
"CuoR  MIO, — Che  fai  del  tuo  dolore?    Fammelo  sapere  per 

1  Lega,  perche  mi  da  molta  pena.     Papa  e  Pierino  sono  partiti  die 
'  sara  un'ora,  e  non  torneranno  che  Lunedl. 

"  Ricordati,  mio  Byron,  della  promessa  che  m'hai  fatta.  Non 
'  potrei  mai  dirti  la  soddisfazione  ch'io  ne  provo  !  Sono  tanti  i 
'  sentimenti  di  piacere  e  di  confidenza  che  il  tuo  sacrificio  m'inspira  ! 
'  Perche  mai  le  parole  esprimano  cosl  poco  quello  che  passa  dentro 
'  del  1'anima  !  Se  tu  potessi  vedere  pienamente  lo  stato  della  mia 
'  da  jersera  in  qua  sono  certa  che  saresti  in  qualche  modo  ricompen- 
'  sato  del  tuo  sacrificio  ! 

"  Ti  bacio,  mio  Byron,  1000  volte, 

"  La  tua  amantissima  in  eterno, 


"  P.S. — Mi  reveresce  solo  D.  Giovanni  non  resti  all'  Inferno." 

1821.]  DON  JUAN  TO   BE   DISCONTINUED.  321 

therefore  look  upon  these  3  cantos  as  the  last  of  that  poem. 
She  had  read  the  two  first  in  the  French  translation,  and 
never  ceased  beseeching  me  to  write  no  more  of  it.  The 
reason  of  this  is  not  at  first  obvious  to  a  superficial 
observer  of  FOREIGN  manners;  but  it  arises  from  the 
wish  of  all  women  to  exalt  the  sentiment  of  the  passions, 
and  to  keep  up  the  illusion  which  is  their  empire.  Now 
Don  Juan  strips  off  this  illusion,  and  laughs  at  that  and 
most  other  things.  I  never  knew  a  woman  who  did  not 
protect  Rousseau,  nor  one  who  did  not  dislike  de  Gram- 
mont,  Gil  Bias,  and  all  the  comedy  of  the  passions,  when 
brought  out  naturally.  But  "King's  blood  must  keep 
"  word,"  as  Serjeant  Bothwell  says.1 

Write,  you  Scamp ! 

Your  parcel  of  extracts  never  came  and  never  will : 
you  should  have  sent  it  by  the  post ;  but  you  are  growing 
a  sad  fellow,  and  some  fine  day  we  shall  have  to  dissolve 

Send  some  Soda  powders. 

909. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  July  7t.h  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — Enclosed  are  two  letters  from  two  of 
your  professional  brethren.  By  one  of  them  you  will  per- 
ceive that,  if  you  are  disposed  to  "  buy  justice"  it  is  to  be 
sold  (no  doubt  as  "  Stationary  ")  at  his  Shop. 

Thank  him  in  my  name  for  his  good  will,  however, 

On  the  back  of  the  note  Byron  has  written  as  follows  : — 

"July  4*!'  1821. 

"This  is  the  note  of  acknowledgment  for  the  promise  not  to 
"  continue  D.  J.  She  says  in  the  P.S.  that  she  is  only  sorry  that 
"  D.  J.  does  not  remain  in  Hell,  (or  go  there).  The  dolore  in  the 
"  first  sentence  refers  merely  to  a  bilious  attack  which  I  had  some 
"  days  ago,  and  of  which  I  got  better." 

I.   Old  Mortality,  chap.  vi. 

VOL.  V.  Y 

322       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

and  good  offices ;  and  say  that  I  can't  afford  to  "  purchase 
"  justice,"  as  it  is  by  far  the  dearest  article  in  these  very 
dear  times. 

Yours  ever, 

910. — To  John  Murray. 

R?  July  9'!'  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — The  enclosed  packet  came  quite  open,  so 
I  suppose  it  is  no  breach  of  confidence  to  send  it  back 
to  you,  who  must  have  seen  it  before.  Return  it  to  the 
Address,  explaining  in  what  state  I  received  it. 

What  is  all  this  about  Mitylem 1  (where  I  never  was 
in  my  life),  "  Manuscript  Criticism  on  the  Manchester 
"  business "  (which  I  never  wrote),  "  Day  and  Martin's 
"patent  blacking,"  and  a  "young  lady  who  offered,  etc.," 
of  whom  I  never  heard.  Are  the  people  mad,  or  merely 
drunken  ? 

I  have  at  length  received  your  packet,  and  have 
nearly  completed  the  tragedy  on  the  Foscaris. 

Believe  me,  yours  very  truly, 


911. — To  John  Murray. 

July  14*,  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — According  to  your  wish,  I  have  expedited 
by  this  post  two  packets  addressed  to  J.  Barrow,  Esqr?, 
Admiralty,  etc.  The  one  contains  the  returned  proofs, 
with  such  corrections  as  time  permits,  of  Sardanapahis . 
The  other  contains  the  tragedy  of  The  Two  Foscari  in 

I.  Probably  a  revival  of  the  "Extract  of  a  Letter,  containing 
"  an  account  of  Lord  Byron's  residence  in  the  Island  of  Mitylene," 
\vhich  was  printed  with  The  Vampyre,  a  Tale  (1819). 

l82I.]  THE   TWO  FOSCARl.  323 

five  acts,  the  argument  of  which  Foscolo  or  Hobhouse 
can  explain  to  you ;  or  you  will  find  it  at  length  in  P. 
Daru's  history  of  Venice :  also,  more  briefly,  in  Sismondi's 
/.  jR.  An  outline  of  it  is  in  the  Pleasures  of  Memory 1 
also.  The  name  is  a  dactyl,  "  Foscari."  Have  the 
goodness  to  write  by  return  of  Post,  which  is  essential. 

I  trust  that  Sardanapalus  will  not  be  mistaken  for  a 
political  play,  which  was  so  far  from  my  intention,  that  I 
thought  of  nothing  but  Asiatic  history.  The  Venetian 
play,  too,  is  rigidly  historical.  My  object  has  been  to 
dramatize,  like  the  Greeks  (a  modest  phrase !),  striking 
passages  of  history,  as  they  did  of  history  and  mythology. 
You  will  find  all  this  very  «/zlike  Shakespeare ;  and  so 
much  the  better  in  one  sense,  for  I  look  upon  him  to  be 
the  worst  of  models,  though  the  most  extraordinary  of 
writers.  It  has  been  my  object  to  be  as  simple  and 
severe  as  Alfieri,  and  I  have  broken  down  the  poetry  as 
nearly  as  I  could  to  common  language.  The  hardship  is, 
that  in  these  times  one  can  neither  speak  of  kings  nor 
Queens  without  suspicion  of  politics  or  personalities.  I 
intended  neither. 

I  am  not  very  well,  and  I  write  in  the  midst  of  un- 
pleasant scenes  here :  they  have,  without  trial  or  process, 

I.      "  Thus  kindred  objects  kindred  thoughts  inspire, 
As  summer-clouds  flash  forth  electric  fire. 
And  hence  this  spot  gives  back  the  joys  of  youth, 
Warm  as  the  life,  and  with  the  mirror's  truth. 

For  this  young  Foscari,  whose  hapless  fate 
Venice  should  blush  to  hear  the  Muse  relate, 
When  exile  wore  his  blooming  years  away, 
To  sorrow's  long  soliloquies  a  prey, 
When  reason,  justice,  vainly  urged  his  cause, 
For  this  he  roused  her  sanguinary  laws  ; 
Glad  to  return,  tho'  Hope  could  grant  no  more, 
And  chains  and  torture  hailed  him  to  the  shore." 
See  also  Rogers'  Italy.     The  story  of  the  Foscari,  as  told  in  that 

poem,  was  published  in  1821.     Byron's  Two  Foscari  appeared  with 

Cain  and  Sardanapalus  in  December,  1821. 


banished  several  of  the  first  inhabitants  of  the  cities — 
here  and  all  around  the  Roman  States — amongst  them 
many  of  my  personal  friends,  so  that  every  thing  is  in 
confusion  and  grief :  it  is  a  kind  of  thing  which  cannot 
be  described  without  an  equal  pain  as  in  beholding  it. 
You  are  very  niggardly  in  your  letters. 

Yours  truly, 


P.S. — In  the  first  soliloquy  of  Salemenes,  read 
"  at  once  his  Chorus  and  his  Council ; " 

"  Chorus "  being  in  the  higher  dramatic  sense,  meaning 
his  accompaniment,  and  not  a  mere  musical  train. 

912. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  July  22<!  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — By  this  post  is  expedited  a  parcel 
of  notes,  addressed  to  J.  Barrow,  Esqr?,  etc.  Also,  by 
y?  former  post,  the  returned  proofs  of  S\ardanapalus\ 
and  the  MSS.  of  the  Two  Foscaris.  Acknowledge 

The  printer  has  done  wonders ;  he  has  read  what  I 
cannot — my  own  handwriting. 

I  oppose  the  "  delay  till  Winter : "  I  am  particularly 
anxious  to  print  while  the  Winter  tJieatres  are  dosed,  to 
gain  time,  in  case  they  try  their  former  piece  of  politeness. 
Any  loss  shall  be  considered  in  our  contract,  whether 
occasioned  by  the  season  or  other  causes ;  but  print  away, 
and  publish. 

I  think  they  must  own  that  I  have  more  styles  than 
one.  "  Sardanapalus  "  is,  however,  almost  a  comic  cha- 
racter :  but,  for  that  matter,  so  is  Richard  the  third. 
Mind  the  Unities^  which  are  my  great  object  of  research. 

1 82 1.]  ENGLISH   BASENESS.  325 

I  am  glad  that  Gifford  likes  it :  as  for  "  the  Million,"  you 
see  I  have  carefully  consulted  anything  but  the  taste  of 
the  day  for  extravagant  coups  de  theatre.  Any  probable 
loss,  as  I  said  before,  will  be  allowed  for  in  our  accompts. 
The  reviews  (except  one  or  two — Blackwood's,  for  in- 
stance) are  cold  enough ;  but  never  mind  those  fellows : 
I  shall  send  them  to  the  right  about,  if  I  take  it  into  my 
head.  Perhaps  that  in  the  Monthly *  is  written  by  Hodgson, 
as  a  reward  for  having  paid  his  debts,  and  travelled  all 
night  to  beg  his  mother-in-law  (by  his  own  desire)  to  let 
him  marry  her  daughter ;  though  I  had  never  seen  her  in 
my  life,  it  succeeded.  But  such  are  mankind,  and  I  have 
always  found  the  English  baser  in  some  things  than  any 
other  nation.  You  stare,  but  it's  true  as  to  gratitude, — 
perhaps,  because  they  are  prouder,  and  proud  people 
hate  obligations. 

The  tyranny  of  the  government  here  is  breaking  out : 
they  have  exiled  about  a  thousand  people  of  the  best 
families  all  over  the  Roman  States.  As  many  of  my 
friends  are  amongst  them,  I  think  of  moving  too,  but  not 
till  I  have  had  your  answers.  Continue  your  address  to 
me  here,  as  usual,  and  quickly.  What  you  will  not  be 

I.  The  Monthly  Review  for  May,  1821  (pp.  41-50),  reviews 
Marino  Faliero.  The  critic,  after  saying  that  the  tragedy  is  "  con- 
'  structed  on  the  French  model,  and  therefore  more  properly  to  be 
'styled  a  poem  than  a  play,"  continues  thus:  "We  are  sorry  to 
'  give  our  opinion  that  this  piece  manifests  the  faults  without  the 
'  beauties  of  its  model.  It  has  the  nakedness  of  plot,  the  uniformity 
'  of  character,  the  tedious  declamation,  and  the  lengthened  mono- 
'  logue,  which  belong  to  its  archetype ;  unredeemed  by  that  judi- 
'  cious  choice  of  fable,  that  heroic  elevation  of  sentiment,  and 
'  those  moving  conflicts  of  passion,  which  characterize  the  French 
<  school." 

The  Monthly  Magazine  for  July,  1821,  on  the  other  hand,  speaks 
of  the  play  as  a  "work  worthy  of  the  genius  of  its  author.  It  has 
'  realized  all  the  anticipations  to  which  his  previous  efforts  could 
'fairly  give  rise."  The  final  scene  is  characterized  as  one  of 
'stormy  majesty,"  and  the  whole  play  as  "a  powerful  and  noble 
'work,  built  for  fame  and  futurity." 

326       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

sorry  to  hear  is,  that  the  poor  of  the  place,  hearing  that  I 
meant  to  go,  got  together  a  petition  to  the  Cardinal  to 
request  that  he  would  request  me  to  remain.  I  only  heard 
of  it  a  day  or  two  ago,  and  it  is  no  dishonour  to  them  nor 
to  me;  but  it  will  have  displeased  the  higher  powers, 
who  look  upon  me  as  a  Chief  of  the  Coalheavers.  They 
arrested  a  servant  of  mine  for  a  Street  quarrel  with 
an  Officer  (they  drew  upon  one  another  knives  and 
pistols) ;  but  as  the  Officer  was  out  of  uniform,  and  in  the 
wrong  besides,  on  my  protesting  stoutly,  he  was  released. 
I  was  not  present  at  the  affray,  which  happened  by  night 
near  my  stables.  My  man  (an  Italian),  a  very  stout  and  not 
over  patient  personage,  would  have  taken  a  fatal  revenge 
afterwards,  if  I  had  not  prevented  him.  As  it  was,  he 
drew  his  stiletto,  and,  but  for  passengers,  would  have 
carbonadoed  the  Captain,  who  (I  understand)  made  but 
a  poor  figure  in  the  quarrel,  except  by  beginning  it.  He 
applied  to  me,  and  I  offered  him  any  satisfaction,  either 
by  turning  away  the  man,  or  otherwise,  because  he  had 
drawn  a  knife.  He  answered  that  a  reproof  would  be 
sufficient.  I  reproved  him ;  and  yet,  after  this,  the  shabby 
dog  complained  to  the  Government^ — after  being  quite 
satisfied,  as  he  said.  This  roused  me,  and  I  gave  them 
a  remonstrance  which  had  some  effect.  If  he  had  not 
enough,  he  should  have  called  me  out ;  but  that  is  not 
the  Italian  line  of  conduct :  the  Captain  has  been  repri- 
manded, the  servant  released,  and  the  business  at  present 
rests  there. 

Write  and  let  me  know  of  the  arrivals. 


P.S. — You  will  of  course  publish  the  two  tragedies 
of  Sardanapalus  and  the  Foscaris  together.     You  can 

l82I.]  EXILE   OF   THE   GAMBAS.  327 

aftenvards  collect  them  with  Manfred,  and  TJi£  Doge  into 
the  works.     Inclosed  is  an  additional  note. 

913. — To  Richard  Belgrave  Hoppner. 

Ravenna,  July  23,  1821. 

This  country  being  in  a  state  of  proscription,  and  all 
my  friends  exiled  or  arrested — the  whole  family  of  Gamba 
obliged  to  go  to  Florence  for  the  present — the  father  and 
son  for  politics — (and  the  Guiccioli,  because  menaced 
with  a  con-vent,  as  her  father  is  not  here,)  I  have  deter- 
mined to  remove  to  Switzerland,  and  they  also.  Indeed, 
my  life  here  is  not  supposed  to  be  particularly  safe — but 
that  has  been  the  case  for  this  twelvemonth  past,  and  is 
therefore  not  the  primary  consideration. 

I  have  written  by  this  post  to  Mr.  Hentsch,  junior, 
the  banker  of  Geneva,  to  provide  (if  possible)  a  house 
for  me,  and  another  for  Gamba's  family,  (the  father,  son, 
and  daughter,)  on  the  Jura  side  of  the  lake  of  Geneva, 
furnished,  and  with  stabling  (for  me  at  least)  for  eight 
horses.  I  shall  bring  Allegra  with  me.  Could  you  assist 
me  or  Hentsch  in  his  researches  ?  The  Gambas  are  at 
Florence,  but  have  authorised  me  to  treat  for  them. 
You  know,  or  do  not  know,  that  they  are  great  patriots — 
and  both — but  the  son  in  particular — very  fine  fellows. 
This  I  know,  for  I  have  seen  them  lately  in  very  awkward 
situations — not  pecuniary,  but  personal — and  they  behaved 
like  heroes,  neither  yielding  nor  retracting. 

You  have  no  idea  what  a  state  of  oppression  this 
country  is  in — they  arrested  above  a  thousand  of  high 
and  low  throughout  Romagna — banished  some  and  con- 
fined others,  without  trial,  process,  or  even  accusation  1 1 
Every  body  says  they  would  have  done  the  same  by  me 
if  they  dared  proceed  openly.  My  motive,  however,  for 


remaining,  is  because  every  one  of  my  acquaintance,1  to 
the  amount  of  hundreds  almost,  have  been  exiled. 

Will  you  do  what  you  can  in  looking  out  for  a  couple 
of  houses  furnished,  and  conferring  with  Hentsch  for  us? 
We  care  nothing  about  society,  and  are  only  anxious  for 
a  temporary  and  tranquil  asylum  and  individual  freedom. 

Believe  me,  etc. 

P.S. — Can  you  give  me  an  idea  of  the  comparative 

I.  Countess  Guiccioli,  as  quoted  by  Moore  (Life,  p.  519),  thus 
explains  Byron's  stay  at  Ravenna  after  the  banishment  of  his 
friends — 

"  Lord  Byron  restava  frattanto  a  Ravenna  in  un  paese  sconvolso 
"dai  partiti,  e  dove  aveva  certamente  dei  nemici  di  opinioni  fanatici 
"e  perfidi,  e  la  mia  immaginazione  me  lo  dipingeva  circondato 
"sempre  da  mille  pericoli.  Si  puo  dunque  pensare  cosa  dovesse 
"  essere  qual  viaggio  per  me  e  cosa  io  dovessi  soffrire  nella  sua  lonta- 
"nanza.  Le  sue  lettere  avrebbero  potuto  essermi  di  conforto  ;  ma 
"  quando  io  le  riceveva  era  gia  trascorso  lo  spazio  di  due  giorni  dal 
"momento  in  cui  furono  scritte,  e  questo  pensiero  distruggeva  tutto 
"  il  bene  che  esse  potevano  farmi,  e  la  mia  anima  era  lacerata  dai 
"piu  crudeli  timori. 

"  Frattanto  era  necessario  per  la  di  lui  convenienza  che  egli 
"  restasse  ancora  qualche  tempo  in  Ravenna  affinche  non  avesse  a 
"dirsi  che  egli  pure  ne  era  esigliato  ;  ed  oltrecio  egli  si  era  somma- 
"mente  affezionato  a  qual  soggiorno  e  voleva  innanzi  di  partire 
"  vedere  esausiti  tutti  i  tentativi  e  tutte  le  speranze  del  ritorno  dei 
"miei  parenti." 

Moore  gives  the  following  version  of  the  Italian  :  "  Lord  Byron, 

"  in  the  mean  time,  remained  at  Ravenna,  in  a  town  convulsed  by 

"party  spirit,  where  he  had  certainly,  on  account  of  his  opinions, 

"  many  fanatical  and   perfidious    enemies ;    and  my  imagination 

"always  painted  him  surrounded  by  a  thousand  dangers.     It  may 

"  be  conceived,  therefore,  what  that  journey  must  have  been  to  me, 

"and  what  I  suffered  at  such  a  distance  from  him.     His  letters 

"  would  have  given  me  comfort ;   but  two  days  always  elapsed 

"between  his  writing  and  my  receiving  them;  and  this  idea  em- 

"bittered  all  the  solace  they  would  otherwise  have  afforded  me,  so 

"that   my  heart  was  torn  by  the  most  cruel  fears.     Yet  it  was 

' '  necessary  for  his  own  sake  that  he  should  remain  some  time  longer 

'at  Ravenna,  in  order  that  it  might  not  be  said  that  he  also  was 

'  banished.     Besides,  he  had  conceived  a  very  great  affection  for 

'  the  place  itself;  and  was  desirous,  before  he  left  it,  of  exhausting 

'  every  means  and  hope  of  procuring  the  recall   of  my  relations 

'  from  banishment." 

l82I.]       THE  DOGE  AND  THE  BISHOP.         329 

expenses  of  Switzerland  and  Italy?  which  I  have  for- 
gotten. I  speak  merely  of  those  of  decent  living,  horses, 
etc.,  and  not  of  luxuries  or  high  living.  Do  not,  however, 
decide  any  thing  positively  till  I  have  your  answer,  as  I 
can  then  know  how  to  think  upon  these  topics  of  trans- 
migration, etc.,  etc.,  etc. 

914. — To  John  Murray. 

R*  July  30'!*  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — Enclosed  is  the  best  account  of  the  Doge 
Faliero,  which  was  only  sent  to  me  from  an  old  MSS.  the 
other  day.  Get  it  translated,  and  append  it  as  a  note  to 
the  next  edition.  You  will  perhaps  be  pleased  to  see 
that  my  conceptions  of  his  character  were  correct,  though 
I  regret  not  having  met  with  this  extract  before.  You 
will  perceive  that  he  himself  said  exactly  what  he  is 
made  to  say,  about  the  Bishop  of  Treviso.1  You  will 
see  also  that  he  spoke  very  little,  and  those  only  words 
"  of  rage  and  disdain," z  after  his  arrest,  which  is  the 
case  in  the  play,  except  when  he  breaks  out  at  the  close 
of  Act  fifth.  But  his  speech  to  the  Conspirators  is 
better  in  the  MSS.  than  in  the  play  :  I  wish  that  I  had 
met  with  it  in  time.  Do  not  forget  this  note,  with  a 

1.  Marino  Faliero,  act  i.  sc.  2 — 

"  Doge  (solus)  .  .  .  but  the  priests — I  doubt  the  priesthood 
Will  not  be  with  us ;  they  have  hated  me 
Since  that  rash  hour,  when,  maddened  with  the  drone, 
I  smote  the  tardy  Bishop  at  Treviso, 
Quickening  his  holy  march." 

2.  Byron  possibly  alludes  to  Christabel— 

"  And  thus  it  chanced,  as  I  divine, 
With  Roland  and  Sir  Leoline. 
Each  spake  words  of  high  disdain 
And  insult  to  his  heart's  best  brother." 


In  a  former  note  to  the  Juans,  speaking  of  Voltaire, 
I  have  quoted  his  famous  "  Zaire,  tu  pleures,"  which  is 
an  error;  it  should  be  "Zaire,  vous  pkiirez :"  1  recollect 
this ;  and  recollect  also  that  your  want  of  recollection  has 
permitted  you  to  publish  the  note  on  the  Kelso  traveller, 
which  I  had  positively  desired  you  not,  for  proof  of  which 
I  refer  you  to  my  letters.  I  presume  that  you  are  able 
to  lay  your  hand  upon  these  letters,,  as  you  are  accused 
publicly,  in  a  pamphlet,  of  showing  them  about. 

I  wait  your  acknowledgement  of  the  packets  con- 
taining The  FoscariS)  notes,  etc.,  etc. :  now  your 
Coronation  is  over,  perhaps  you  will  find  time.  I  have 
also  written  to  Mr.  Kinnaird,  to  say  that  I  expect  the  two 
tragedies  to  be  published  speedily,  and  to  inform  him 
that  I  am  willing  to  make  any  abatement,  on  your  state- 
ment of  loss  liable  to  be  incurred  by  publishing  at  an 
improper  season. 

I  am  so  busy  here  about  these  poor  proscribed  exiles,2 
who  are  scattered  about,  and  with  trying  to  get  some  of 
them  recalled,  that  I  have  hardly  time  or  patience  to 
write  a  short  preface,  which  will  be  proper  for  the  two 
plays.  However,  I  will  make  it  out,  on  receiving  the 
next  proofs. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 

P.S. — Please  to  append  the  letter  about  the  Hellespont 
as  a  note  to  your  next  opportunity  of  the  verses  on 
Leander,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  in  Childe  Harold.  Don't  forget 
it  amidst  your  multitudinous  avocations,  which  I  think  of 
celebrating  in  a  dithyrambic  ode  to  Albemarle  Street. 

1.  Zaire,  acte  iv.  sc.  2.    See  the  conclusion  of  Byron's  corrections 
of  Bacon's  Apophthegms,  Appendix  VI. 

2.  See  letter  to  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire,  p.  237. 

l82I.]  KEATS'S   HYPERION.  331 

Are  you  aware  that  Shelley  has  written  an  elegy  on 
Keats,  and  accuses  the  Quarterly  of  killing  him  ? 

"Who  killed  John  Keats? 

"  I,"  says  the  Quarterly, 

So  savage  and  Tartarly ; 
"  Twas  one  of  my  feats." 

"  Who  shot  the  arrow  ?  " 

"  The  poet-priest  Milman 
(So  ready  to  kill  man), 
Or  Southey  or  Barrow." 

You  know  very  well  that  I  did  not  approve  of  Keats's 
poetry,  or  principles  of  poetry,  or  of  his  abuse  of  Pope ; 
but,  as  he  is  dead,  omit  all  that  is  said  about  him  in  any 
MSS.  of  mine,  or  publication.  His  Hyperion  *  is  a  fine 
monument,  and  will  keep  his  name.  I  do  not  envy  the  man 
who  wrote  the  article :  your  review  people  have  no  more 
right  to  kill  than  any  other  foot  pads.  However,  he  who 
would  die  of  an  article  2  in  a  review  would  probably  have 
died  of  something  else  equally  trivial.  The  same  thing 
nearly  happened  to  Kirke  White,3  who  afterwards  died  of 
a  consumption. 

1.  Yet  when  Medwin  urged  Hyperion  as  a  proof  of  Keats's  poetical 
genius  {Conversations,  p.  360),  Byron  replied,  "  'Hyperion  ! '  why, 
"  a  man  might  as  well  pretend  to  be  rich  who  had  one  diamond. 
"  '  Hyperion  '  indeed  !     '  Hyperion'  to  a  satyr." 

2.  "  John  Keats,  who  was  killed  off  by  one  critique, 

Just  as  he  really  promised  something  great, 
If  not  intelligible,  without  Greek 

Contrived  to  talk  about  the  gods  of  late, 
Much  as  they  might  have  been  supposed  to  speak. 

Poor  fellow  !  His  was  an  untoward  fate  ; 
'Tis  strange  the  mind,  that  very  fiery  particle, 
Should  let  itself  be  snufPd  out  by  an  article." 

Don  Juan,  Canto  XI.  stanza  Ix. 

3.  See  Poems,  ed.  1898,  vol.  i.  p.  363,  English  Bards,  and  Scotch 
Reviewers,  lines  831-848. 


915. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  Augusta,  1821. 

I  had  certainly  answered  your  last  letter,  though  but 
briefly,  to  the  part  to  which  you  refer  merely  saying, 
"damn  the  controversy;"  and  quoting  some  verses  of 
George  Colman's,  not  as  allusive  to  you,  but  to  the  dis- 
putants. Did  you  receive  this  letter  ?  It  imports  me  to 
know  that  our  letters  are  not  intercepted  or  mislaid. 

Your  Berlin  drama1  is  an  honour,  unknown  since  the 
days  of  Elkanah  Settle,  whose  Empress  of  Morocco  was 
represented  by  the  Court  ladies,  which  was,  as  Johnson 
says,  "  the  last  blast  of  inflammation "  to  poor  Dryden, 
who  could  not  bear  it,  and  fell  foul  of  Settle  without 
mercy  or  moderation,  on  account  of  that  and  a  frontis- 
piece, which  he  dared  to  put  before  his  play.2 

Was  not  your   showing  the    Memoranda  to   *   * 3 

1.  "There  had  been,  a  short  time  before,  performed  at  the  court 
'  of  Berlin  a  spectacle  founded  on  the  poem  of  Lalla  Rookh,  in 
'  which  the  present  Emperor  of  Russia  personated  '  Feramorz,'  and 
'the  Empress,  'Lalla  Rookh'"  (Moore) — i.e.  Nicholas  I.  (1796- 

1855)  and  his  wife,  the  Princess  Charlotte  of  Prussia. 

2.  "  Rochester  had  interest  enough  to  have  Settle's  Empress  of 
'  Morocco  first  acted  at  Whitehall  by  the  lords  and  ladies  of  the 
'  court ;  an  honour  which  had  never  been  paid  to  any  of  Dryden's 
'  compositions,   however  more    justly    entitled   to    it,  both  from 
'  intrinsic  merit,  and  by  the  author's  situation  as  poet  laureat. 
'  Rochester  contributed  a  prologue  upon  this  brilliant  occasion,  to 
'  add  still  more  grace  to  Settle's  triumph." — Sir  Walter  Scott,  Prose 
Works,  ed.  1834,  vol.  i.  pp.  158,  159. 

3.  Moore,  as  was  reported  to  Byron,  had  lent  the  "  Memoranda  " 
to  Lady  Davy.     Possibly  her  name  may  be  represented  by  asterisks. 
But  it  is  more  probably  Lady  Holland.     Moore,  in  his  Diary  for 
July  6,  1821  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  251),  notes,  "By  the  bye,  I 

'  yesterday  gave  Lady  Holland  Lord  Byron's  '  Memoirs '  to  read  ; 
'  and  on  my  telling  her  that  I  rather  feared  he  had  mentioned  her 
'  name  in  an  unfair  manner  somewhere,  she  said,  '  Such  things  give 
'  me  no  uneasiness  ;  I  know  perfectly  well  my  station  in  the  world  : 
'  and  I  know  all  that  can  be  said  of  me.  As  long  as  the  few  friends 
'  that  I  really  am  sure  of  speak  kindly  of  me  (and  I  would  not 
'  believe  the  contrary  if  I  saw  it  in  black  and  white),  all  that  the 
'  rest  of  the  world  can  say  is  a  matter  of  complete  indifference  to 

1 82 1.]  SCHLEGEL   ON    BYRON.  333 

somewhat  perilous  ?  Is  there  not  a  facetious  allusion  or 
two  which  might  as  well  be  reserved  for  posterity  ? 

I  know  Schlegel  well — that  is  to  say,  I  have  met  him 
occasionally  at  Copet.  Is  he  not  also  touched  lightly  in 
the  Memoranda  ?  In  a  review  of  Childe  Harold^  Canto 
4th,  three  years  ago,  in  Blackwood's  Magazine,  they 
quote  some  stanzas  of  an  elegy  of  Schlegel's  on  Rome, 
from  which  they  say  that  I  might  have  taken  some  ideas.1 
I  give  you  my  honour  that  I  never  saw  it  except  in  that 
criticism,  which  gives,  I  think,  three  or  four  stanzas,  sent 

"me."  Byron  told  Medwin  that  Lady  Burghersh,  to  whom  the 
Memoir  was  lent,  made  a  copy  of  it,  which  Moore  obliged  her  to 

I.  Moore,  who  met  Schlegel  at  Paris,  May  21,  1821,  notes  in  his 
Diary  for  that  day  {Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  p.  235),  "  Had  much  talk 
"  with  Schlegel  in  the  evening,  who  appears  to  me  full  of  literary 
"  coxcombry  ;  ...  is  evidently  not  well  inclined  towards  Lord 
"  Byron ;  thinks  he  will  outlive  himself,  and  get  out  of  date  long 
"  before  he  dies.  Asked  me  if  I  thought  a  regular  critique  of  all 
"  Lord  B.'s  works,  and  the  system  on  which  they  are  written,  would 
"  succeed  in  England,  and  seems  inclined  to  undertake  it."  Moore 
probably  reported  the  substance  of  this  conversation  to  Byron. 

The  following  is  the  passage  in  Blackwood's  Edinburgh.  Magazine 
(vol.  iii.  p.  222,  note)  :  "  We  had  lately  sent  to  us  a  translation  of  an 
'  Elegy  by  William  Augustus  Schlegel,  from  which  our  corre- 
'  spondent  supposes  that  Lord  Byron  has  borrowed  not  a  little  of 
'  the  spirit,  and  even  of  the  expressions,  of  the  Fourth  Canto.  We 
'  cannot,  we  must  confess,  observe  any  thing  more  than  such  coinci- 
'idences  as  might  very  well  be  expected  from  two  great  poets 
'  contemplating  the  same  scene.  The  opening  of  the  German  poem 
'  appears  to  us  to  be  very  striking  ;  but  the  whole  is  pitched  in  an 
'  elegiac  key.  Lord  Byron  handles  the  same  topics  with  the  deeper 
'  power  of  a  tragedian — 

"  '  Trust  not  the  smiling  welcome  Rome  can  give, 

With  her  green  fields,  and  her  unspotted  sky  ; 
Parthenope  hath  taught  thee  how  to  live, 

Let  Rome,  imperial  Rome,  now  teach  to  die. 
"T  is  true,  the  land  is  fair  as  land  may  be ; 

One  radiant  canopy  of  azure  lies 
O'er  the  Seven  Hills  far  downward  to  the  sea, 

And  upward  where  yon  Sabine  heights  arise  ; 
Yet  sorrowful  and  sad,  I  wend  my  way 

Through  this  long  ruined  labyrinth,  alone 
Each  echo  whispers  of  the  elder  day, 

I  see  a  monument  in  every  stone." 


tfiem  (they  say)  for  the  nonce  by  a  correspondent — per- 
haps himself.  The  fact  is  easily  proved ;  for  I  don't 
understand  German,  and  there  was,  I  believe,  no  transla- 
tion— at  least,  it  was  the  first  time  that  I  ever  heard  of, 
or  saw,  either  translation  or  original. 

I  remember  having  some  talk  with  Schlegel  about 
Alfieri,  whose  merit  he  denies.  He  was  also  wroth 
about  the  Edinburgh  Review  of  Goethe,  which  was 
sharp  enough,  to  be  sure.  He  went  about  saying, 
too,  of  the  French — "I  meditate  a  terrible  vengeance 
"against  the  French — I  will  prove  that  Moliere  is  no 
"poet."1  *  * 

I  don't  see  why  you  should  talk  of  "declining." 
When  I  saw  you,  you  looked  thinner,  and  yet  younger, 
than  you  did  when  we  parted  several  years  before.  You 
may  rely  upon  this  as  fact.  If  it  were  not,  I  should  say 
nothing^  for  I  would  rather  not  say  unpleasant  personal 
things  to  any  one — but,  as  it  was  the  pleasant  truth,  I  tell 
it  you.  If  you  had  led  my  life,  indeed,  changing  climates 
and  connections — thinning  yourself  with  fasting  and 
purgatives — besides  the  wear  and  tear  of  the  vulture 
passions,  and  a  very  bad  temper  besides,  you  might  talk 
in  this  way — but  yott!  I  know  no  man  who  looks  so 
well  for  his  years,  or  who  deserves  to  look  better  and 

I.  Schlegel  had  already  attempted  to  execute  his  threat.     In  his 

Lectures  on  Dramatic  Art  and  Literature  (translated  by  John  Black, 

2  vols.,  8vo,  London,  1815  ;  vol.  ii.  pp.  40,  41)  occurs  the  following 

passage  on  Moliere  :  "  Born  and  educated  in  an  inferior  rank,  he 

'  enjoyed  the  advantage  of  becoming  acquainted  with  the  modes  of 

'  living  of  the  industrious  part  of  the  community  from  his  own 

'  experience,  and  of  acquiring  the  talent  of  imitating  low  modes  of 

'  expression.  .  .  .  He  was  an  actor,  and  it  would  appear  of  peculiar 

'  strength  in  overcharged  and  farcical  comic  parts  ;  so  little  was  he 

'  prepossessed  with  prejudices  of  personal  dignity  that  he  ...  was 

'  ever  ready  to  deal  out  or  to  receive  the  blows  which  were  then  so 

'  frequent  on  the  stage.   .  .  .  Louis  XIV.  .  .  .  was  very  well  con- 

'  tented  with  the  buffoon  whom  he  protected,  and  even  exhibited 

'his  own  elevated  person  occasionally  in  dances  in  his  ballets." 

l82I.]  HELPING   THE   EXILES.  335 

to  be  better,  in  all  respects.  You  are  a  *  *  *,  and, 
what  is  perhaps  better  for  your  friends,  a  good  fellow. 
So  don't  talk  of  decay,  but  put  in  for  eighty,  as  you  well 

I  am,  at  present,  occupied  principally  about  these 
unhappy  proscriptions  and  exiles,  which  have  taken  place 
here  on  account  of  politics.1  It  has  been  a  miserable 
sight  to  see  the  general  desolation  in  families.  I  am 
doing  what  I  can  for  them,  high  and  low,  by  such 
interest  and  means  as  I  possess  or  can  bring  to  bear. 
There  have  been  thousands  of  these  proscriptions  within 
the  last  month  in  the  Exarchate,  or  (to  speak  modernly) 
the  Legations.  Yesterday,  too,  a  man  got  his  back 
broken,  in  extricating  a  dog  of  mine  from  under  a  mill- 
wheel.  The  dog  was  killed,  and  the  man  is  in  the 
greatest  danger.2  I  was  not  present — it  happened  before 
I  was  up,  owing  to  a  stupid  boy  taking  the  dog  to  bathe 
in  a  dangerous  spot.  I  must,  of  course,  provide  for  the 
poor  fellow  while  he  lives,  and  his  family,  if  he  dies.  I 
would  gladly  have  given  a  much  greater  sum  than  that 

1.  One  of  the  chief  reasons  for  the  exile  of  the  Gambas  was  the 
hope  that  Byron  would  accompany  them.     Madame  Guiccioli  says 
(Moore's  Life,  p.  518),  "Una  delle  principal!  ragioni  per  cui   si 

'  erano  esigliati  i  miei  parenti  era  la  speranza  che  Lord  Byron  pure 
'  lascierebbe  la  Romagna  quando  i  suoi  amici  fossero  partiti.  Gia 
'  da  qualche  tempo  la  permanenza  di  Lord  Byron  in  Ravenna  era 
'  mal  gradita  dal  Governo  conoscendosile  sue  opinione  e  temendosila 
1  sua  influenza  ed  essaggiandosi  anche  i  suoi  mezzi  per  esercitarla. 
'  Si  credeva  che  egli  somministrasse  danaro  per  provvedere  'armi,  e 
'  che  provvedesse  ai  bisogni  della  Societa.  La  verita  era  che  nello 
'  spargere  le  sue  beneficenze  egli  non  s'informava  delle  opinioni 
'  politiche  e  religiosi  di  quello  che  aveva  bisogno  del  suo  soccorso  : 
'  ogni  misero  ed  ogni  infelice  aveva  un  eguale  diviso  alia  sua 
'  generosita.  Ma  in  ogni  modo  gli  Anti-Liberali  lo  credevano  il 
'  principale  sostegno  del  Liberalismo  della  Romagna,  e  desideravano 
'  la  sua  partenza  ;  ma  non  osando  provocarla  in  nessun  modo 
'diretto  speravano  di  ottenerla  indirettamente." 

2.  The  man,  whose  name  was  Balani,  died  eleven  days  after  the 
accident.    His  widow  was  pensioned  by  Byron.    (From  information 
given  by  Signor  Savini  to  Mr.  Richard  Edgcumbe.) 


will  come  to  that  he  had  never  been  hurt.     Pray,  let  me 
hear  from  you,  and  excuse  haste  and  hot  weather. 

Yours,  etc. 

You  may  have  probably  seen  all  sorts  of  attacks  upon 
me  in  some  gazettes  in  England  some  months  ago.1  I 
only  saw  them,  by  Murray's  bounty,  the  other  day.  They 
call  me  "  Plagiary,"  and  what  not.  I  think  I  now,  in  my 
time,  have  been  accused  of  every  thing. 

I  have  not  given  you  details  of  little  events  here ;  but 
they  have  been  trying  to  make  me  out  to  be  the  chief  of 
a  conspiracy,  and  nothing  but  their  want  of  proofs  for  an 
English  investigation  has  stopped  them.  Had  it  been  a 
poor  native,  the  suspicion  were  enough,  as  it  has  been  for 

Why  don't  you  write  on  Napoleon  ?  2  I  have  no  spirits, 
nor  estro  to  do  so.  His  overthrow,  from  the  beginning, 
was  a  blow  on  the  head  to  me.  Since  that  period,  we 
have  been  the  slaves  of  fools.  Excuse  this  long  letter. 
Ecco  a  translation  literal  of  a  French  epigram. 

Egle,  beauty  and  poet,  has  two  little  crimes, 

She  makes  her  own  face,  and  does  not  make  her  rhymes. 

I  am  going  to  ride,  having  been  warned  not  to  ride  in 
a  particular  part  of  the  forest  on  account  of  the  ultra- 

Is  there  no  chance  of  your  return  to  England,  and  of 
our  Journal  ?  I  would  have  published  the  two  plays  in 
it — two  or  three  scenes  per  number — and  indeed  all  of 
mine  in  it.  If  you  went  to  England,  I  would  do  so  still. 

1.  Byron  probably  alludes  to  a  series  of  articles  on  his  alleged 
plagiarisms    by   A.   A.    Watts,   which  appeared   in  the  Literary 
Gazette  for  1821  (February  24,  March  3,  10,  17,  31). 

2.  Napoleon  died  May  5,  1821. 

l82I.]  SECOND   LETTER   ON   BOWLES.  337 

916. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra  August  41!1  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  return  the  proofs  of  the  2?  pamphlet.1 
I  leave  it  to  your  choice  and  Mr.  Gifford's,  to  publish  it  or 
not,  with  such  omissions  as  he  likes.  You  must,  however, 
omit  the  whole  of  the  observations  against  the  Suburban 
School:  they  are  meant  against  Keats,  and  I  cannot 
war  with  the  dead — particularly  those  already  killed 
by  Criticism.  Recollect  to  omit  all  that  portion  in 
any  case. 

Lately  I  have  sent  you  several  packets,  which  require 
answer :  you  take  a  gentlemanly  interval  to  answer 

Yours,  etc., 


P.S. — They  write  from  Paris  that  Schlegel  is  making 
a  fierce  book  against  ME  :  what  can  I  have  done  to  the 
literary  Col-captain  of  late  Madame  ?  /,  who  am  neither 
of  his  country  nor  his  horde?  Does  this  Hundsfott's 
intention  appal  you?  if  it  does,  say  so.  It  don't  me;  for, 
if  he  is  insolent,  I  will  go  to  Paris  and  thank  him.  There 
is  a  distinction  between  native  Criticism,  because  it  be- 
longs to  the  Nation  to  judge  and  pronounce  on  natives ; 
but  what  have  /  to  do  with  Germany  or  Germans,  neither 
my  subjects  nor  my  language  having  anything  in  common 
with  that  Country  ?  He  took  a  dislike  to  me,  because  I 
refused  to  flatter  him  in  Switzerland,  though  Madame  de 
Broglie  begged  me  to  do  so,  "  because  he  is  so  fond  of  it. 
"  Voild  les  hommes  !  " 

I.  The  Second  Letter  on  Bowles  was  not  published  till  1835. 
For  a  portion  of  the  criticism  on  Keats,  which  is  now  for  the  first 
time  published,  see  Appendix  III.  pp.  588,  589,  note  3. 

VOL.    V.  Z 

33^       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

917. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  7'!"  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  send  you  a  thing  which  I  scratched  off 
lately,  a  mere  buffoonery,  to  quiz  TJie  Blues?  in  two 
literary  eclogues.  If  published,  it  must  be  anonymoitsly  : 
but  it  is  too  short  for  a  separate  publication;  and  you 
have  no  miscellany,  that  I  know  of,  for  the  reception  of 
such  things.  You  may  send  me  a  proof,  if  you  think  it 
worth  the  trouble;  but  don't  let  my  name  out  for  the 
present,  or  I  shall  have  all  the  old  women  in  London 
about  my  ears,  since  it  sneers  at  the  solace  of  their 
antient  Spinsterstry. 

Acknowledge  this,  and  the  various  packets  lately  sent. 


918. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  7*?1  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — By  last  post  I  forwarded  a  packet  to 
you :  as  usual,  you  are  avised  by  this  post. 

I  should  be  loth  to  hurt  Mr.  Bowles's  feelings  by 
publishing  the  second  pamphlet;  and,  as  he  has  shown 
considerable  regard  for  mine,  we  had  better  suppress  it 
altogether :  at  any  rate  I  would  not  publish  it  without 
letting  him  see  it  first,  and  omitting  all  such  matter  as 
might  be  personally  offensive  to  him.  Also  all  the  part 
about  the  Suburb  School  must  be  omitted,  as  it  referred 
to  poor  Keats 2  now  slain  by  the  Quarterly  Review. 

1.  The  Blues,  a  Literary  Eclogue -was,  published  in  No.  in.  of  the 
Liberal  (pp.  1-24),  with  the  motto — 

"  Nimium  ne  crede  colori." — Virgil. 
"  O  trust  not,  ye  beautiful  creatures,  to  hue, 
Though  your  hair  were  as  red  as  your  stockings  are  blue." 

2.  Shelley  arrived  (August  6,  1821)  on  a  visit  to  Byron,  and  sat 

l82I.j  SHELLEY   AT   RAVENNA.  339 

If  I  do  not  err,  I  mentioned  to  you  that  I  had  heard 
from  Paris,  that  Schlegel  announces  a  meditated  abuse  of 

up  talking  with  him  till  five  in  the  morning  of  the  7th.  The  reitera- 
tion of  the  charge  to  spare  Keats  may  have  been  the  result  of  talk 
with  the  writer  of  Adonais,  who  says  himself  that  he  had  roused 
Byron  to  attack  the  Quarterly.  In  the  Prose  Works  of  Shelley  (ed. 
H.  Buxton  Forman,  vol.  iv.  pp.  211-233)  are  many  interesting 
details  of  Byron's  life  at  Ravenna.  Shelley  found  Byron  restored  to 
health  and  good  looks,  "immersed  in  politics  and  literature,  greatly 
"improved  in  every  respect,  ...  in  genius,  in  temper,  in  moral 
"views,  in  health,  in  happiness,"  and  living  in  "splendid  apart- 
"ments  in  the  palace  of  his  mistress's  husband,  who  is  one  of  the 
"  richest  men  in  Italy."  Fletcher,  like  his  master,  was  improved  in 
health ;  Tita  acted  as  Shelley's  valet.  Byron's  establishment,  writes 
Shelley  to  Peacock  (pp.  222,  223),  "  consists,  besides  servants,  of  ten 
"  horses,  eight  enormous  dogs,  three  monkeys,  five  cats,  an  eagle,  a 
"crow,  and  a  falcon  ;  and  all  these,  except  the  horses,  walk  about 
"  the  house,  which  every  now  and  then  resounds  with  their  unarbi- 
"  trated  quarrels,  as  if  they  were  the  masters  of  it."  In  a  postscript 
he  adds,  "  I  find  that  my  enumeration  of  the  animals  in  this  Circsean 
"  Palace  was  defective,  and  that  in  a  material  point.  I  have  just 
"met,  on  the  grand  staircase,  five  peacocks,  two  guinea-hens,  and 
"  an  Egyptian  crane.  I  wonder  who  all  these  animals  were  before 
"  they  were  changed  into  these  shapes." 

To  Byron's  mode  of  life  Shelley  adapted  his  own  simpler  habits 
as  best  he  could.  "  Lord  Byron  gets  up  at  two.  I  get  up — quite 
"contrary  to  my  usual  custom  (but  one  must  sleep  or  die,  like 
"  Southey's  sea-snake  in  Kehama}  at  twelve.  After  breakfast,  we 
"  sit  talking  till  six.  From  six  till  eight  we  gallop  through  the  pine 
"  forests  which  divide  Ravenna  from  the  sea.  We  then  come  home 
"and  dine,  and  sit  up  gossipping  till  six  in  the  morning."  Some- 
times the  evening  amusements  were  varied  by  pistol-shooting  at  a 
pumpkin.  In  their  after-dinner  talks  they  discussed  politics — the 
hope  of  liberty  for  Italy  and  Greece ;  Byron's  future  place  of  resi- 
dence— whether  Switzerland  or  Tuscany ;  the  charges  made  against 
Shelley  by  Elise  Foggi ;  and  literature — whether  poetry  and  criticism, 
matters  on  which  they  differed  more  than  ever ;  or  their  respective 
works — Byron  silent  as  to  Adonais,  loud  in  praise  of  Prometheus  and 
in  censure  of  the  Cenci ;  Shelley  cool  towards  Marino  Faliero  and 
the  Letter  on  Pope,  but  enthusiastic  over  Don  Juan.  For  Canto 
V.  Shelley's  admiration  was  strong  enough  to  satisfy  even  Byron. 
He  speaks  of  it  as  " transcendently  fine;"  "every  word  has  the 
"  stamp  of  immortality.  I  despair  of  rivalling  Lord  Byron,  as  well 
' '  I  may,  and  there  is  no  other  with  whom  it  is  worth  contending. 
'  This  canto  is  in  the  style,  but  totally,  and  sustained  with  incredible 
'ease  and  power,  like  the  end  of  the  second  canto.  There  is  not  a 
'  word  which  the  most  rigid  assertor  of  the  dignity  of  human  nature 
'  could  desire  to  be  cancelled.  It  fulfils,  in  a  certain  degr'  _-,  what 
"I  have  long  preached  of  producing— something  wholly  new  and 


me  in  a  criticism.  The  disloyalty  of  such  a  proceeding 
towards  a  foreigner,  who  has  uniformly  spoken  so  well  of 
M?  de  Stael  in  his  writings,  and  who,  moreover,  has  nothing 
to  do  with  continental  literature  or  Schlegel's  country  and 
countrymen,  is  such,  that  I  feel  a  strong  inclination  to 
bring  the  matter  to  a  personal  arbitrament,  provided  it 
can  be  done  without  being  ridiculous  or  unfair.  His 
intention,  however,  must  be  first  fully  ascertained,  before 
I  can  proceed ;  and  I  have  written  for  some  information 
on  the  subject  to  Mr.  Moore.  The  Man  was  also  my 
personal  acquaintance;  and  though  I  refused  to  flatter 
him  grossly  (as  M?  de  B.  requested  me  to  do),  yet  I 
uniformly  treated  him  with  respect — with  much  more, 
indeed,  than  any  one  else  :  for  his  peculiarities  are  such, 
that  they,  one  and  all,  laughed  at  him;  and  especially 
the  Abbe  Chevalier  di  Breme,  who  did  nothing  but  make 
me  laugh  at  him  so  much  behind  his  back,  that  nothing 
but  the  politeness,  on  which  I  pique  myself  in  society, 

"  relative  to  the  age,  and  yet  surpassingly  beautiful  "  (ibid.,  p.  219). 
On  Shelley's  arguments  Byron  gave  up  Switzerland.  Shelley 
thought  it  a  place  "  little  fitted  for  him  :  the  gossip  and  the  cabals  of 
"those  anglicized  coteries  would  torment  him,  as  they  did  before, 
"  and  might  exasperate  him  to  a  relapse  of  libertinism,  which  he 
"  says  he  plunged  into  not  from  taste,  but  despair  "  (ibid,,  p.  218). 

Finally,  Byron  decided  to  remain  in  Italy,  if  Madame  Guiccioli 
and  the  Gambas  would  consent.  Shelley  was  made  to  write  her  a 
letter  "in  lame  Italian,"  urging  the  "strongest  reasons"  he  could 
think  of  "against  the  Swiss  emigration;"  and  at  the  same  time 
(August  II,  ibid.t  pp.  224,  225)  he  wrote  to  his  wife,  asking  her  to 
"  inquire  if  any  of  the  large  palaces  are  to  be  let"  at  Pisa.  Con- 
vinced by  Shelley,  Madame  Guiccioli  gave  up  her  project  (August 
15),  adding  at  the  end  of  her  letter  the  words,  "  Sign  ore — la  vostra 
"  bonta  mi  fa  ardita  di  chiedervi  un  favore — me  lo  accorderete  voii 
"  Non  partite  da  Ravenna  senza  Milord  "  (ibid.,  p.  228).  By  Shelley 
the  Palazzo  Lanfranchi,  on  the  Lung'  Arno  at  Pisa,  was  taken  for 
Byron.  Another  result  of  the  visit  was  the  invitation  to  Leigh 
Hunt,  conveyed  in  Shelley's  letter  of  August  26,  1821  (ibid.,  pp. 
235-237),  to  come  to  Pisa,  and  "go  shares,"  with  Byron  and  him- 
self, "  in  a  periodical  work  to  be  conducted  here,  in  which  each  of 
' '  the  contracting  parties  should  publish  all  their  original  composi- 
"  tions,  and  share  the  profits." 

1 82 1.]  NATIVE   AND    FOREIGN    CRITICISM.  341 

could  have  prevented  me  from  doing  so  to  his  face.  He 
is  just  such  a  character  as  William  the  testy *  in  Irving's 
New  York.  But  I  must  have  him  out  for  all  that,  since 
his  proceeding  (supposing  it  to  be  true),  is  ungentlemanly 
in  all  its  bearings — at  least  in  my  opinion ;  but  perhaps 
my  partiality  misleads  me. 

It  appears  to  me  that  there  is  a  distinction  between 
native  and  foreign  criticism  in  the  case  of  living  authors, 
or  at  least  should  be ;  I  don't  speak  of  Journalists  (who 
are  the  same  all  over  the  world),  but  where  a  man,  with 
his  name  at  length,  sits  down  to  an  elaborate  attempt  to 
defame  a  foreigner  of  his  acquaintance,  without  provoca- 
tion and  without  legitimate  object :  for  what  can  I  import 
to  the  Germans?  What  effect  can  I  have  upon  their 
literature  ?  Do  you  think  me  in  the  wrong  ?  if  so,  say  so. 

Yours  ever, 

P.S. — I  mentioned  in  my  former  letters,  that  it  was 
my  intention  to  have  the  two  plays  published  immediately. 

Acknowledge  the  various  packets. 

I  am  extremely  angry  with  you,  I  beg  leave  to  add, 
for  several  reasons  too  long  for  present  explanation. 
Mr.  D.  K.  is  in  possession  of  some  of  them. 

I  have  just  been  turning  over  the  homicide  review  of 

I.  Washington  Irving's  History  of  Neiv  York,  bk.  iv.,  contains  the 
Chronicles  of  William  the  Testy.  Wilhelmus  Kieft,  by  nature, 
and  by  the  meaning  of  his  name,  a  "  wrangler  or  scolder"  "  had  not 
' '  been  a  year  in  the  government  of  the  province,  before  he  was 
'  universally  denominated  William  the  Testy.  His  appearance 
'  answered  to  his  name.  He  was  a  brisk,  wiry,  waspish  little  old 
'  g'  .man  :  ...  his  face  was  broad,  but  his  features  were  sharp  ; 
'  .a  cheeks  were  scorched  into  a  dusky  red  by  two  fiery  little  grey 
'  eyes ;  his  nose  turned  up,  and  the  corners  of  his  mouth  turned 
'  down,  pretty  much  like  the  muzzle  of  an  irritable  pug-dog.  .  .  . 
'  He  seldom  got  into  an  argument  without  getting  into  a  passion 
'  with  his  adversary  for  not  being  convinced  gratis  "  (A  Histoiy  of 
New  York,  by  Diedrich  Knickerbocker,  ed.  1864,  pp.  240,  241). 

342       THE    PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

J.  Keats.  It  is  harsh  certainly  and  contemptuous,  but 
not  more  so  than  what  I  recollect  of  the  Edinburgh  R.  of 
" the  Hours  of  Idleness"  in  1808.  The  Reviewer  allows 
him  "  a  degree  of  talent  which  deserves  to  be  put  in  the 
"  right  way,"  "  rays  of  fancy,"  "  gleams  of  Genius,"  and 
"powers  of  language."  It  is  harder  on  L.  Hunt  than 
upon  Keats,  and  professes  fairly  to  review  only  one  book 
of  his  poem.  Altogether,  though  very  provoking,  it  was 
hardly  so  bitter  as  to  kill,  unless  there  was  a  morbid  feel- 
ing previously  in  his  system. 

919. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  August  10,  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — Your  conduct  to  Mr.  Moore  is  certainly 
very  handsome ; 1  and  I  would  not  say  so  if  I  could  help 
it,  for  you  are  not  at  present  by  any  means  in  my  good 

With  regard  to  additions,  etc.,  there  is  a  Journal  which 
I  kept  in  1814  which  you  may  ask  him  for ;  also  a  Journal 
which  you  must  get  from  Mrs.  Leigh,  of  my  journey  in 
the  Alps,  which  contains  all  the  germs  of  Manfred.  I 
have  also  kept  a  small  Diary  here  for  a  few  months  last 
winter,  which  I  would  send  you,  and  any  continuation. 
You  would  easy  find  access  to  all  my  papers  and  letters, 
and  do  not  neglect  this  (in  case  of  accidents)  on  account  of 
the  mass  of  confusion  in  which  they  are ;  for  out  of  that 
chaos  of  papers  you  will  find  some  curious  ones  of  mine 
and  others,  if  not  lost  or  destroyed.  If  circumstances, 
however  (which  is  almost  impossible),  made  me  ever 
consent  to  a  publication  in  my  lifetime,  you  would  in  that 

I.  Moore  notes  in  his  Diary  for  July  27,  1821  (Memoirs,  vol.  iii. 
p.  260),  "  Received  also  a  letter  from  Murray,  consenting  to  give  me 
"  two  thousand  guineas  for  Lord  Byron's  Memoirs,  on  condition  that, 
"  in  case  of  survivorship,  I  should  consent  to  be  the  editor." 

1 82 1.]    MURRAY'S  PURCHASE  OF  THE  MEMOIRS.       343 

case,  I  suppose,  make  Moore  some  advance,  in  proportion 
to  the  likelihood  or  non-likelihood  of  success.  You  are 
both  sure  to  survive  me,  however. 

You  must  also  have  from  Mr.  Moore  the  correspond- 
ence between  me  and  Lady  B.,  to  whom  I  offered  the 
sight  of  all  which  regards  herself  in  these  papers.  This 
is  important.  He  has  her  letter,  and  a  copy  of  my 
answer.  I  would  rather  Moore  edited  me  than  another. 

I  sent  you  Valpy's  letter  to  decide  for  yourself,  and 
Stockdale's  to  amuse  you.  /  am  always  loyal  with  you, 
as  I  was  in  Galignani's  affair,  and  you  with  me — now  and 

I  return  you  Moore's  letter,  which  is  very  creditable 
to  him,  and  you,  and  me. 

Yours  ever, 

920. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  August  13*?'  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  think  it  as  well  to  remind  you  that, 
in  "the  Hints"  all  the  part,  which  regards  Jeffrey  and 
the  E.R.,  must  be  omitted.  Your  late  mistake  about  the 
Kelso-woman  induces  me  to  remind  you  of  this,  which  I 
appended  to  your  power  of  Attorney  six  years  ago,  viz., 
to  omit  all  that  could  touch  upon  Jeffrey  in  that  publica- 
tion, which  was  written  a  year  before  our  reconciliation 
in  1812. 

Have  you  got  the  Bust  ? 

I  expect  with  anxiety  the  proofs  of  The  Two  Foscaris. 


P.S. — Acknowledge  the  various  packets. 


921. — To  John  Murray. 

R=>  August  I6'!1  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  regret  that  Holmes  can't  or  won't 
come  :  it  is  rather  shabby,  as  I  was  always  very  civil 
and  punctual  with  him ;  but  he  is  but  one  rascal  more — 
one  meets  with  none  else  amongst  the  English. 

You  may  do  what  you  will  with  my  answer  to  Stock- 
dale,1  of  whom  I  know  nothing,  but  answered  his  letter 
civilly :  you  may  open  it,  and  burn  it  or  not,  as  you 
please.  It  contains  nothing  of  consequence  to  any-body. 
How  should  I,  or,  at  least,  was  I  then  to  know  that  he 
was  a  rogue  ?  I  am  not  aware  of  the  histories  of  London 
and  its  inhabitants. 

Your  more  recent  parcels  are  not  yet  arrived,  but  are 
probably  on  their  way. 

I  sprained  my  knee  the  other  day  in  swimming,  and 
it  hurts  me  still  considerably. 

I  wait  the  proofs  of  the  MSS.  with  proper  impatience. 

So  you  have  published,  or  mean  to  publish,  the  new 
Juans  1  an't  you  afraid  of  the  Constitutional  Assassination 
of  Bridge  street?  2  vhen  first  I  saw  the  name  of  Murray, 

1.  John  Joseph   Stockdale   (1770-1847),  whose  actions  against 
Hansard  (1836-40)  led  to  the  settlement  of  an  important  point  of 
"privilege,"  and  who  published  (1826)  the  disgraceful  Memoirs  of 
Harriette  Wilson. 

2.  The  Constitutional  Association  was  formed  to  prosecute,  by 
means  of  a  common  fund,  persons  charged  with  offences  against 
Church  and   State.     One   of  the  attorneys  to  the   association  was 
Charles  Murray.     Several  attempts  were  made  by  members  of  the 
Opposition  to  suppress  the  society  as  mischievous,   if  not  illegal. 
Brougham  in  the  House  of  Commons,  May  23,  1821  (Hansard,  N.S., 
vol.  v.  pp.  891,  892),  drew  the  attention  of  the  House  to  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  society,  and  on  May  30  (ibid.,  p.  1046)  to  the  circular 
"  to  the  Magistrates  of  England  "  issued  by  the  Bridge  Street  Com- 
mittee.    On  June  5   (ibid.,  p.    1114)  Dr.   Lushington  presented  a 
petition  from  Thomas  Dolby,  a  bookseller  in  the  Strand,  who  had 
been  prosecuted  by  the  society,  and  attacked  the  conduct  of  Charles 
Murray,  one  of  its  attorneys.     Hobhouse,  June  14  (ibid.,  p.  1181), 


I  thought  it  had  been  yours ;  but  was  solaced  by  seeing 
that  your  Synonime  is  an  Attorneo,  and  that  you  are  not 
one  of  that  atrocious  crew.1 

I  am  in  a  great  discomfort  about  the  probable  war, 
and  with  my  damned  trustees  not  getting  me  out  of  the 
funds.  If  the  funds  break,  it  is  my  intention  to  go  upon 
the  highway :  all  the  other  English  professions  are  at 
present  so  ungentlemanly  by  the  conduct  of  those  who 
follow  them,  that  open  robbery  is  the  only  fair  resource 
left  to  a  man  of  any  principles;  it  is  even  honest,  in 
comparison,  by  being  undisguised. 

I  wrote  to  you  by  last  post,  to  say  that  you  had  done 
the  handsome  thing  by  Moore  and  the  Memoranda. 
You  are  very  good  as  times  go,  and  would  probably  be 
still  better  but  for  the  "  March  of  events  "  (as  Napoleon 
called  it),  which  won't  permit  any  body  to  be  better  than 
they  should  be. 

Love  to  Gifford.     Believe  me, 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


presented  a  similar  petition  from  a  man  named  King.  Finally 
Whitbread,  July  3  (ibid.,  p.  1486),  proposed  that  an  address  be 
presented,  praying  His  Majesty  to  direct  the  Attorney-General  to 
enter  a  nolle  prosequi  against  all  indictments  laid  by  the  association  ; 
but  the  motion  was  lost.  On  June  5,  1821,  an  application  for 
warrants  to  apprehend  the  most  active  members  of  the  society,  was 
refused  by  the  Lord  Mayor. 

In  Dolby's  petition  to  the  House  of  Commons,  as  quoted  in  the 

Morning  Chronicle  for  June  6,  1821,  it  is  stated  that  Dolby  "had 

'  several   interviews  with  Mr.  Murray,  during  the  last   of  which 

'  terms  were  proposed  by  Mr.  Murray,  who,  in  consideration   of 

'your  Petitioner's  submitting  to  plead  guilty, and  enter 

'  into  an  engagement  not  to  sell  any  books  'which  the  Association 
'  might  deem  offensive  for  two  years,  offered  to  waive  bringing  up 
'  your  Petitioner  for  judgment."    Possibly  Byron  may  make  special 
reference  to  this  provision. 

I.  "  Many  persons  besides  you,"  writes  Murray  (Memoir,  vol.  i. 
p.  424),  on  September  6,  1821,. "have  at  first  supposed  that  I  was 
"the  person  of  the  same  name  connected  with  the  Constitutional 
"  Association,  but  without  consideration  ;  for  on  what  occasion  have 


P.S. — I  restore  Smith's 1  letter,  wJwm  thank   for  his 
good  opinion.     Is  the  Bust  by  Thorwaldsen  arrived  ? 

922. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  August  23d  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — Enclosed  are  the  two  acts  corrected. 
With  regard  to  the  charges  about  the  Shipwreck,' — I 
think  that  I  told  both  you  and  Mr.  Hobhouse,  years  ago, 
that  [there]  was  not  a  single  circumstance  of  it  not  taken 
from  fact;  not,  indeed,  from  any  single  shipwreck,  but 
all  from  actual  facts  of  different  wrecks.  Almost  all 
Don  Juan  is  real  life,  either  my  own,  or  from  people 
I  knew.  By  the  way,  much  of  the  description  of  the 
furniture^  in  Canto  3? ,  is  taken  from  Tultys  Tripoli  3  (pray 

'  I  identified  myself  with  a  party  ?  My  connexions  are,  I  believe, 
'  even  more  numerous  amongst  the  Whigs  than  the  Tories.  Indeed, 
'  the  Whigs  have  nearly  driven  away  the  Tories  from  my  house  ; 
'  and  Jeffrey  said,  '  If  you  wish  to  meet  the  most  respectable  of  the 
'  Whigs,  you  must  be  introduced  to  Mr.  Murray's  room.'  " 

1.  James  Smith,  brother  of  Horace,  and  joint  author  of  Rejected 

2.  In  the  Monthly  Magazine,  vol.  lii.  (August,  1821,  pp.  19-22, 
and  September,  1821,  pp.  105-109),  Byron's  indebtedness  to  Sir  J. 
G.   Dalyell's  Shipwrecks  and  Disasters  at  Sea  (Edinburgh,    1812, 
8vo)  is  pointed  out. 

3.  Richard  Tully,  Consul  at  Tripoli  1783-93,  wrote  a  Narrative 
of  a  Ten  Years'  Residence  at  the  Court  of  Tripoli.     Published  in  410 
in  1816,  the  book  reached  a  fourth  edition  in  1819.     Byron,  in  Don 
Juan  (Canto  III.  stanzas  Ixvii.-lxix.),  made  use  of  the  following 
passage  from  Tully's  Narrative  (2nd  edit.,  p.  135) : — 

"  The  hangings  of  the  room  were  of  tapestry,  made  in  pannels  of 
'  different  coloured  velvets,  thickly  inlaid  with  flowers  of  silk  damask ; 
'  a  yellow  border,  of  about  a  foot  in  depth,  finished  the  tapestry  at 
'  top  and  bottom,  the  upper  border  being  embroidered  with  Moorish 
'  sentences  from  the  Koran  in  lilac  letters.  The  carpet  was  of 
'  crimson  satin,  with  a  deep  border  of  pale  blue  quilted  :  this  is  laid 
'  over  Indian  mats  and  other  carpets.  In  the  best  part  of  the  room 
'  the  sofa  is  placed,  which  occupies  three  sides  of  an  alcove,  the 
'  floor  of  which  is  raised.  The  sofa  and  the  cushions  that  lay  around 
'  were  of  crimson  velvet :  the  centre  cushions  being  embroidered 
'  with  a  sun  in  gold  of  .highly  embossed  work,  the  rest  were  of  gold 
'  and  silver  tissue.  The  curtains  for  the  alcove  were  made  to  match 


note  this),  and  the  rest  from  my  own  observation.  Re- 
member, I  never  meant  to  conceal  this  at  all,  and  have 
only  not  stated  it,  because  Don  Juan  had  no  preface  nor 
name  to  it.  If  you  think  it  worth  while  to  make  this 
statement,  do  so,  in  your  own  way.  /  laugh  at  such 
charges,  convinced  that  no  writer  ever  borrowed  less,  or 
made  his  materials  more  his  own.  Much  is  coincidence  : 
for  instance,  Lady  Morgan  (in  a  really  excellent  book,  I 
assure  you,  on  Italy  1)  calls  Venice  an  Ocean  Rome ;  I 
have  the  very  same  expression  in  Foscari?  and  yet  you 
know  that  the  play  was  written  months  ago,  and  sent  to 
England.  The  Italy  I  received  only  on  the  i6th  in-'. 
Your  friend,  like  the  public,  is  not  aware,  that  my 
dramatic  simplicity  is  shidiously  Greek,  and  must  con- 
tinue so :  no  reform  ever  succeeded  at  first.  I  admire 
the  old  English  dramatists ;  but  this  is  quite  another  field, 
and  has  nothing  to  do  with  theirs.  I  want  to  make  a 
regular  English  drama,  no  matter  whether  for  the  Stage 
or  not,  which  is  not  my  object, — but  a  mental  tJieatre. 

Yours  ever, 

'  those  before  the  bed.  A  number  of  looking-glasses,  and  a  profu- 
'  sion  of  fine  china  and  chrystal  completed  the  ornaments  and  furni- 
'  ture  of  the  room,  in  which  there  were  neither  tables  nor  chairs. 
'  A  small  table,  about  six  inches  high,  is  brought  in  when  refresh- 
'  ments  are  served  :  it  is  of  ebony  inlaid  with  mother-of-pearl, 
'  tortoiseshell,  ivory,  gold  and  silver,  of  choice  woods,  or  of  plain 
'  mahogany,  according  to  the  circumstances  of  the  proprietor. 

1.  In  Italy  (vol.  iii.  pp.  263,  264  of  Galignani's  1821  edition),  Lady 
Morgan  writes,  "  As  the  bark,  however,  glides  on,  as   the  shore 

'  recedes,  and  the  city  of  the  waves,  the  Rome  of  the  ocean,  rises  on 
'  the  horizon,  the  spirits  rally,"  etc.,  etc.  (For  Lady  Morgan,  see 
Letters,  vol.  iii.  p.  no,  note  3.) 

2.  Tlu  Two  Foscari  was,  as  Byron's  MS.  note  records,  "begun 
"June  the  12^,  completed  July  the  9l.h,  Ravenna,   1821."      The 
phrase  occurs  in  act  iii.  sc.  I — 

"  Their  antique  energy  of  mind,  all  that 
Remain'd  of  Rome  for  their  inheritance, 
Created  by  degrees  an  ocean-Rome." 


Is  the  bust  arrived  ? 

P.S. — Can't  accept  your  courteous  offer.1 

For  Orford  and  for  Waldegrave 

You  give  much  more  than  me  you  gave; 

Which  is  not  fairly  to  behave, 

My  Murray ! 

Because  if  a  live  dog,  'tis  said, 

Be  worth  a  Lion  fairly  sped, 

A  live  lord  must  be  worth  two  dead, 

My  Murray ! 

And  if,  as  the  opinion  goes, 
Verse  hath  a  better  sale  than  prose — 
Certes,  I  should  have  more  than  those, 
My  Murray ! 

But  now  this  sheet  is  nearly  crammed, 
So,  if  you  will,  I  shan't  be  shammed, 
And  if  you  won't, — you  may  be  damned, 
My  Murray ! 

These  matters  must  be  arranged  with  Mr.  Douglas 
K.  He  is  my  trustee,  and  a  man  of  honour.  To  him 
you  can  state  all  your  mercantile  reasons,  which  you 
might  not  like  to  state  to  me  personally,  such  as  "  heavy 
"season"— "flat  public "— " don't  go  off "— " Lordship 
"  writes  too  much  " — "  won't  take  advice  " — "  declining 
"  popularity  " — "  deductions  for  the  trade  " — "  make  very 
"little" — "generally  lose  by  him" — "pirated  edition" 
— "  foreign  edition  " — "  severe  criticisms,"  etc.,  with  other 
hints  and  howls  for  an  oration,  which  I  leave  Douglas, 
who  is  an  orator,  to  answer. 

I.  I.e.  £2000  for  three  cantos  of  Don  yuan,  Sardanapalus,  and 
The  Two  Foscari. 

l82I.]  SELLING   A    LIFE   DEARLY.  349 

You  can  also  state  them  more  freely  to  a  third  person, 
as  between  you  and  me  they  could  only  produce  some 
smart  postscripts,  which  would  not  adorn  our  mutual 

I  am  sorry  for  the  Queen,1  and  that's  more  than 
you  are. 

923. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  August  24,  1821. 

Yours  of  the  5th  only  yesterday,  while  I  had  letters 
of  the  8th  from  London.  Doth  the  post  dabble  into  our 
letters?  Whatever  agreement  you  make  with  Murray, 
if  satisfactory  to  yoti,  must  be  so  to  me.  There  need  be 
no  scruple,  because,  though  I  used  sometimes  to  buffoon 
to  myself,  loving  a  quibble  as  well  as  the  barbarian  him- 
self (Shakspeare,  to  wit) — "  that,  like  a  Spartan,  I  would 
"sell  my  life  as  dearly  as  possible" — it  never  was  my 
intention  to  turn  it  to  personal  pecuniary  account,  but  to 
bequeath  it  to  a  friend — yourself — in  the  event  of  sur- 
vivorship. I  anticipated  that  period,  because  we  happened 
to  meet,  and  I  urged  you  to  make  what  was  possible  now 
by  it,  for  reasons  which  are  obvious.  It  has  been  no 
possible  privation  to  me,  and  therefore  does  not  require 
the  acknowledgments  you  mention.  So,  for  God's  sake, 
don't  consider  it  like  *  *  * 

By  the  way,  when  you  write  to  Lady  Morgan,  will 
you  thank  her  for  her  handsome  speeches  in  her  book 
about  my  books?  I  do  not  know  her  address.  Her 
work  is  fearless  and  excellent  on  the  subject  of  Italy — 
pray  tell  her  so — and  I  know  the  country.  I  wish  she 
had  fallen  in  with  me,  I  could  have  told  her  a  thing  or 
two  that  would  have  confirmed  her  positions. 

I.  Queen  Caroline  died  August  7,  1821. 

350       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

I  am  glad  you  are  satisfied  with  Murray,  who  seems 
to  value  dead  lords  more  than  live  ones.  I  have  just 
sent  him  the  following  answer  to  a  proposition  of  his, 

For  Orford  and  for  Waldegrave,  etc.1 

The  argument  of  the  above  is,  that  he  wanted  to 
"  stint  me  of  my  sizings,"  2  as  Lear  says, — that  is  to  say 
jwt  to  propose  an  extravagant  price  for  an  extravagant 
poem,  as  is  becoming.  Pray  take  his  guineas,  by  all 
means — /  taught  him  that.  He  made  me  a  filthy  offer 
of  pounds  once;  but  I  told  him  that,  like  physicians, 
poets  must  be  dealt  with  in  guineas,  as  being  the  only 
advantage  poets  could  have  in  the  association  with  them, 
as  votaries  of  Apollo.  I  write  to  you  in  hurry  and  bustle, 
which  I  will  expound  in  my  next. 

Yours  ever,  etc. 

P.S. — You  mention  something  of  an  attorney  on  his 
way  to  me  on  legal  business.  I  have  had  no  warning  of 
such  an  apparition.  What  can  the  fellow  want  ?  I  have 
some  lawsuits  and  business,  but  have  not  heard  of  any 
thing  to  put  me  to  the  expense  of  a  travelling  lawyer. 
They  do  enough,  in  that  way,  at  home. 

Ah,  poor  Queen !  But  perhaps  it  is  for  the  best,  if 
Herodotus's  anecdote  3  is  to  be  believed  *  *  * 

Remember  me  to  any  friendly  Angles  of  our  mutual 

1.  Here  follow  the  lines  given  in  the  previous  letter. 

2.  "  Tis  not  in  thee 

To  grudge  my  pleasures,  to  cut  off  my  train, 
To  bandy  hasty  words,  to  scant  my  sizes, 
And,  in  conclusion,  to  oppose  the  bolt 
Against  my  coming  in." 

King  Lear,  act  ii.  sc.  4. 

3.  The  goddess    Hera  taught  her  priestess  Cydippe,  mother  of 
Cleobis   and    Biton,    that  death  is  a   higher    boon  than    life    (wv 
&Hfn>ov  efrj  a.vOpd>ir(f  fia\\ov  t)  £a>fti> :  Herodotus,  i.  31). 

1821.]  LIBERTIES   WITH    HIS   WRITINGS.  351 

acquaintance.  What  are  you  doing  ?  Here  I  have  had 
my  hands  full  with  tyrants  and  their  victims.  There 
never  was  such  oppression,  even  in  Ireland,  scarcely ! 

924. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  August  31?  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — I  have  received  the  Juans*  which  are 
printed  so  carelessly,  especially  the  5^  Canto,  as  to  be 
disgraceful  to  me,  and  not  creditable  to  you.  It  really 
must  be  gone  over  again  with  the  Manuscript,  the  errors 
are  so  gross — words  added — changed — so  as  to  make 
cacophony  and  nonsense.  You  have  been  careless  of 
this  poem  because  some  of  your  Synod  don't  approve  of 
it ;  but  I  tell  you,  it  will  be  long  before  you  see  any  thing 
half  so  good  as  poetry  or  writing.  Upon  what  principle 
have  you  omitted  the  note  on  Bacon  and  Voltaire  ?  and 
one  of  the  concluding  stanzas  sent  as  an  addition  ?  because 
it  ended,  I  suppose,  with — 

And  do  not  link  two  virtuous  souls  for  life 
Into  that  moral  Centaur,  man  and  wife  ? 

Now,  I  must  say,  once  for  all,  that  I  will  not  permit 
any  human  being  to  take  such  liberties  with  my  writings 
because  I  am  absent.  I  desire  the  omissions  to  be 
replaced  (except  the  stanza  on  Semiramis) — particularly 
the  stanza  upon  the  Turkish  marriages;  and  I  request 
that  the  whole  be  carefully  gone  over  with  the  MSS. 

I  never  saw  such  stuff  as  is  printed : — Gulleyaz  instead 
of  Gulbeyaz,  etc.  Are  you  aware  that  Gulleyaz  is  a  real 

I.  Cantos  III.,  IV.,  and  V.  of  Don  yuan  were  published  together 
in  August,  1821,  without  the  name  of  author  or  publisher.  The 
sale  was  enormous.  "  The  booksellers'  messengers  filled  the  street 
"  in  front  of  the  house  in  Albemarle  Street,  and  the  parcels  of  books 
' '  were  given  out  of  the  window  in  answer  to  their  obstreperous 
"demands"  (Memoir  of  John  Murray,  vol.  i.  p.  413). 

352       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

name,  and  the  other  nonsense  ?  I  copied  the  Cantos  out 
carefully,  so  that  there  is  no  excuse,  as  the  Printer  reads, 
or  at  least  prints ,  the  MSS.  of  the  plays  without  error. 

If  you  have  no  feeling  for  your  own  reputation,  pray 
have  some  little  for  mine.  I  have  read  over  the  poem 
carefully,  and  I  tell  you,  //  is  poetry.  Your  little  envious 
knot  of  parson-poets  may  say  what  they  please  :  time  will 
show  that  I  am  not  in  this  instance  mistaken. 

Desire  my  friend  Hobhouse  to  correct  the  press, 
especially  of  the  last  Canto,  from  the  Manuscript  as  it  is : 
it  is  enough  to  drive  one  out  of  one's  senses,  to  see  the 
infernal  torture  of  words  from  the  original.  For  instance 
the  line — 

And  pair  their  rhymes  as  Venus  yokes  her  doves — 
is  printed — 

And  praise  their  rhymes,  etc. 

Also  '•'•precarious  "  for  "precocious ;  "  and  this  line,  stanza 

And  this  strong  extreme  effect  to  tire  no  longer.1 

Now  do  turn  to  the  Manuscript  and  see  if  I  ever  wrote 
such  a  line:  it  is  not  "verse. 

No  wonder  the  poem  should  fail  (which,  however,  it 
won't,  you  will  see)  with  such  things  allowed  to  creep 
about  it.  Replace  what  is  omitted,  and  correct  what  is 
so  shamefully  misprinted,  and  let  the  poem  have  fair 
play  ;  and  I  fear  nothing. 

I  see  in  the  last  two  Numbers  of  the  Quarterly  a 
strong  itching  to  assail  me  (see  the  review  of  the 
"  Etonian  "  2 )  :  let  it,  and  see  if  they  shan't  have  enough 

1.  "And  "  should  be  deleted.    The  line  runs  thus — 

"  This  strong  extreme  effect  (to  tire  no  longer 
Your  patience),"  etc.,  etc. 

2.  "  Godiva,"  says  the  Quarterly  Review  (vol.  xxv.  p.  106),  "  is 

1 82 1.]  A  REVIEWER   REVIEWED.  353 

of  it.  I  don't  allude  to  Gifford,  who  has  always  been 
my  friend,  and  whom  I  do  not  consider  as  responsible 
for  the  articles  written  by  others. 

But  if  I  do  not  give  Mr.  Milman,  and  others  of  the 
crew,  something  that  shall  occupy  their  dreams  !  I  have 
not  begun  with  the  Quarterers ;  but  let  them  look  to  it. 
As  for  Milman  (you  well  know  I  have  not  been  unfair  to 
his  poetry  ever),  but  I  have  lately  had  some  information 
of  his  critical  proceedings  in  the  Quarterly ,  which  may 
bring  that  on  him  which  he  will  be  sorry  for.  I  happen 
to  know  that  of  him,  which  would  annihilate  him,  when 
he  pretends  to  preach  morality — not  that  he  is  immoral, 

You  will  publish  the  plays  when  ready.  I  am  in  such 
a  humour  about  this  printing  of  Don  Juan  so  inaccurately, 
that  I  must  close  this. 

Yours  ever, 

P.S. — I  presume  that  you  have  not  lost  the  stanza  to 
which  I  allude  ?  it  was  sent  afterwards  :  look  over  my 
letters  and  find  it. 

The  Notes  you  can't  have  lost — you  acknowledged 
them  :  they  included  eight  or  nine  corrections  of  Bacon's 
mistakes  in  the  apophthegms. 

And  now  I  ask  once  more  if  such  liberties,  taken  in  a 
man's  absence,  are  fair  or  praise-worthy  ?  As  for  you,  you 

1  a  successful  imitation  of  the  new  Whistlecraft  style ;  we  think, 
'  however,  that  with  much  of  the  instinctive  delicacy  and  native 
'  gentility  of  the  poet  of  '  Gyges,'  the  author  has  not  succeeded  in 
'  handling  his  subject  with  the  same  dexterity  and  decorum  ;  and  if 
'  our  literature  is  to  be  disgraced  (as  is  threatened)  by  the  publication 
1  of  an  English  Pucelle,  we  do  not  wish  to  see,  in  a  work  like  The 
'  Etonian,  any  thing  which  may,  in  the  most  distant  degree,  remind 
'  us  of  such  compositions." 

VOL.  V.  2    A 


have  no  opinions  of  your  own,  and  never  had,  but  are 
blown  about  by  the  last  thing  said  to  you,  no  matter  by 

925. — To  John  Murray.1 


DEAR  SIR, — The  enclosed  letter  is  written  in  bad 
humour,  but  not  without  provocation.  However,  let  it 
(that  is,  the  bad  humour)  go  for  little ;  but  I  must  request 
your  serious  attention  to  the  abuses  of  the  printer,  which 
ought  never  to  have  been  permitted.  You  forget  that  all 
the  fools  in  London  (the  chief  purchasers  of  your  publica- 
tions) will  condemn  in  me  the  stupidity  of  your  printer. 
For  instance,  in  the  Notes  to  Canto  fifth,  "  the  Adriatic 
"  shore  of  the  Bosphorus,"  instead  of  the  Asiatic  !  !  All 
this  may  seem  little  to  you — so  fine  a  gentleman  with 
your  ministerial  connections ;  but  it  is  serious  to  me,  who 
am  thousands  of  miles  off,  and  have  no  opportunity  of  not 
proving  myself  the  fool  your  printer  makes  me,  except 
your  pleasure  and  leisure,  forsooth. 

The  Gods  prosper  you,  and  forgive  you,  for  I  won't. 


926. — To  J.  Mawman.2 

R?  A?  31*'  1821. 

L?  Byron  presents  his  Compliments  to  Mr.  Mawman 
and  would  be  particularly  glad  to  see  that  Gentleman  if 

1.  Written  in  the  envelope  of  the  preceding  letter. 

2.  Byron  gave  Mawman  a  copy  of  the  edition  of  Cantos  III.,  IV., 
V.  of  Don  Juan,  and  wrote  the  following  inscription  on  the  title- 
page  :— 

"to  J.  Mawman,  Esq™ 
"  from  the  Author. 

"SepU   I?1  1821. 

"  Mr.  Mawman  is  requested  to  show  this  copy  to  the  publisher 
"and  to  point  out  the  gross  printer's  blunders,  some  of  which  only 

1 82 1.]  TWO   PAPER   BOOKS.  355 

he  can  make  it  convenient  to  call  at  half  past  two  to- 
morrow afternoon. 

L/?  B.  takes  the  liberty  of  sending  his  Carriage  and 
horses  in  case  Mr.  M.  would  like  to  make  the  round  of 
the  remarkable  buildings  of  Ravenna. 

927. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  September  3,  1821. 

By  Mr.  Mawman  (a  paymaster  in  the  corps,  in  which 
you  and  I  are  privates)  I  yesterday  expedited  to  your 
address,  under  cover  one,  two  paper  books,1  containing 

"the  author  has  had  time  to  correct.  They  did  not  exist  in  the 
"  MSS.  but  are  owing  to  the  carelessness  of  the  printer,  etc." 

On  the  fly-leaf  at  the  end  of  the  volume  Mawman  has  written,  in 
pencil,  the  following  note  : — 

"  Ld.  B.  shewed  me  a  weather-beaten  scrawl  of  paper  which  he 
"  told  me  had  been  taken  off  the  pillar  in  the  market-place  of 
"  Ravenna,  on  which  was  offered  a  price  for  his  head.  Lord  B. 
"committed  to  my  care  a  small  packet  (of  a  small  410.  form  and 
"  appearing  to  contain  about  200  pages)  intended  for  Mr.  Moore, 
"the  poet,  at  Paris.  This  parcel  I  took  to  Brussels,  and  sent  it 
"  thence  thro'  the  Spanish  ambassador  resident  in  that  capital  to 
"  Paris.  In  October,  Mr.  Moore  called  at  my  house  in  London 
"  and  enquired  with  great  solicitude  for  this  Parcel.  I  told  him  how 
"  I  had  caused  it  to  be  conveyed  to  Paris.  He  afterwards  found  it 
"to  have  been  safely  delivered.  This  packet  I  believe  to  have 
"been  the  memoirs  of  Lord  Byron's  Life  which  were  afterwards 
"  destroyed."  The  copy  of  Don  Juan  is  now  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Edward  Pollock. 

I.  "One  of  the  'paper-books'  mentioned  in  this  letter,"  says 
Moore  (Life,  p.  527),  "as  intrusted  to  Mr.  Mawman  for  me,  con- 
"  tained  a  portion,  to  the  amount  of  nearly  a  hundred  pages,  of  a 
' '  prose  story,  relating  the  adventures  of  a  young  Andalusian  noble- 
"  man,  which  had  been  begun  by  him,  at  Venice,  in  1817.  The 
' '  following ;  passage  is  all  I  shall  extract  from  this  amusing 
"  Fragment : — 

"  '  A  few  hours  afterwards  we  were  very  good  friends,  and  a  few 
"  days  after  she  set  out  for  Arragon,  with  my  son,  on  a  visit  to  her 
"  father  and  mother.  I  did  not  accompany  her  immediately,  having 
"  been  in  Arragon  before,  but  was  to  join  the  family  in  their  Moorish 
"  chateau  within  a  few  weeks. 

"  '  During  her  journey  I  received  a  very  affectionate  letter  from 
"  Donna  Josepha,  apprising  me  of  the  welfare  of  herself  and  my  son. 


the  Gt'aour-na\,  and  a  thing  or  two.  It  won't  all  do — 
even  for  the  posthumous  public — but  extracts  from  it 
may.  It  is  a  brief  and  faithful  chronicle  of  a  month  or 
so — parts  of  it  not  very  discreet,  but  sufficiently  sincere. 
Mr.  Mawman  saith  that  he  will,  in  person  or  per  friend, 
have  it  delivered  to  you  in  your  Elysian  fields. 

If  you  have  got  the  new  Juans,  recollect  that  there 
are  some  very  gross  printer's  blunders,  particularly  in  the 
fifth  canto, — such  as  "  praise  "  for  "  pair  " — "  precarious  " 
for  "  precocious  " — "  Adriatic  "  for  "  Asiatic  " — "  case  " 
for  "chase" — besides  gifts  of  additional  words  and 

'  On  her  arrival  at  the  chateau,  I  received  another  still  more  afiec- 
'  donate,  pressing  me,  in  very  fond,  and  rather  foolish,  terms,  to 
4  join  her  immediately.  As  I  was  preparing  to  set  out  from  Seville, 
'  I  received  a  third — this  was  from  her  father,  Don  Jose  cli  Cardozo, 
'  who  requested  me,  in  the  politest  manner,  to  dissolve  my  marriage. 
'  I  answered  him  with  equal  politeness,  that  I  would  do  no  such 
'  thing.  A  fourth  letter  arrived — it  was  from  Donna  Josepha,  in 
'  which  she  informed  me  that  her  father's  letter  was  written  by  her 
'  particular  desire.  I  requested  the  reason  by  return  of  post — she 
4  replied,  by  express,  that  as  reason  had  nothing  to  do  with  the 
4  matter,  it  was  unnecessary  to  give  any — but  that  she  was  an  injured 
4  and  excellent  woman.  I  then  enquired  why  she  had  written  to  me 
4  the  two  preceding  affectionate  letters,  requesting  me  to  come  to 
'  Arragon.  She  answered,  that  was  because  she  believed  me  out  of 
'  my  senses — that,  being  unfit  to  take  care  of  myself,  I  had  only 
'  to  set  out  on  this  journey  alone,  and  making  my  way  without 
'  difficulty  to  Don  Jose  di  Cardozo's,  I  should  there  have  found  the 
'  tenderest  of  wives  and — a  strait  waistcoat. 

"  4 1  had  nothing  to  reply  to  this  piece  of  affection  but  a  reiteration 
'  of  my  request  for  some  lights  upon  the  subject.  I  was  answered, 
'  that  they  would  only  be  related  to  the  Inquisition.  In  the  mean 
4  time,  our  domestic  discrepancy  had  become  a  public  topic  of 
'  discussion  ;  and  the  world,  which  always  decides  justly,  not  only 
'  in  Arragon  but  in  Andalusia,  determined  that  I  was  not  only  to 
'  blame,  but  that  all  Spain  could  produce  nobody  so  blameable. 
'  My  case  was  supposed  to  comprise  all  the  crimes  which  could,  and 
4  several  which  could  not,  be  committed,  and  little  less  than  an 
'  auto-da-f£  was  anticipated  as  the  result.  But  let  no  man  say  that 
4  we  are  abandoned  by  our  friends  in  adversity — it  was  just  the 
4  reverse.  Mine  thronged  around  me  to  condemn,  advise,  and 
'  console  me  with  their  disapprobation. — They  told  me  all  that  was, 
4  would,  or  could  be  said  on  the  subject.  They  shook  their  heads — 
4  they  exhorted  me — deplored  me,  with  tears  in  their  eyes,  and — 
4  went  to  dinner.'  " 

1 82 1.]  A   FIERCE   LETTER.  357 

syllables,  which  make  but  a  cacophonous  rhythmus.  Put 
the  pen  through  the  said,  as  I  would  mine  through 
Murray's  ears,  if  I  were  alongside  him.  As  it  is,  I  have 
sent  him  a  rattling  letter,  as  abusive  as  possible.  Though 
he  is  publisher  to  the  "  Board  of  Longitude?  he  is  in  no 
danger  of  discovering  it. 

I  am  packing  for  Pisa — but  direct  your  letters  fiere, 
till  further  notice. 

Yours  ever,  etc. 

928. — To  John  Murray. 

Septr.  4'h  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — Enclosed  are  some  notes,  etc.  You  will 
also  have  the  goodness  to  hold  yourself  in  readiness  to 
publish  the  long  delayed  letter  to  Blackwoods,  etc. ;  but 
previously  let  me  have  a  proof  of  it,  as  I  mean  it  for  a 
separate  publication.  The  enclosed  note *  you  will  annex 
to  the  Foscaris  ;  also  the  dedication. 


929. — To  John  Murray. 

R?  September  4<h  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — By  Saturday's  post,  I  sent  you  a  fierce 
and  furibond  letter  upon  the  subject  of  the  printer's 
blunders  in  Don  Juan.  I  must  solicit  your  attention  to 
the  topic,  though  my  wrath  hath  subsided  into  sullenness. 

I.  This  note  probably  contained  Byron's  answer  to  Southey's 
Preface  to  A  Vision  of  Judgment.  The  Two  Foscari  (published 
December,  1821),  which  Byron  had  intended  to  dedicate  to  Scott, 
appeared,  in  consequence  of  the  attack  on  Southey,  without  a  dedi- 
cation. (For  fresh  proof  of  Byron's  dislike  to  Southey,  for  Southey's 
Preface  to  A  Vision  ofjudgm&it,  Byron's  reply,  Southey's  answer, 
and  other  references  to  the  dispute,  see  Liters,  vol.  vi.  Appendix  I.) 

358       THE    PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

Yesterday  I  received  Mr.  Mawman,  a  friend  of  yours, 
and  because  he  is  a  friend  of  yours  ;  and  that's  more  than 
I  would  do  in  an  English  case,  except  for  those  whom  I 
honour.  I  was  as  civil  as  I  could  be  among  packages, 
even  to  the  very  chairs  and  tables;  for  I  am  going  to 
Pisa  in  a  few  weeks,  and  have  sent  and  am  sending  off 
my  chattels.  It  regretted  me  that,  my  books  and  every 
thing  being  packed,  I  could  not  send  you  a  few  things  I 
meant  for  you ;  but  they  were  all  sealed  and  baggaged, 
so  as  to  have  made  it  a  Month's  work  to  get  at  them 
again.  I  gave  him  an  envelope,  with  the  Italian  Scrap 
in  it,1  alluded  to  in  my  Gilchrist  defence.  Hobhouse 
will  make  it  out  for  you,  and  it  will  make  you  laugh,  and 
him  too,  the  spelling  particularly.  The  " Mericani"  of 
whom  they  call  me  the  "  Capo "  (or  Chief),  mean 
"Americans,"  which  is  the  name  given  in  Romagna  to 
a  part  of  the  Carbonari ; 2  that  is  to  say,  to  the  popular 
part,  the  troops  of  the  Carbonari.  They  were  originally 
a  society  of  hunters  in  the  forest,  who  took  that  name  of 
Americans,  but  at  present  comprize  some  thousands,  etc.  \ 
but  I  shan't  let  you  further  into  the  secret,  which  may  be 
participated  with  the  postmasters.  Why  they  thought  me 
their  Chief,  I  know  not :  their  Chiefs  are  like  "  Legion, 
"  being  Many."  However,  it  is  a  post  of  more  honour 
than  profit,  for,  now  that  they  are  persecuted,  it  is  fit  that 
I  should  aid  them ;  and  so  I  have  done,  as  far  as  my 
means  will  permit.  They  will  rise  again  some  day,  for 
these  fools  of  the  Government  are  blundering :  they 
actually  seem  to  know  nothing;  for  they  have  arrested 
and  banished  many  of  their  own  party,  and  let  others 
escape  who  are  not  their  friends. 

1.  An  anonymous  letter  which  Byron  had  received,  threatening 
him  with  assassination. 

2.  See  p.  158,  note  I. 

l82I.]  EXCELLENCE   OF   THE  JUANS.  359 

What  thinkst  thou  of  Greece  ? 

Address  to  me  here  as  usual,  till  you  hear  further 
from  me. 

By  Mawman  I  have  sent  a  journal  to  Moore ;  but  it 
won't  do  for  the  public, — at  least  a  great  deal  of  it  won't ; 
— -parts  may. 

I  read  over  the  Juans,  which  are  excellent.  Your 
Synod  was  quite  wrong ;  and  so  you  will  find  by  and  bye. 
I  regret  that  I  do  not  go  on  with  it,  for  I  had  all  the  plan 
for  several  cantos,  and  different  countries  and  climes. 
You  say  nothing  of  the  note  I  enclosed  to  you,  which 
will  explain  why  I  agreed  to  discontinue  it  (at  Madame 
G.'s  request) ;  but  you  are  so  grand,  and  sublime,  and 
occupied,  that  one  would  think,  instead  of  publishing  for 
"the  Board  of  Longittide"  that  you  were  trying  to 
discover  it. 

Let  me  hear  that  Gifford  is  better.  He  can't  be  spared 
either  by  you  or  me. 

Enclosed  is  a  note,  which  I  will  thank  you  not  to 
forget  to  acknowledge  and  to  publish. 


930. — To  John  Murray. 

[Post-mark  dated  Sept.  9,  1821.] 

DEAR  SIR, — Will  you  have  the  goodness  to  forward 
the  enclosed  to  Mr.  Gilchrist,  whose  address  I  do  not 
exactly  know  ?  If  that  Gentleman  would  like  to  see  my 
second  letter  to  you,  on  the  attack  upon  himself,  you  can 
forward  him  a  copy  of  the  proof. 

Yours  ever, 



931. — To  John  Murray. 

Sept'.  9l.h  1821. 

DEAR  SIR,' — Please  to  forward  the  enclosed  also  to 
Mr.  Gilchrist. 

I  cut  my  finger,  in  diving  yesterday,  against  a  sharp 
shell,  and  can  hardly  write. 

Last  week,  I  sent  a  long  note  (in  English)  to  the  play  : 
let  me  have  a  proof  of  it ;  but,  as  I  am  in  haste,  you  can 
publish  the  play  with  the  whole  of  //,  except  the  part 
referring  to  SOUTHEY,  to  which  I  wish  to  add  something ; 
and  we  will  then  append  the  whole  to  a  re-print.  All 
the  part,  down  to  where  it  begins  on  that  rascal,  will  do 
for  publication  without  my  reviewing  it — that  is  to  say,  if 
your  printer  will  take  pains,  and  not  be  careless,  as  about 
the  newjuans. 

Let  me  hear  that  Mr.  Gifford  is  better,  and  your 
family  well. 


932. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  Sepf.  lol.h  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — By  this  post  I  send  you  three  packets 
containing  Cain,  a  Mystery  (i.e.  a  tragedy  on  a  sacred 
subject)  in  three  acts.1  I  think  that  it  contains  some 
poetry,  being  in  the  style  of  "Manfred"  Send  me  a 
proof  of  the  whole  by  return  of  post.  If  tJiere  is  time, 
publish  it  with  the  other  two:  if  not,  print  it  separately, 
and  as  soon  as  you  can. 

Of  the  dedications  (sent  lately),  I  wish  to  transfer  that 

I.   Cain,  a  Mystery,  was  published  by  Murray  with  Sardanapahts 
and  The  Tivo  Foscari  in  December,  1821. 

l82I.]  CAIN,  A  MYSTERY.  361 

to  Sir  Walter  Scott  to  this  drama  of  Cain,  reserving  that 
of  the  " Foscaris"  for  another,  for  a  particular  reason,  of 
which  more  by  and  bye.  Write. 


933. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  September  I2*.h  1821. 

DEAR  SIR, — By  Tuesday's  post,  I  forwarded,  in  three 
packets,  the  drama  of  "  Cain"  in  three  acts,  of  which  I 
request  the  acknowledgement  when  arrived.  To  the  last 
speech  of  Eve,  in  the  last  act  (i.e.  where  she  curses  Cain), 
add  these  three  lines  to  the  concluding  one — 

May  the  Grass  wither  from  thy  foot !  the  Woods 

Deny  thee  shelter  !  Earth  a  home  !  the  Dust 

A  Grave  !  the  Sun  his  light !  and  Heaven  her  God  ! 

There's  as  pretty  a  piece  of  Imprecation  for  you,  when 
joined  to  the  lines  already  sent,  as  you  may  wish  to  meet 
with  in  the  course  of  your  business.  But  don't  forget  the 
addition  of  the  above  three  lines,  which  are  clinchers  to 
Eve's  speech. 

Let  me  know  what  Gifford  thinks  (if  the  play  arrives 
in  safety) ;  for  I  have  a  good  opinion  of  the  piece,  as 
poetry :  it  is  in  my  gay  metaphysical  style,  and  in  the 
Manfred  line. 

You  must  at  least  commend  my  facility  and  variety, 
when  you  consider  what  I  have  done  within  the  last 
fifteen  months,  with  my  head,  too,  full  of  other  and  of 
mundane  matters.  But  no  doubt  you  will  avoid  saying 
any  good  of  it,  for  fear  I  should  raise  the  price  upon  you  : 
that's  right — stick  to  business  !  Let  me  know  what  your 
other  ragamuffins  are  writing,  for  I  suppose  you  don't  like 

362       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

starting  too  many  of  your  Vagabonds  at  once.     You  may 
give  them  the  start,  for  any  thing  I  care. 

If  this  arrives  in  time  to  be  added  to  the  other  two 
dramas,  publish  them  togetfar :  if  not,  publish  it  separately, 
in  the  same  form,  to  tally  for  the  purchasers.  Let  me 
have  a  proof  of  the  whole  speedily.  It  is  longer  than 

Why  don't  you  publish  my  Pulcil1  the  best  thing  I 
ever  wrote,  with  the  Italian  to  it.  I  wish  I  was  alongside 
of  you  :  nothing  is  ever  done  in  a  man's  absence ;  every 
body  runs  counter,  because  they  can.  If  ever  I  do  return 
to  England,  (which  I  shan't  though,)  I  will  write  a  poem 
to  which  English  Bards,  etc.,  shall  be  New  Milk,  in  com- 
parison. Your  present  literary  world  of  mountebanks 
stands  in  need  of  such  an  Avatar ;  but  I  am  not  yet  quite 
bilious  enough :  a  season  or  two  more,  and  a  provocation 
or  two,  will  wind  me  up  to  the  point,  and  then,  have  at 
the  whole  set ! 

I  have  no  patience  with  the  sort  of  trash  you  send  me 
out  by  way  of  books ;  except  Scott's  novels,  and  three  or 
four  other  things,  I  never  saw  such  work  or  works. 
Campbell  is  lecturing,  Moore  idling,  Southey  twaddling, 
Wordsworth  driveling,  Coleridge  muddling,  Joanna  Baillie 
piddling,  Bowles  quibbling,  squabbling,  and  sniveling. 
Milman  will  do,  if  he  don't  cant  too  much,  nor  imitate 
Southey  :  the  fellow  has  poesy  in  him ;  but  he  is  envious, 
and  unhappy,  as  all  the  envious  are.  Still  he  is  among 
the  best  of  the  day.  Barry  Cornwall  will  do  better  by 
and  bye,  I  dare  say,  if  he  don't  get  spoilt  by  green  tea, 
and  the  praises  of  Pentonville  and  Paradise  Row.  The 
pity  of  these  men  is,  that  they  never  lived  either  in  high 

I.  Byron's  translation  of  the  first  Canto  of  Luigi  Pulci's  Morgante 
Maggiore,  with  the  Italian,  was  published  in  the  Liberal,  No.  iv. 
pp.  I93-249- 

l82I.]        FREE  OF  THE  CORPORATION.         363 

life^  nor  in  solitiide:  there  is  no  medium  for  the  knowledge 
of  the  busy  or  the  still  world.  If  admitted  into  high  life 
for  a  season,  it  is  merely  as  spectators — they  form  no  part 
of  the  Mechanism  thereof.  Now  Moore  and  I,  the  one 
by  circumstances,  and  the  other  by  birth,  happened  to  be 
free  of  the  corporation,  and  to  have  entered  into  its 
pulses  and  passions,  qitarum  partes  fidnms.  Both  of  us 
have  learnt  by  this  much  which  nothing  else  could  have 
taught  us. 


P.S. — I  saw  one  of  your  brethren,  another  of  the 
Allied  Sovereigns  of  Grub-Street,  the  other  day,  viz. : 
Mawman  the  Great,  by  whom  I  sent  due  homage  to  your 
imperial  self.  Tomorrow's  post  may  perhaps  bring  a 
letter  from  you;  but  you  are  the  most  ungrateful  and 
ungracious  of  correspondents.  But  there  is  some  excuse 
for  you,  with  your  perpetual  levee  of  politicians,  parson- 
scribblers,  and  loungers :  some  day  I  will  give  you  a 
poetical  Catalogue  of  them. 

The  post  is  come  :  no  letter,  but  never  mind. 

How  is  Mrs.  Murray,  and  Gifford  ?    Better  ?    Say  well. 

My  Compliments  to  Mr.  Heber *  upon  his  Election. 

I.  Richard  Heber  (1773-1833)  was  elected  M.P.  for  the  University 
of  Oxford,  August  24,  1821.  The  vacancy  was  caused  by  the 
elevation  of  Sir  William  Scott  to  the  peerage.  At  the  end  of  the 
poll  the  candidates  stood  thus — 

Mr.  Heber 612 

Sir  John  Nicholl    519 

Majority  for  Mr.  Ileber 93 


934. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  September  17,  1821. 

The  enclosed  lines,1  as  you  will  directly  perceive,  are 
written  by  the  Rev.  W.  L.  B  *  *.  Of  course  it  is  for  him 
to  deny  them  if  they  are  not. 

Believe  me,  yours  ever  and  most  affectionately, 


P.S. — Can  you  forgive  this?  It  is  only  a  reply  to 
your  lines  against  my  Italians.  Of  course  I  will  stand  by 
my  lines  against  all  men ;  but  it  is  heartbreaking  to  see 
such  things  in  a  people  as  the  reception  of  that  unre- 
deemed ******  in  an  oppressed  country.  Your 
apotheosis  is  now  reduced  to  a  level  with  his  welcome, 
and  their  gratitude  to  Grattan  is  cancelled  by  their 
atrocious  adulation  of  this,  etc.,  etc.,  etc. 

935. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  September  19,  1821. 

I  am  in  all  the  sweat,  dust,  and  blasphemy  of  an 
universal  packing  of  all  my  things,  furniture,  etc.,  for 

I.  " To  the  Irish  Avatar  "— 
"  Ere  the  daughter  of  Brunswick  is  cold  in  her  grave,"  etc. 

The  following  sentence  from  a  letter  of  Curran  is  prefixed  as  a 
motto :  "  And  Ireland,  like  a  bastinadoed  elephant,  kneeling  to 
"  receive  the  paltry  rider"  (Life  of  Curran,  vol.  ii.  p.  336).  At  the 
end  of  the  verses  are  these  words  :  "  (Signed)  W.  L.  B  *  *,  M.A., 
"  and  written  with  a  view  to  a  Bishoprick."  Moore  notes  in  his 
Diary  for  November  3,  1821  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol.  iii.  pp.  297,  298), 
"  Received  Lord  B.'s  tremendous  verses  against  the  King  and  the 
"  Irish,  for  their  late  exhibition  in  Dublin  ;  richly  deserved  by  my 
"  servile  countrymen,  but  not,  on  this  occasion,  by  the  King,  who, 
"  as  far  as  he  was  concerned,  acted  well  and  wisely."  Byron  was 
indignant  that  George  IV.  should  have  made  his  triumphal  entry 
into  Dublin  when  his  wife  was  lying  dead  in  London.  The  king 
reached  the  Vice-Regal  Lodge  at  Dublin,  August  12  ;  the  queen's 
funeral  procession  left  London  for  Harwich,  August  14. 

1 82 1.]  SWITZERLAND.  365 

Pisa,  whither  I  go  for  the  winter.  The  cause  has  been 
the  exile  of  all  my  fellow  Carbonics,  and,  amongst  them, 
of  the  whole  family  of  Madame  G. ;  who,  you  know,  was 
divorced  from  her  husband  last  week,  "on  account  of 
"  P.P.  clerk  of  this  parish,"  l  and  who  is  obliged  to  join 
her  father  and  relatives,  now  in  exile  there,  to  avoid 
being  shut  up  in  a  monastery,  because  the  Pope's  decree 
of  separation  required  her  to  reside  in  casa  paterna^  or 
else,  for  decorum's  sake,  in  a  convent.  As  I  could  not 
say  with  Hamlet,  "  Get  thee  to  a  nunnery,"  I  am  pre- 
paring to  follow  them. 

It  is  awful  work,  this  love,  and  prevents  all  a  man's 
projects  of  good  or  glory.  I  wanted  to  go  to  Greece 
lately  (as  every  thing  seems  up  here)  with  her  brother, 
who  is  a  very  fine,  brave  fellow  (I  have  seen  him  put  to 
the  proof),  and  wild  about  liberty.  But  the  tears  of  a 
woman  who  has  left  her  husband  for  a  man,  and  the 
weakness  of  one's  own  heart,  are  paramount  to  these 
projects,  and  I  can  hardly  indulge  them. 

We  were  divided  in  choice  between  Switzerland  and 
Tuscany,  and  I  gave  my  vote  for  Pisa,  as  nearer  the 
Mediterranean,  which  I  love  for  the  sake  of  the  shores 
which  it  washes,  and  for  my  young  recollections  of  1809. 
Switzerland  is  a  curst  selfish,  swinish  country  of  brutes, 
placed  in  the  most  romantic  region  of  the  world.  I 
never  could  bear  the  inhabitants,  and  still  less  their  Eng- 
lish visitors ;  for  which  reason,  after  writing  for  some 
information  about  houses,  upon  hearing  that  there  was  a 

I.  An  allusion  to  Pope's  Memoirs  of  P.P.,  Clerk  of  this  Parish. 
These  Memoirs,  which  begin  thus  :  "In  the  Name  of  the  Lord. 
"  Amen.  I,  P.P.  by  the  grace  of  God  Clerk  of  this  Parish,  writeth 
"  this  History,"  were  supposed  to  be  written  in  ridicule  of  Bishop 
Burnet's  History  of  my  own  Times.  Pope,  in  the  Prolegomena  to  The 
Dunciad,  denied  this  ;  but  see  Courthope's  edition  of  Pope's  Works, 
vol.  x.  p.  435,  note  I. 

366       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

colony  of  English  all  over  the  cantons  of  Geneva,  etc.,  I 
immediately  gave  up  the  thought,  and  persuaded  the 
Gambas  to  do  the  same. 

By  the  last  post  I  sent  you  "  The  Irish  Avatar," — 
what  think  you  ?  The  last  line — "  a  name  never  spoke 
"  but  with  curses  or  jeers  "• — must  run  either  "  a  name 
"  only  uttered  with  curses  or  jeers,"  or,  "  a  wretch  never 
"named  but  with  curses  or  jeers."  Becase  as  how, 
"  spoke "  is  not  grammar,  except  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons ;  and  I  doubt  whether  we  can  say  "  a  name  spoken" 
for  mentioned.  I  have  some  doubts,  too,  about  "  repay," 
— "and  for  murder  repay  with  a  shout  and  a  smile." 
Should  it  not  be,  "  and  for  murder  repay  him  with  shouts 
"  and  a  smile,"  or  "  reward  him  with  shouts  and  a 

So,  pray  put  your  poetical  pen  through  the  MS.  and 
take  the  least  bad  of  the  emendations.  Also,  if  there  be 
any  further  breaking  of  Priscian's  head,  will  you  apply  a 
plaster  ?  I  wrote  in  the  greatest  hurry  and  fury,  and  sent 
it  to  you  the  day  after ;  so,  doubtless,  there  will  be  some 
awful  constructions,  and  a  rather  lawless  conscription  of 

With  respect  to  what  Anna  Seward  calls  "  the  liberty 
"of  transcript," — when  complaining  of  Miss  Matilda 
Muggleton,  the  accomplished  daughter  of  a  choral  vicar 
of  Worcester  Cathedral,  who  had  abused  the  said  "  liberty 
"of  transcript,"  by  inserting  in  the  Malvern  Mercury 
Miss  Seward's  "  Elegy  on  the  South  Pole,"  as  her  own 
production,  with  her  own  signature,  two  years  after  having 
taken  a  copy,  by  permission  of  the  authoress — with  re- 
gard, I  say,  to  the  "liberty  of  transcript,"  I  by  no 
means  oppose  an  occasional  copy  to  the  benevolent 
few,  provided  it  does  not  degenerate  into  such  licen- 
tiousness of  Verb  and  Noun  as  may  tend  to  "  disparage 

1821.]  "THE  IRISH  AVATAR."  367 

"  my  parts  of  speech " l  by  the  carelessness  of  the 

I  do  not  think  that  there  is  much  danger  of  the 
"  King's  Press  being  abused "  upon  the  occasion,  if  the 
publishers  of  journals  have  any  regard  for  their  remaining 
liberty  of  person.  It  is  as  pretty  a  piece  of  invective 
as  ever  put  publisher  in  the  way  to  "  Botany."  There- 
fore, if  they  meddle  with  it,  it  is  at  their  peril.  As  for 
myself,  I  will  answer  any  jontleman — though  I  by  no 
means  recognise  a  "  right  of  search  "  into  an  unpublished 
production  and  unavowed  poem.  The  same  applies  to 
things  published  sans  consent.  I  hope  you  like,  at  least 
the  concluding  lines  of  the  Pome  ? 

What  are  you  doing,  and  where  are  you  ?  in  England  ? 
Nail  Murray — nail  him  to  his  own  counter,  till  he  shells 
out  the  thirteens.  Since  I  wrote  to  you,  I  have  sent  him 
another  tragedy — Cain2  by  name — making  three  in 

1.  "There,  sir,  an  attack  upon  my  language!     What  do  you 
"  think  of  that  ? — an  aspersion  upon  my  parts  of  speech  !     Was  ever 
"such  a  brute  ?"     (Mrs.   Malaprop,  in   The  Rivals,  act  iii.  sc.  3). 
"  Was  it  you  that  reflected  on  my  parts  of  speech?  "  (ibid.,  act  iv. 
sc.  2). 

2.  Byron,  in  a  note  to  his  Preface  to  Cain,  says,  "  The  reader 
"will perceive  that  the  author  has  partly  adopted  in  this  poem  the 
"  notion  of  Cuvier,  that  the  world  had  been  destroyed  several  times 
"before  the  creation  of  man." 

The  reference  is  to  Cuvier's  Discours  sur  les  revolutions  de  la 
surface  du  globe,  translated  in  1813  by  Robert  Kerr,  under  the  title 
of  "  Essay  on  the  Theory  of  the  Earth."  Cuvier's  words  are  (Dis- 
cours, etc.,  ed.  1825,  p.  282) — 

"  Je  pense  done,  avec  MM.  Deluc  et  Dolomieu,  que,  s'il  y  a  quel- 

"  que  chose  de  constate  en  geologic,  c'est  que  la  surface  de  notre 

'  globe  a  etc  victime   d'une  grande  et   subite  revolution,  dont  la 

'  date  ne  peut  remonter  beaucoup  au  deli  de  cinq  ou  six  mille  ans  ; 

'  que   cette   revolution   a   enfonce  et   fait  disparaitre   les  pays  qu" 

'  habitaient   auparavant   les  hommes  .  .  .  qu'elle  a,  au  contraire, 

'  mis  a  sec  le  fond  de  la  derniere  mer,  et  en  a  forme  les  pays  aujour- 

"  d'hui  habites  .   .  .  Mais  ces  pays  aujourd'hui  habites,  et  que  la 

"  derniere  revolution  a  mis  a  sec,  avaient  deja  etc  habites  aupara- 

"  vant,  si  non  par  des  hommes,  du  moins  par  des  animaux  terrestres  : 

' '  par   consequent   une  revolution  precedente,  au   moins,  les  avail 

"  mis  sous  les  eaux ;  et,  si  1'on  peut  en  juger  par  les  differens  ordres 

368        THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

MS.  now  in  his  hands,  or  in  the  printer's.  It  is  in  the 
Manfred  metaphysical  style,  and  full  of  some  Titanic 
declamation; — Lucifer  being  one  of  the  dram. per s.^  who 
takes  Cain  a  voyage  among  the  stars,  and  afterwards  to 
"  Hades,"  where  he  shows  him  the  phantoms  of  a  former 
world,  and  its  inhabitants.  I  have  gone  upon  the  notion 
of  Cuvier,  that  the  world  has  been  destroyed  three  or 
four  times,  and  was  inhabited  by  mammoths,  behemoths, 
and  what  not ;  but  not  by  man  till  the  Mosaic  period,  as, 
indeed,  is  proved  by  the  strata  of  bones  found; — those 
of  all  unknown  animals,  and  known,  being  dug  out,  but 
none  of  mankind.  I  have,  therefore,  supposed  Cain  to 
be  shown,  in  the  rational  Preadamites,  beings  endowed 
with  a  higher  intelligence  than  man,  but  totally  unlike 
him  in  form,  and  with  much  greater  strength  of  mind  and 
person.  You  may  suppose  the  small  talk  which  takes 
place  between  him  and  Lucifer  upon  these  matters  is  not 
quite  canonical. 

The  consequence  is,  that  Cain  comes  back  and  kills 
Abel  in  a  fit  of  dissatisfaction,  partly  with  the  politics  of 
Paradise,  which  had  driven  them  all  out  of  it,  and  partly 
because  (as  it  is  written  in  Genesis)  Abel's  sacrifice 
was  the  more  acceptable  to  the  Deity.  I  trust  that  the 
Rhapsody  has  arrived — it  is  in  three  acts,  and  entitled 
" A  Mystery"  according  to  the  former  Christian  custom, 
and  in  honour  of  what  it  probably  will  remain  to  the  reader. 

Yours,  etc. 

'd'animaux  dont  on  y  trouve  les  depouilles,  ils  avaient  peut-etre 
'  subi  jusqu'a  deux  ou  trois  irruptions  de  la  mer." 

In  August,  1829,  Goethe  at  Weimar  told  Crabb  Robinson 
Diary,  vol.  ii.  p.  435,  et  seqq.)  that  "  '  Byron  should  have  lived  to 
'  execute  his  vocation.'  '  And  that  was  ? '  I  asked.  '  To  dramatize 
'  the  Old  Testament.  What  a  subject  under  his  hands  would  the 
'  Tower  of  Babel  have  been !  '  He  continued,  '  You  must  not 
'  take  it  ill ;  but  Byron  was  indebted  for  the  profound  views  he  took 
'  of  the  Bible  to  the  ennui  he  suffered  from  it  at  school '  (Goethe 
'  calls  ennui  (Langeweile)  the  Mother  of  the  Muses)." 

1821.]  A   MERE   BUFFOONERY.  369 

936. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

September  20,  1821. 

After  the  stanza  on  Grattan,  concluding  with  "His 
"soul  o'er  the  freedom  implored  and  denied,"  will  it 
please  you  to  cause  insert  the  following  "Addenda," 
which  I  dreamed  of  during  to-day's  Siesta : — 

Ever  glorious  Grattan  !  etc.,  etc.,  etc. 

I  will  tell  you  what  to  do.  Get  me  twenty  copies  of  the 
whole  carefully  and  privately  printed  off,  as  your  lines 
were  on  the  Naples  affair.  Send  me  six,  and  distribute 
the  rest  according  to  your  own  pleasure. 

I  am  in  a  fine  vein,  "so  full  of  pastime  and  prodi- 
"  gality  ! " — So  here's  to  your  health,  in  a  glass  of  grog. 
Pray  write,  that  I  may  know  by  return  of  post — address 
to  me  at  Pisa.  The  Gods  give  you  joy  ! 

Where  are  you?  in  Paris?  Let  us  hear.  You  will 
take  care  that  there  be  no  printer's  name,  nor  author's,  as 
in  the  Naples  stanza,  at  least  for  the  present. 

937. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  Septr.  201!1  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — You  need  not  send  "  The Bhies"  1 
which  is  a  mere  buffoonery,  never  meant  for  publication. 

The  papers  to  which  I  allude,  in  case  of  Survivorship, 
are  collections  of  letters,  etc.,  since  I  was  sixteen  years 
old,  contained  in  the  trunks  in  the  care  of  Mr.  Hobhouse. 
This  collection  is  at  least  doubled  by  those  I  have  now 
here ;  all  received  since  my  last  Ostracism.  To  these  I 
should  wish  the  Editor  to  have  access,  not  for  the  purpose 
of  abusing  confidences^  nor  of  hurting  the  feelings  of 

I.   The  Blues :  a  Literary  Eclogue  was  published  in  the  Liberal, 
No.  iii.  pp.  1-2 1. 

VOL.  V.  2    B 


correspondents  living,  or  the  memories  of  the  dead ;  but 
there  are  things  which  would  do  neither,  that  I  have  left 
unnoticed  or  unexplained,  and  which  (like  all  such  things) 
Time  only  can  permit  to  be  noticed  or  explained,  though 
some  are  to  my  credit.  The  task  will,  of  course,  require 
delicacy;  but  that  will  not  be  wanting,  if  Moore  and 
Hob  house  survive  me,  and,  I  may  add,  yourself;  and 
that  you  may  all  three  do  so,  is,  I  assure  you,  my  very 
sincere  wish.  I  am  not  sure  that  long  life  is  desirable 
for  one  of  my  temper  and  constitutional  depression  of 
Spirits,  which  of  course  I  suppress  in  society ;  but  which 
breaks  out  when  alone,  and  in  my  writings,  in  spite  of 
myself.  It  has  been  deepened,  perhaps,  by  some  long 
past  events  (I  do  not  allude  to  my  marriage,  etc. — on  the 
contrary,  that  raised  them  by  the  persecution  giving  a 
fillip  to  my  Spirits) ;  but  I  call  it  constitutional,  as  I  have 
reason  to  think  it.  You  know,  or  you  do  not  know,  that 
my  maternal  Grandfather1  (a  very  clever  man,  and 
amiable,  I  am  told)  was  strongly  suspected  of  Suicide 
(he  was  found  drowned  in  the  Avon  at  Bath),  and  that 
another  very  near  relative  of  the  same  branch  took 
poison,  and  was  merely  saved  by  antidotes.  For  the 
first  of  these  events  there  was  no  apparent  cause,  as  he 
was  rich,  respected,  and  of  considerable  intellectual 
resources,  hardly  forty  years  of  age,  and  not  at  all  ad- 
dicted to  any  unhinging  vice.  It  was,  however,  but  a 
strong  suspicion,  owing  to  the  manner  of  his  death  and 
to  his  melancholy  temper.  The  second  had  a  cause,  but 
it  does  not  become  me  to  touch  upon  it ;  it  happened 
when  I  was  far  too  young  to  be  aware  of  it,  and  I  never 
heard  of  it  till  after  the  death  of  that  relative,  many  years 

I.  Byron's  great-grandfather,  Alexander  Davidson  Gordon,  was 
drowned  in  the  Ythan  in  1 760,  and  his  grandfather,  George  Gordon, 
in  the  canal  at  Bath  in  1779.  In  both  cases  there  was  suspicion  of 

l82I.]  A  VERY  ODD  FANCY.  371 

afterwards.  I  think,  then,  that  I  may  call  this  dejection 
constitutional.  I  had  always  been  told  that  in  temper  I 
more  resembled  my  maternal  Grandfather  than  any  of 
my  fathers  family — that  is,  in  the  gloomier  part  of  his 
temper,  for  he  was  what  you  call  a  good  natured  man, 
and  I  am  not. 

The  Journal  here  I  sent  by  Mawman  to  Moore  the 
other  day ;  but  as  it  is  a  mere  diary,  only  parts  of  it  would 
ever  do  for  publication.  The  other  Journal,  of  the  tour 
in  1816,  I  should  think  Augusta  might  let  you  have  a 
copy  of;  but  her  nerves  have  been  in  such  a  state  since 
1815,  that  there  is  no  knowing.  Lady  Byron's  people, 
and  L?  Caroline  Lamb's  people,  and  a  parcel  of  that  set, 
got  about  her  and  frightened  her  with  all  sorts  of  hints 
and  menaces,  so  that  she  has  never  since  been  able  to 
write  to  me  a  clear  common  letter,  and  is  so  full  of  mysteries 
and  miseries,  that  I  can  only  sympathize,  without  always 
understanding  her.  All  my  loves,  too,  make  a  point  of 
calling  upon  her,  which  puts  her  into  a  flutter  (no  diffi- 
cult matter);  and,  the  year  before  last  I  think,  Lady 
F.  W.  W.  marched  in  upon  her,  and  Lady  O.,  a  few 
years  ago,  spoke  to  her  at  a  party ;  and  these  and  such 
like  calamities  have  made  her  afraid  of  her  shadow.  It 
is  a  very  odd  fancy  that  they  all  take  to  her :  it  was  only 
six  months  ago,  that  I  had  some  difficulty  in  preventing 
the  Countess  G.  from  invading  her  with  an  Italian  letter. 
I  should  like  to  have  seen  Augusta's  face,  with  an  Etruscan 
Epistle,  and  all  its  Meridional  style  of  isstmas,  and  other 
superlatives,  before  her. 

I  am  much  mortified  that  Gifford  don't  take  to  my  new 
dramas :  to  be  sure,  they  are  as  opposite  to  the  English 
drama  as  one  thing  can  be  to  another;  but  I  have  a 
notion  that,  if  understood,  they  will  in  time  find  favour 
(though  not  on  the  stage)  with  the  reader.  The  Simplicity 

372       THE   PALAZZO    GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

of  plot  is  intentional,  and  the  avoidance  of  rant  also,  as 
also  the  compression  of  the  Speeches  in  the  more  severe 
situations.  What  I  seek  to  show  in  The  Foscaris  is  the 
suppressed  passion,  rather  than  the  rant  of  the  present 
day.  For  that  matter — 

"  Nay,  if  thou'lt  mouth, 
I'll  rant  as  well  as  them  " — 

would  not  be  difficult,  as  I  think  I  have  shown  in  my 
younger  productions — not  dramatic  ones,  to  be  sure. 
But,  as  I  said  before,  I  am  mortified  that  Gifford  don't 
like  them;  but  I  see  no  remedy,  our  notions  on  the 
subject  being  so  different.  How  is  he  ?  well,  I  hope : 
let  me  know.  I  regret  his  demur  the  more  that  he  has 
been  always  my  grand  patron,  and  I  know  no  praise 
which  would  compensate  me  in  my  own  mind  for  his 
censure.  I  do  not  mind  reviews,  as  I  can  work  them  at 
their  own  weapons. 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


P.S. — By  the  way,  on  our  next  settlement  (which  will 
take  place  with  Mr.  Kinnaird),  you  will  please  to  deduct 
the  various  sums  for  books,  packages  received  and  sent,  the 
bust,  tooth-powder,  etc.,  etc.,  expended  by  you  on  my 

Hobhouse,  in  his  preface  to  "  Rimini?  will  probably 
be  better  able  to  explain  my  dramatic  system,  than  I 
could  do,  as  he  is  well  acquainted  with  the  whole  thing. 
It  is  more  upon  the  Alfieri  School  than  the  English. 

I  hope  that  we  shall  not  have  Mr.  Rogers  here :  there 
is  a  mean  minuteness  in  his  mind  and  tittle-tattle  that  I 
dislike,  ever  since  I  found  him  out  (which  was  but  slowly) ; 
besides  he  is  not  a  good  man :  why  don't  he  go  to  bed  ? 
What  does  he  do  travelling  ? 

l82I.]  SIX  CONDITIONS.  373 

The  Journal  of  1814  I  dare  say  Moore  will  give,  or  a 

Has  Cain  (the  dramatic  third  attempt),  arrived  yet  ? 
Let  me  know. 

Address  to  me  at  Pisa,  whither  I  am  going.  The 
reason  is,  that  all  my  Italian  friends  here  have  been 
exiled,  and  are  met  there  for  the  present ;  and  I  go  to 
join  them,  as  agreed  upon,  for  the  Winter. 

938. — To  John  Murray. 

Ravenna,  September  24^  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  have  been  thinking  over  our  late 
correspondence,  and  wish  to  propose  to  you  the  following 
articles  for  our  future  : — 

jstiy  That  you  shall  write  to  me  of  yourself,  of  the 
health,  wealth,  and  welfare  of  all  friends ;  but  of  me  (quoad 
me)  little  or  nothing. 

2d!y  That  you  shall  send  me  Soda  powders,  tooth- 
powder,  tooth-brushes,  or  any  such  anti-odontalgic  or 
chemical  articles,  as  heretofore,  ad  libitum,  upon  being 
re-imbursed  for  the  same. 

3d!y  That  you  shall  not  send  me  any  modern,  or  (as 
they  are  called)  new,  publications  in  English  whatsoever, 
save  and  excepting  any  writing,  prose  or  verse,  of  (or 
reasonably  presumed  to  be  of)  Walter  Scott,  Crabbe, 
Moore,  Campbell,  Rogers,  Gifford,  Joanna  Baillie,  Irving 
(the  American),  Hogg,  Wilson  (Isle  of  Palms  Man),  or 
any  especial  single  work  of  fancy  which  is  thought  to  be 
of  considerable  merit ;  Voyages  and  travels,  provided  that 
they  are  neither  in  Greece,  Spain,  Asia  Minor,  Albania, 
nor  Italy,  will  be  welcome :  having  travelled  the  countries 
mentioned,  I  know  that  what  is  said  of  them  can  convey 
nothing  further  which  I  desire  to  know  about  them.  No 
other  English  works  whatsoever. 

374       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

4tl!ly  That  you  send  me  no  periodical  works  whatsoever — 
no  Edinburgh^  Quarterly ',  Monthly,  nor  any  Review,  Maga- 
zine, Newspaper,  English  or  foreign,  of  any  description. 

gthiy  Tnat  yOU  sen(j  me  no  opinions  whatsoever,  either 
good,  bad,  or  indifferent,  of  yourself,  or  your  friends,  or 
others,  concerning  any  work,  or  works,  of  mine,  past, 
present,  or  to  come. 

gthiy  That  a|i  negotiations  in  matters  of  business  be- 
tween you  and  me  pass  through  the  medium  of  the 
Honb'e  Douglas  Kinnaird,  my  friend  and  trustee,  or  Mr. 
Hobhouse,  as  Alter  Ego,  and  tantamount  to  myself 
during  my  absence,  or  presence. 

Some  of  these  propositions  may  at  first  seem  strange, 
but  they  are  founded.  The  quantity  of  trash  I  have 
received  as  books  is  incalculable,  and  neither  amused  nor 
instructed.  Reviews  and  Magazines  are  at  the  best  but 
ephemeral  and  superficial  reading :  who  thinks  of  the 
grand  article  of  last  year  in  any  given  review  ?  in  the  next 
place,  if  they  regard  myself,  they  tend  to  increase  Egotism  ; 
if  favourable,  I  do  not  deny  that  the  praise  elates,  and  if 
unfavourable,  that  the  abuse  irritates — the  latter  may 
conduct  me  to  inflict  a  species  of  Satire,  which  would 
neither  do  good  to  you  nor  to  your  friends  :  they  may 
smile  now,  and  so  may  you ;  but  if  I  took  you  all  in 
hand,  it  would  not  be  difficult  to  cut  you  up  like  gourds. 
I  did  as  much  by  as  powerful  people  at  nineteen  years 
old,  and  I  know  little  as  yet,  in  three  and  thirty,  which 
should  prevent  me  from  making  all  your  ribs  Gridirons 
for  your  hearts,  if  such  were  my  propensity.  But  it  is 
not.  Therefore  let  me  hear  none  of  your  provocations. 
If  any  thing  occurs  so  very  gross  as  to  require  my  notice, 
I  shall  hear  of  it  from  my  personal  friends.  For  the 
rest,  I  merely  request  to  be  left  in  ignorance. 

The  same  applies  to  opinions,  good,  bad,  or  indifferent, 

1 82 1.]         PRAISE  OR   CENSURE   BY   REVIEWERS.  375 

of  persons  in  conversation  or  correspondence :  these  do 
not  interrupt,  but  they  soil  the  current  of  my  Mind,  I 
am  sensitive  enough,  but  not  till  I  am  touched;  and  here 
I  am  beyond  the  touch  of  the  short  arms  of  literary 
England,  except  the  few  feelers  of  the  Polypus  that  crawl 
over  the  Channel  in  the  way  of  Extract. 

All  these  precautions  in  England  would  be  useless : 
the  libeller  or  the  flatterer  would  there  reach  me  in  spite 
of  all ;  but  in  Italy  we  know  little  of  literary  England, 
and  think  less,  except  what  reaches  us  through  some 
garbled  and  brief  extract  in  some  miserable  Gazette. 
For  two  years  (excepting  two  or  three  articles  cut  out  and 
sent  to  you,  by  the  post)  I  never  read  a  newspaper  which 
was  not  forced  upon  me  by  some  accident,  and  know, 
upon  the  whole,  as  little  of  England  as  you  all  do  of 
Italy,  and  God  knows  that  is  little  enough,  with  all  your 
travels,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.  The  English  travellers  know  Italy 
as  you  know  Guernsey :  how  much  is  that? 

If  any  thing  occurs  so  violently  gross  or  personal  as 
to  require  notice,  Mr.  Ds-  Kinnaird  will  let  me  know  ;  but 
of  praise  I  desire  to  hear  nothing. 

You  will  say,  "  to  what  tends  all  this  ?  "  I  will  answer 
THAT; — to  keep  my  mmdfree  and  unbiassed  by  all  paltry 
and  personal  irritabilities  of  praise  or  censure; — to  let 
my  Genius  take  its  natural  direction,  while  my  feelings 
are  like  the  dead,  who  know  nothing  and  feel  nothing  of 
all  or  aught  that  is  said  or  done  in  their  regard. 

If  you  can  observe  these  conditions,  you  will  spare 
yourself  and  others  some  pain  :  let  me  not  be  worked 
upon  to  rise  up ;  for  if  I  do,  it  will  not  be  for  a  little  :  if 
you  can  not  observe  these  conditions,  we  shall  cease  to 
be  correspondents,  but  not  friends  ;  for  I  shall  always  be 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 


376       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

P.S. — I  have  taken  these  resolutions  not  from  any 
irritation  against  you  or  yours,  but  simply  upon  reflection 
that  all  reading,  either  praise  or  censure,  of  myself  has 
done  me  harm.  When  I  was  in  Switzerland  and  Greece, 
I  was  out  of  the  way  of  hearing  either,  and  how  I  wrote 
tJiere  !  In  Italy  I  am  out  of  the  way  of  it  too;  but 
latterly,  partly  through  my  fault,  and  partly  through  your 
kindness  in  wishing  to  send  me  the  newest  and  most 
periodical  publications,  I  have  had  a  crowd  of  reviews, 
etc.,  thrust  upon  me,  which  have  bored  me  with  their 
jargon,  of  one  kind  or  another,  and  taken  off  my  attention 
from  greater  objects.  You  have  also  sent  me  a  parcel  of 
trash  of  poetry,  for  no  reason  that  I  can  conceive,  unless 
to  provoke  me  to  write  a  new  English  Bards.  Now 
this  I  wish  to  avoid ;  for  if  ever  I  do,  it  will  be  a  strong 
production ;  and  I  desire  peace,  as  long  as  the  fools  will 
keep  their  nonsense  out  of  my  way. 

939. — To  John  Murray. 

Sepf.  27'!'  1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — Give  the  enclosed  to  Moore  when 
he  comes  over,  as  he  is  about  to  do.  It  contains  some- 
thing for  you  to  look  at,  but  not  for  publication.  Address 
to  Pisa. 

I  thought  Ricciardetto  was  Rose's,  but  pray  thank  Lord 
Glenbervie *  therefor.  He  is  an  old  and  kind  friend  of 

I.  Lord  Glenbervie's  translation,  The  First  Canto  of  Ricciardetto, 
translated  from  the  Italian  of  Forteguerri,  etc.,  was  privately  printed 
in  1821.  It  was  published  with  the  translator's  name  in  1822. 
By  his  wife,  the  Hon.  Catherine  Anne  North,  daughter  of  Lord 
North,  the  Prime  Minister,  he  had  one  son,  the  Hon.  Frederick 
Sylvester  North  Douglas  (born  1791,  died  1819).  Frederick  Douglas 
is  called  by  Byron  "the  modern  Greek,"  because  of  his  Essay  on 
Certain  Points  of  Resemblance  between  the  Ancient  and  Modern  Greeks 

l82I.]  THE   HIGH   ROMAN    FASHION.  377 

mine,  if  it  be  the  old  man  you  mean.  Is  the  young  one 
dead  or  alive  ?  I  mean  the  "  modern  Greek  " — Frederick 
S.  Douglas? 

Moore  and  you  can  settle  between  you  about  the 
"  Memoranda : "  /  can  only  do  what  I  can  to  accommo- 
date arrangements,  as  fixed  between  you,  which  I  shall 
do  readily  and  cheerfully. 

Yours  in  haste, 


P.S. — Is  Cain  arrived?  He  was  sent  on  the  n°?  in 
three  packets.  Did  you  get  a  new  Italian  account  of  M. 
Faliero's  Conspiracy  for  a  note,  sent  two  months  ago  by 
the  post  ?  and  printed  for  the  first  time  ? 

940. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

September  27,  1821. 

It  was  not  Murray's  fault.  I  did  not  send  the  MS. 
overture,  but  I  send  it  now,1  and  it  may  be  restored;— or, 
at  any  rate,  you  may  keep  the  original,  and  give  any 
copies  you  please.  I  send  it,  as  written,  and  as  I  read 
it  to  you — I  have  no  other  copy. 

By  last  week's  two  posts,  in  two  packets,  I  sent  to 
your  address,  at  Paris,  a  longish  poem  upon  the  late 
Irishism  of  your  countrymen  in  their  reception  of  the 
King.  Pray,  have  you  received  it  ?  It  is  in  "  the  high 
"  Roman  fashion,"  and  full  of  ferocious  phantasy.  As  you 
could  not  well  take  up  the  matter  with  Paddy  (being  of 
the  same  nest),  I  have  j — but  I  hope  still  that  I  have 
done  justice  to  his  great  men  and  his  good  heart.  As 

I.  "The  lines  'Oh  Wellington,'  which  I  had  missed  in  their 
'•  original  place  at  the  opening  of  the  Third  Canto,  and  took  for 
"  granted  that  they  had  been  suppressed  by  his  publisher"  (Moore). 


for  Castlereagh  you  will  find  it  laid  on  with  a  trowel.     I 
delight  in  your  "  fact  historical " l — is  it  a  fact  ? 

Yours,  etc. 

P.S. — You  have  not  answered  me  about  Schlegel — 
why  not  ?  Address  to  me  at  Pisa,  whither  I  am  going, 
to  join  the  exiles — a  pretty  numerous  body  at  present. 
Let  me  hear  how  you  are,  and  what  you  mean  to  do.  Is 
there  no  chance  of  your  recrossing  the  Alps  ?  If  the  G. 
Rex  marries  again,  let  him  not  want  an  Epithalamium — 
suppose  a  joint  concern  of  you  and  me,  like  Sternhold 
and  Hopkins ! 

941. — To  John  Murray. 

Sept?   28^  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — I  add  another  cover  to  request  you 
to  ask  Moore  to  obtain  (if  possible)  my  letters  to  the  late 
Lady  Melbourne  from  Lady  Cowper.  They  are  very 
numerous,  and  ought  to  have  been  restored  long  ago,  as 
I  was  ready  to  give  back  Lady  M.'s  in  exchange :  these 
latter  are  in  Mr.  Hobhouse's  custody  with  my  other 
papers,  and  shall  be  punctually  restored  if  required.  I 
did  not  choose  before  to  apply  to  Lady  Cowper,  as  her 
mother's  death  naturally  kept  me  from  intruding  upon 
her  feelings  at  the  time  of  its  occurrence.  Some  years 
have  now  elapsed,  and  it  is  essential  that  I  should  have 
my  own  epistles.  They  are  essential  as  confirming  that 
part  of  the  "  Memoranda  "  which  refer  to  the  two  periods 
(1812  and  1814)  when  my  marriage  with  her  niece  was 

I.  Perhaps  the  "  fact  historical  "  is  a  story  told  by  Moore,  in  his 
Diary  for  August  23,  1821  (Metnoirs,  vol.  iii.  p.  270).  Sir  E.  Nagle 
announced  the  death  of  Napoleon  to  George  IV.  by  "  saying,  '  I  have 
"  the  pleasure  to  tell  your  Majesty  that  your  bitterest  enemy  is  dead.' 
" '  No  !  is  she,  by  God  ? '  said  the  King.  Put  this  into  verse 

l82I.]  A    HINT   OR   TWO.  379 

in  contemplation,  and  will  tend  to  show  what  my  real 
views  and  feelings  were  upon  that  subject,  which  have 
been  so  variously  represented.  You  need  not  let  this 
motive  be  stated  to  L?  Cr- ,  as  it  in  no  degree  concerns 
tier  particularly ;  but  if  they  refuse  to  give  them  up  (or 
keep  back  any — recollect  that  they  are  in  great  quantity), 
it  would  become  the  duty  of  the  Editor  and  my  Executors 
to  refer  to  parts  of  Lady  Melbourne's  letters — so  that  the 
thing  is  as  broad  as  it  is  long.  They  involve  also  many 
other  topics,  which  may  or  may  not  be  referred  to, 
according  to  the  discretion  of  Moore,  etc.,  when  the  time 

You  need  not  be  alarmed :  the  "fourteen  years  " l  will 
hardly  elapse  without  some  mortality  amongst  us ;  it  is  a 
long  lease  of  life  to  speculate  upon.  So  your  Cent  per 
Cent  Shylock  Calculation  will  not  be  in  so  much  peril,  as 
the  "  Argosie  "  will  sink  before  that  time,  and  "  the  pound 
"  of  flesh  "  be  withered  previously  to  your  being  so  long 
out  of  a  return. 

I  also  wish  to  give  you  a  hint  or  two  (as  you  have 
really  behaved  very  handsomely  to  M.  in  the  business, 
and  are  a  fine  fellow  in  your  line)  for  your  advantage. 
If  by  your  own  management  you  can  extract  any  of  my 
epistles  from  \2  Caroline  Lamb  (mind  she  don't  give  you 
forgeries  in  my  hand :  she  has  done  as  much  you  know 
before  now)  they  might  be  of  use  in  your  collection 
(sinking  of  course  the  names  and  all  such  circumstances  as 
might  hurt  living  feelings,  or  those  of  survivors);  they 
treat  of  more  topics  than  love  occasionally. 

As  to  those  to  other  correspondents  (female,  etc.), 
there  are  plenty  scattered  about  in  the  world ;  but  how 
to  direct  you  to  recover  them,  I  know  not :  most  of  them 
have  kept  them — I  hear  at  least  that  L?  O.,  and  F.  W. 

I.  See  p.  271,  note  2. 


have  kept  theirs;  but  these  letters  are  of  course  inac- 
cessible (and  perhaps  not  desirable),  as  well  as  those  of 
some  others. 

I  will  tell  you  who  may  happen  to  have  some  letters 
of  mine  in  their  possession :  Lord  Powerscourt,  some  to 
his  late  brother ;  Mr.  Long  of — (I  forget  his  place) — but 
the  father  of  Edward  Long  of  the  Guards,  who  was 
drowned  in  going  to  Lisbon  early  in  1809 ;  Miss  Elizabeth 
Pigot,  of  Southwell,  Notts  (she  may  be  Mistress  by  this 
time,  for  she  had  more  years  than  I) :  they  were  not  love- 
letters,  so  that  you  might  have  them  without  scruple. 
There  are,  or  might  be,  some  to  the  late  Rev?  J.  C. 
Tattersall,  in  the  hands  of  his  brother  (half-brother) 
Mr.  Wheatley,  who  resides  near  Canterbury,  I  think. 
There  are  some  to  Charles  Gordon,  now  of  Dulwich ; 
and  some  few  to  Mrs.  Chaworth;  but  these  latter  are 
probably  destroyed  or  inaccessible. 

All  my  letters  to  Lady  B.,  before  and  since  her  mar- 
riage, are  in  her  possession,  as  well  as  her  own  which  I 
sent  to  her :  she  had  not  the  courtesy  to  restore  me  mine ; 
but  never  mind ;  though  they  were  too  much  to  my  credit 
for  her  to  give  them  back,  we  can  do  without  them. 

I  mention  these  people  and  particulars  merely  as 
chances:  most  of  them  have  probably  destroyed  the 
letters,  which  in  fact  were  of  little  import,  most  of  them 
written  when  very  young,  and  several  at  School  and 

Peel  (the  second  brother  of  the  Secretary)  was  a  cor- 
respondent of  mine,  and  also  Porter,  the  son  of  the 
Bishop  of  Clogher ;  Lord  Clare  a  very  voluminous  one ; 
William  Harness  (a  friend  of  Jew  Milman's)  another; 
Charles  Drummond  (son  of  the  Banker) ;  William  Bankes 
(the  Voyager) ;  your  friend  R.  C.  Dallas,  Esqr?.  Hodgson, 
Henry  Drury,  Hobhouse,  you  were  already  aware  of. 

1821.]  A   LIST   OF   CORRESPONDENTS.  381 

I  have  gone  through  this  long  list l  of 

"  The  cold,  the  faithless,  and  the  dead,"  * 

because  I  know  that,  like  "  the  curious  in  fish  sauce," 
you  are  a  researcher  of  such  things. 

Besides  these,  there  are  other  occasional  ones  to 
literary  men  and  so  forth,  complimentary,  etc.,  etc.,  etc., 
not  worth  much  more  than  the  rest.  There  are  some 
hundreds,  too,  of  Italian  notes  of  mine,  scribbled  with  a 
noble  contempt  of  the  grammar  and  dictionary,  and  in 
very  English  Etruscan ;  for  I  speak  Italian  very  fluently, 
but  write  it  carelessly  and  incorrectly  to  a  degree. 

942. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

September  29,  1821. 

I  send  you  two  rough  things,  prose  and  verse,  not 
much  in  themselves,  but  which  will  show,  one  of  them, 

1.  "  To  all  the  persons  upon  this  list  who  were  accessible,  applica- 
1  tion  has,  of  course,  been  made, — with  what  success  it  is  in  the 
'  reader's  power  to  judge  from  the  communications  that  have  been 
'  laid  before  him.     Among  the  companions  of  the  poet's  boyhood 
'  there  are  (as  I  have  already  had  occasion  to  mention  and  regret) 
'  but  few  traces  of  his  youthful  correspondence  to  be  found  ;  and  of 
'  all  those  who  knew  him  at  that  period,  his  fair  Southwell  corre- 
'  spondent  alone  seems  to  have  been  sufficiently  endowed  with  the 
'  gift  of  second-sight  to  anticipate  the  Byron  of  a  future  day,  and 
'  foresee  the  compound  interest  that  Time  and  Fame  would  accumu- 
'  late  on  every  precious  scrap  of  the  young  bard  which  she  hoarded. 
'  On  the  whole,  however,  it  is  not  unsatisfactory  to  be  able  to  state 
'  that,  with  the  exception  of  a  very  small  minority  (only  one  of 
'  whom  is  possessed  of  any  papers  of  much  importance),  every  dis- 
'  tinguished  associate  and  intimate  of  the  noble  poet,  from  the  very 
'  outset  to  the  close  of  his  extraordinary  career,  has  come  forward 
'  cordially  to  communicate  whatever  memorials  they  possessed  of 
'  him, — trusting,  as  I  am  willing  to  flatter  myself,  that  he  confided 
'  these  treasures  to  one,  who,  if  not  able  to  do  full  justice  to  the 
'  memory  of  their  common  friend,  would,  at  least,   not  willingly 
'  suffer  it  to  be  dishonoured  in  his  hands  "  (Moore). 

2.  "  They  come,  in  dim  procession  led, 

The  cold,  the  faithless,  and  the  dead." 

The  Lady  of  the  Lake,  Canto  I.  stanza  xxxiii. 


the  state  of  the  country,  and  the  other,  of  your  friend's 
mind,  when  they  were  written.  Neither  of  them  were 
sent  to  the  person  concerned,  but  you  will  see,  by  the 
style  of  them,  that  they  were  sincere,  as  I  am  in  signing 

Yours  ever  and  truly, 

Of  the  two  enclosures,  one  was  a  letter  intended  to  be  sent  to 
Lady  Byron,  from  which  Moore  (.Life,  p.  534)  made  the  following 
extracts : — 

943. — To  Lady  Byron. 

Ravenna,  Marza  I  mo,  1821. 

I  have  received  your  message,  through  my  sister's 
letter,  about  English  security,  etc.,  etc.  It  is  considerate, 
(and  true,  even,)  that  such  is  to  be  found — but  not  that  I 
shall  find  it.  Mr.  *  *,  for  his  own  views  and  purposes, 
will  thwart  all  such  attempts  till  he  has  accomplished  his 
own,  viz.  to  make  me  lend  my  fortune  to  some  client  of 
his  choosing. 

At  this  distance — after  this  absence,  and  with  my 
utter  ignorance  of  affairs  and  business — with  my  temper 
and  impatience,  I  have  neither  the  means  nor  the  mind 
to  resist  *  *  *  *  Thinking  of  the  funds  as  I  do,  and 
wishing  to  secure  a  reversion  to  my  sister  and  her  children, 
I  should  jump  at  most  expedients. 

What  I  told  you  is  come  to  pass — the  Neapolitan  war 
is  declared.  Your  funds  will  fall,  and  I  shall  be  in  con- 
sequence ruined.  That's  nothing — but  my  blood  relations 
will  be  so.  You  and  your  child  are  provided  for.  Live 
and  prosper — I  wish  so  much  to  both.  Live  and  prosper 
— you  have  the  means.  I  think  but  of  my  real  kin  and 
kindred,  who  may  be  the  victims  of  this  accursed  bubble. 

1 82 1.]  A    CHARITY   BALL.  383 

You  neither  know  nor  dream  of  the  consequences  of 
this  war.  It  is  a  war  of  men  with  monarchs,  and  will 
spread  like  a  spark  on  the  dry,  rank  grass  of  the  vegetable 
desert.  What  it  is  with  you  and  your  English,  you  do 
not  know,  for  ye  sleep.  What  it  is  with  us  here,  I  know, 
for  it  is  before,  and  around,  and  within  us. 

Judge  of  my  detestation  of  England  and  of  all  that  it 
inherits,  when  I  avoid  returning  to  your  country  at  a  time 
when  not  only  my  pecuniary  interests,  but,  it  may  be,  even 
my  personal  security,  require  it.  I  can  say  no  more,  for 
all  letters  are  opened.  A  short  time  will  decide  upon 
what  is  to  be  done  here,  and  then  you  will  learn  it  with- 
out being  more  troubled  with  me  or  my  correspondence. 
Whatever  happens,  an  individual  is  little,  so  the  cause  is 

I  have  no  more  to  say  to  you  on  the  score  of  affairs, 
or  on  any  other  subject. 

The  second  enclosure  consisted  of  some  verses,  written  by  Byron, 
December  10,  1820,  on  seeing  the  following  paragraph  in  a  news- 
paper : — "  Lady  Byron  is  this  year  the  Lady  Patroness  of  the  Annual 
"  Charity  Ball  given  in  the  Town  Hall  at  Hinckley,  hi  Leicestershire, 
"and  Sir  George  Crewe,  Bart.,  the  principal  Steward."  The  para- 
graph will  be  found  in  the  Morning  Chronicle  for  Tuesday,  Novem- 
ber 21,  1820.  From  these  verses,  Moore  prints  the  following  : — 

What  matter  the  pangs  of  a  husband  and  father, 
If  his  sorrows  in  exile  be  great  or  be  small, 

So  the  Pharisee's  glories  around  her  she  gather, 
And  the  saint  patronises  her  "  Charity  Ball." 

What  matters — a  heart,  which  though  faulty  was  feeling, 
Be  driven  to  excesses  which  once  could  appal — 

That  the  sinner  should  suffer  is  only  fair  dealing, 
As  the  saint  keeps  her  charity  back  for  "  the  Ball," 
etc.,  etc. 

384       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

944. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

September — no — October  I,  1821. 

I  have  written  to  you  lately,  both  in  prose  and  verse, 
at  great  length,  to  Paris  and  London.  I  presume  that 
Mrs.  Moore,  or  whoever  is  your  Paris  deputy,  will  forward 
my  packets  to  you  in  London. 

I  am  setting  off  for  Pisa,  if  a  slight  incipient  inter- 
mittent fever  do  not  prevent  me.  I  fear  it  is  not  strong 
enough  to  give  Murray  much  chance  of  realising  his 
thirteens  again.  I  hardly  should  regret  it,  I  think,  pro- 
vided you  raised  your  price  upon  him — as  what  Lady 
Holderness1  (my  sister's  grandmother,  a  Dutchwoman) 
used  to  call  Augusta,  her  Residee  Legatoo — so  as  to  pro- 
vide for  us  all :  my  bones  with  a  splendid  and  larmoy- 
ante  edition,  and  you  with  double  what  is  extractable 
during  my  lifetime. 

I  have  a  strong  presentiment  that  (bating  some  out  of 
the  way  accident)  you  will  survive  me.  The  difference 
of  eight  years,  or  whatever  it  is,  between  our  ages,  is 
nothing.  I  do  not  feel  (nor  am,  indeed,  anxious  to  feel) 
the  principle  of  life  in  me  tend  to  longevity.  My  father 
and  mother  died,  the  one  at  thirty-five  or  six,  and  the 
other  at  forty-five ;  and  Dr.  Rush,  or  somebody  else,  says 
that  nobody  lives  long,  without  having  one  parent,  at  least, 
an  old  stager. 

I  should,  to  be  sure,  like  to  see  out  my  eternal  mother- 
in-law,  not  so  much  for  her  heritage,  but  from  my  natural 
antipathy.  But  the  indulgence  of  this  natural  desire  is 
too  much  to  expect  from  the  Providence  who  presides 
over  old  women.  I  bore  you  with  all  this  about  lives, 
because  it  has  been  put  in  my  way  by  a  calculation  of 

I.  See  Letters,  vol.  i.  p.  18,  note  i.  Mary,  daughter  of  Francis 
Doublet,  Member  of  the  States  of  Holland,  married  in  1743  Robert 
D'Arcy,  fourth  and  last  Earl  of  Holderness. 

1 82 1.]  THE   VISION  OF  JUDGMENT.  385 

insurances  which  Murray  has  sent  me.  I  really  think 
you  should  have  more,  if  I  evaporate  within  a  reasonable 

I  wonder  if  my  Cain  has  got  safe  to  England.  I 
have  written  since  about  sixty  stanzas  of  a  poem,  in 
octave  stanzas,  (in  the  Pulci  style,  which  the  fools  in 
England  think  was  invented  by  Whistlecraft — it  is  as  old 
as  the  hills  in  Italy,)  called  T/ie  Vision  of  Judgment?  by 
Quevedo  Redivivus,  with  this  motto — 

"  A  Daniel  come  to  judgment,  yea,  a  Daniel : 
I  thank  thee,  Jew,  for  teaching  me  that  word." 

In  this  it  is  my  intent  to  put  the  said  George's  Apo- 
theosis in  a  Whig  point  of  view,  not  forgetting  the  Poet 
Laureate  for  his  preface  and  his  other  demerits. 

I  am  just  got  to  the  pass  where  Saint  Peter,  hearing 
that  the  royal  defunct  had  opposed  Catholic  Emancipa- 
tion, rises  up,  and,  interrupting  Satan's  oration,  declares 
he  will  change  places  with  Cerberus  sooner  than  let  him 
into  heaven,  while  he  has  the  keys  thereof. 

I  must  go  and  ride,  though  rather  feverish  and  chilly. 
It  is  the  ague  season ;  but  the  agues  do  me  rather  good 
than  harm.  The  feel  after  the  fit  is  as  if  one  had  got  rid 
of  one's  body  for  good  and  all. 

The  gods  go  with  you  ! — Address  to  Pisa. 

Ever  yours. 

I.  The  Vision  of  Judgment  was  published  as  Article  I.  in  the  first 
number  of  The  Liberal :  Verse  and  Prose  from  the  South  (London, 
1822).  Goethe  (Crabb  Robinson's  Diary,  vol.  ii.  p.  437)  delighted 
in  the  poem,  and  characterized  the  verses  on  George  IV.  as  the 
"  sublime  of  hatred."  Francisco  Gomez  de  Quevedo  Villegas  (1580- 
1645),  the  Spanish  satirist,  "  the  scourge  of  silly  poets,"  published 
his  five  Sueilos  (Visions)  in  1627.  The  first,  El  Suefto  de  las  Cavalleras 
(the  Vision  of  the  Skulls),  is  a  picture  of  the  Last  Judgment  and  a 
satire  on  human  vice.  Quevedo's  Visions  were  translated  by,  among 
others,  Sir  R.  L'Estrange  in  1667  ;  but  the  version  printed  in  the 
Edinburgh  edition  (3  vols.,  1798)  of  Quevedo's  Select  Works  is  that 
of  an  anonymous  translator. 

VOL.  V.  2   C 

386       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

P.S. — Since  I  came  back,  I  feel  better,  though  I 
stayed  out  too  late  for  this  malaria  season,  under  the  thin 
crescent  of  a  very  young  moon,  and  got  off  my  horse  to 
walk  in  an  avenue  with  a  Signora  for  an  hour.  I  thought 
of  you  and 

"  When  at  eve  thou  rovest 
By  the  star  thou  lovest."  l 

But  it  was  not  in  a  romantic  mood,  as  I  should  have  been 
once ;  and  yet  it  was  a  new  woman,  (that  is,  new  to  me,) 
and,  of  course,  expected  to  be  made  love  to.  But  I 
merely  made  a  few  common-place  speeches.  I  feel,  as 
your  poor  friend  Curran  said,  before  his  death,  "  a  moun- 
"  tain  of  lead  upon  my  heart,"  2  which  I  believe  to  be 
constitutional,  and  that  nothing  will  remove  it  but  the 
same  remedy. 

945. — To  John  Murray. 

Octr.  4'!1 1821. 

DEAR  MURRAY, — I  send  you  in  8  sheets,  and  106 
stanzas  (octave),  a  poem  entitled  a  Vision  of  Judgement, 
etc.,  by  Quevedo  Redivivus,  of  which  you  will  address 
the  proof  to  me  at  Pisa,  and  an  answer  by  return  of  post. 
Pray,  let  the  Printer  be  as  careful  as  he  can  to  decypher 
it,  which  may  be  not  so  easy. 

It  may  happen  that  you  will  be  afraid  to  publish  it : 
in  that  case,  find  me  a  publisher,  assuring  him  that,  if  he 

1.  These  lines  begin  the  second  stanza  of  "  Go  where  glory  waits 
"  thee"  (Moore's  Irish  Melodies,  No.  I.). 

2.  Curran  died  October  14,  1817.     "  His  spirits  were  now  in  a  state 
'  of  the  most  distressing  depression.     He  complained  of  having  '  a 
'  mountain  of  lead  upon  his  heart.'     This  despondency  he  increased 
'  by  dwelling  perpetually  upon  the  condition  of  Ireland,  which  his 
'  imagination  was  for  ever  representing  to  him  as  doomed  to  endless 
'  divisions  and  degradation  "  (Life  of  the  Right  Hon.  J.  P.  Curran, 

ed.  1819,  vol.  ii.  p.  381). 

1 82 1.]  GROWING   DEPRESSION.  387 

gets  into  a  scrape,  I  will  give  up  my  name  or  person.  I 
do  not  approve  of  your  mode  of  not  putting  publisher's 
names  on  title  pages  (which  was  unheard  of,  till  you  gave 
yourself  that  air) :  an  author's  case  is  different,  and  from 
time  immemorial  have  (sic)  published  anonymously. 
I  wait  to  hear  the  arrival  of  various  packets. 


Address  to  Pisa. 

946. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

October  6,  1821. 

By  this  post  I  have  sent  my  nightmare  to  balance  the 
incubus  of  Southey's  impudent  anticipation  of  the  Apo- 
theosis of  George  the  Third.1  I  should  like  you  to  take 
a  look  over  it,  as  I  think  there  are  two  or  three  things  in 
it  which  might  please  "  our  puir  hill  folk." 

By  the  last  two  or  three  posts  I  have  written  to  you 
at  length.  My  ague  bows  to  me  every  two  or  three  days, 
but  we  are  not  as  yet  upon  intimate  speaking  terms.  I 
have  an  intermittent  generally  every  two  years,  when  the 
climate  is  favourable  (as  it  is  here),  but  it  does  me  no 
harm.  What  I  find  worse,  and  cannot  get  rid  of,  is  the 
growing  depression  of  my  spirits,  without  sufficient  cause. 
I  ride — I  am  not  intemperate  in  eating  or  drinking — and 
my  general  health  is  as  usual,  except  a  slight  ague,  which 
rather  does  good  than  not.  It  must  be  constitutional; 
for  I  know  nothing  more  than  usual  to  depress  me  to  that 

How  do  you  manage  ?  I  think  you  told  me,  at  Venice, 
that  your  spirits  did  not  keep  up  without  a  little  claret. 
I.  Southey's  Vision  of  Judgment  appeared  in  1821. 


I  can  drink,  and  bear  a  good  deal  of  wine  (as  you  may 
recollect  in  England) ;  but  it  don't  exhilarate — it  makes 
me  savage  and  suspicious,  and  even  quarrelsome.  Lau- 
danum has  a  similar  effect ;  but  I  can  take  much  of  *'/ 
without  any  effect  at  all.  The  thing  that  gives  me  the 
highest  spirits  (it  seems  absurd,  but  true)  is  a  dose  of 
salts — I  mean  in  the  afternoon,  after  their  effect.  But 
one  can't  take  them  like  champagne. 

Excuse  this  old  woman's  letter;  but  my  lemancholy 
don't  depend  upon  health,  for  it  is  just  the  same,  well  or 
ill,  or  here  or  there. 

Yours,  etc. 

947. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  Octr.e  9'.h  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — You  will  please  to  present  or  convey 
the  enclosed  poem 1  to  Mr.  Moore :  I  sent  him  another 
copy  to  Paris,  but  he  has  probably  left  that  city. 

It  is  doubtful  whether  the  poem  was  written  by  Felicia 
Hemans  for  the  prize  of  the  Dartmoor  Academy,  or  by 
the  Revd.  W.  L.  Bowles  with  a  view  to  a  bishopric :  your 
own  great  discernment  will  decide  between  them. 

By  last  post  I  sent  the  Vision  of  fiidgement  by  Quevedo 
Redivivus.  I  just  piddle  a  little  with  these  trifles  to  keep 
my  hand  in  for  the  new  English  Bards,  etc.,  which  I  per- 
ceive some  of  your  people  are  in  want  of,  and  which  I 
only  wait  for  a  short  visit  to  your  country,  to  put  me 
more  in  possession  of  the  nonsense  of  some  of  your 
newer  ragamuffins,  to  commence.  I  have  not  sought  it; 
but  if  I  do  begin,  it  shall  go  hard,  as  Shylock  says,  "  but 
"  I  better  the  Instruction." 

Yours  ever, 

i.  "The  Irish  Avatar." 

l82I.]  SHELLEY   ON    DON  JUAN.  389 

Address  to  Pisa,1   and  acknowledge  all  packets  by 
name — else  it  makes  confusion. 

i.  Byron,  however,  lingered  at  Ravenna  a  fortnight  longer.  All 
was  ready  for  him  at  Pisa,  and,  as  the  following  letter  (from  Shelley 
shows,  the  Countess  Guiccioli  was  beginning  to  despair  of  his  ever 
leaving  Ravenna  : — 

"Pisa,  Octr.  21,  1821. 

"  MY  DEAR  LORD  BYRON, — I  should  have  written  to  you  long 
"  since  but  that  I  have  been  led  to  expect  you  almost  daily  in  Pisa, 
"  and  that  I  imagined  you  would  cross  my  letter  on  your  road. 

"  Many  thanks  for  Don  Juan.  It  is  a  poem  totally  of  its  own 
"  species,  and  my  wonder  and  delight  at  the  grace  of  the  composition 
"  no  less  than  the  free  and  grand  vigour  of  the  conception  of  it  per- 
"  petually  increase.  The  few  passages  which  any  one  might  desire 
"  to  be  cancelled  in  the  Is,'  and  2'ld  Cants,  are  here  reduced  almost 
"  to  nothing.  This  poem  carries  with  it  at  once  the  stamp  of 
"  originality  and  a  defiance  of  imitation.  Nothing  has  ever  been 
"  written  like  it  in  English,  nor,  if  I  may  venture  to  prophesy,  will 
"  there  be,  without  carrying  upon  it  the  mark  of  a  secondary  and 
"  borrowed  light.  You  unveil  and  present  in  its  true  deformity  what 
"  is  worst  in  human  nature,  and  this  is  what  the  witlings  of  the  age 
"  murmur  at,  conscious  of  their  want  of  power  to  endure  the  scrutiny 
"  of  such  a  light.  We  are  damned  to  the  knowledge  of  good  and 
"evil,  and  it  is  well  for  us  to  know  what  we  should  avoid  no  less 
"  than  what  we  should  seek. 

"  The  character  of  Lambro,  his  return,  the  merriment  of  his 
"  daughter's  guests,  made,  as  it  were,  in  celebration  of  his  funeral,  the 
"  meeting  with  the  lovers,  and  the  death  of  Haidee,  are  circumstances 
"  combined  and  developed  in  a  manner  that  I  seek  elsewhere  in  vain. 
"  The  fifth  Canto,  which  some  of  your  pet  Zoili  in  Albemarle  S*. 
"  said  was  dull,  gathers  instead  of  loses,  splendour  and  energy  :  the 
"  language  in  which  the  whole  is  clothed — a  sort  of  cameleon  under 
"the  changing  sky  of  the  spirit  that  kindles  it — is  such  as  these 
"  lisping  days  could  not  have  expected,  and  are,  believe  me,  in  spite 
"  of  the  approbation  which  you  wrest  from  them,  little  pleased  to 
"  hear. 

"  One  can  hardly  judge  from  recitation,  and  it  was  not  until  I  read 
"it  in  print  that  I  have  been  able  to  do  it  justice.  This  sort  of 
"  writing  only  on  a  great  plan,  and  perhaps  in  a  more  compact  form, 
"  is  what  I  wished  you  to  do  when  I  made  my  vows  for  an  epic. 

"  But  I  am  content.  You  are  building  up  a  drama,  such  as 
"  England  has  not  yet  seen,  and  the  task  is  sufficiently  noble  and 
"  worthy  of  you. 

"  When  may  we  expect  you  ?  The  Countess  G.  is  very  patient, 
"  though  sometimes  she  seems  apprehensive  that  you  will  never  leave 
"  Ravenna. 

"  I  have  suffered  from  my  habitual  disorder  and  from  a  tertian 
"  fever  since  I  returned,  and  my  ill  health  has  prevented  me  from 
"  shewing  her  the  attentions  I  could  have  desired  in  Pisa. 

39°       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

P.S. — If  there  is  anything  new  of  Israel's,  send  it  me. 
I  like  Israeli :  ist!y  he  "  having  done  the  handsome 
"  thing  by  me,"  as  Winifred  Jenkins  says,  when  you 
showed  him  (you  shabby  fellow !)  my  marginal  notes  in 
Athens  upon  his  Essay — instead  of  being  angry  like  a 
spoilt  child  of  ink  and  paper;  and  2nc!ly,  because  he  is 
the  Bayle  of  literary  speculation,  and  puts  together  more 
amusing  information  than  anybody;  and  3d.Iy,  he  likes 

Don't  forget  to  send  me  my  first  act  of  Werner  (if 
Hobhouse  can  find  it  amongst  my  papers) — send  it  by 
the  post  (to  Pisa) ;  and  also  cut  out  Sophia  Lee's  "  Ger- 
"  man's  tale," 1  from  the  Canterbury  Tales,  and  send  it  in 
a  letter  also. 

"  I  have  heard  from  Hunt,  who  tells  me  that  he  is  coming  out  in 
"  November,  by  sea  I  believe. 

"  Your  house  is  ready  and  all  the  furniture  arranged.  Lega,  they 
"  say,  is  to  have  set  off  yesterday. 

"  The  Countess  tells  me  that  you  think  of  leaving  Allegra  for  the 
'  present  at  the  convent.  Do  as  you  think  best ;  but  I  can  pledge 
'  myself  to  find  a  situation  for  her  here  such  as  you  would  approve, 
'  in  case  you  change  your  mind. 

"  I  hear  no  political  news  but  such  as  announces  the  slow  victory 
'  of  the  spirit  of  the  past  over  that  of  the  present.  The  other  day, 
'  a  number  of  Heteristi,  escaped  from  the  defeat  in  Wallachia,  past 
'  through  Pisa,  to  embark  at  Leghorn  and  join  Ipsilanti  in  Livadia. 
'  It  is  highly  to  the  credit  of  the  actual  government  of  Tuscany,  that 
'  it  allowed  these  poor  fugitives  3  livres  a  day  each,  and  free  quarters 
'  during  their  passage  through  these  states. 
"  Mrs.  S.  desires  her  best  regards. 

"My dear  Lord  Byron,  yours  most  faithfully, 

"  P.  B.  SHELLEY." 

I.  "Kruitzner,  or  the  German's  Tale,"  by  Harriet  Lee,   was 

fublished  in  vol.  iv.  of  the  second  edition  of  the  Canterbury  Tales 
1801)  of  Harriet  and  Sophia  Lee.     The  parallel  passages  between 
the  Tale  and  Werner  are  given  in  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magazine 
(vol.  xii.  pp.  713-719). 

The  first  act  of  Werner,  which  Byron  wrote  in  1815,  and  which 
could  not  be  found  in  1821,  will  be  published  in  vol.  v.  of  Byron's 
Works  (Poems)  from  the  MS.  in  Mr.  Murray's  possession.  The 
play,  as  published  in  1823,  was  printed  from  a  MS.  in  Mrs.  Shelley's 

The  Hon.  F.  Leveson  Gower  (Ninetemth  Century,  August,  1899) 

1 82 1.]  A    GREAT   READER  OF   THE   BIBLE.  391 

I  began  that  tragedy  in  1815,  but  Lady  Byron's  farce 
put  it  out  of  my  head  for  the  time  of  her  representation. 

By  the  way,  you  have  a  good  deal  of  my  prose  tracts 
in  MSS.  Let  me  have  proofs  of  them  all  again — I  mean 
the  controversial  ones,  including  the  last  two  or  three  years 
of  time.  Another  question.  The  Epistle  of  St.  Paul, 
which  I  translated  from  the  Armenian — for  what  reason 
have  you  kept  it  back,  though  you  published  that  stuff 
which  gave  rise  to  The  Vampire!  Is  it  because  you  are 
afraid  to  print  any  thing  in  opposition  to  the  Cant  of 
the  Quarterly  about  "  Manicheism "  ?  Let  me  have  a 
proof  of  that  Epistle  directly.  I  am  a  better  Christian 
than  those  parsons  of  yours,  though  not  paid  for  being  so. 

Send— Faber's  Treatise  on  the  "  Cabiri." 

Sainte-Croix's  "Mysteres  du  Paganisme"  (scarce, 
perhaps,  but  to  be  found,  as  Mitford  refers  to  his  work 

A  common  Bible,  of  a  good  legible  print  (bound  in 
Russia).  I  have  one ;  but  as  it  was  the  last  gift  of  my 
Sister  (whom  I  shall  probably  never  see  again),  I  can 
only  use  it  carefully,  and  less  frequently,  because  I  like 
to  keep  it  in  good  order.  Don't  forget  this,  for  I  am  a 
great  reader  and  admirer  of  those  books,  and  had  read 
them  through  and  through  before  I  was  eight  years  old, — 
that  is  to  say,  the  Old  Testament,  for  the  New  struck  me 
as  a  task,  but  the  other  as  a  pleasure.  I  speak  as  a  boy, 
from  the  recollected  impression  of  that  period  at  Aberdeen 
in  1796. 

Any  novels  of  Scott,  or  poetry  of  the  same.     Ditto  of 

maintains  that  the  play,  which  Murray  published  in  1823  as  Byron's, 
was  really  written  by  his  grandmother,  Georgiana,  Duchess  of 
Devonshire,  and  given  by  her  to  Lady  Caroline  Lamb,  and  by 
Lady  Caroline  to  Byron.  (See  also  Literature,  August  12,  19,  26, 
1899.)  The  subject  will  be  fully  discussed  in  vol.  v.  of  Byron's 

392        THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

Crabbe,  Moore,  and  the  Elect ;  but  none  of  your  damned 
commonplace  trash, — unless  something  starts  up  of  actual 
merit,  which  may  very  well  be,  for  'tis  time  it  should. 

"  Plutarch's  Morals,  etc.,"  in  the  old  English  translation. 
"  Gillies'  Greece,"  and  interval  between  Alexander  and 
Augustus  (I  have  Mitford),  in  Octavo,  if  possible — I  can't 
read  quartos. 

"  Life  of  Apollonius  of  Tyana,"  published  (or  trans- 
lated) 8  or  nine  (9)  years  ago. 

"  Leslie's  Short  and  Easy  Method  with  the  Deists." 
I  want  a  Bayle,  but  am  afraid  of  the  carriage  and  the 
weight,  as  also  of  folios  in  general. 

"  Burton's  Anatomy  of  Melancholy." 1 

948. — To  John  Murray. 

Octr.  20^  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — j^the  errors  are  in  the  MSS.,  write 
me  down  an  Ass:  they  are  not,  and  I  am  content  to 
undergo  any  penalty  if  they  be.  Besides,  the  omitted 
Stanza  (last  but  one  or  two),  sent  afterwards,  was  that  in 
the  MSS.  too  ? 

Have  you  received  a  printed  sheet  or  two  from  an 
old  MSS.,  as  a  note  to  The  Doge?  sent  two  months  ago  ? 
I  am  anxious  about  that. 

As  to  "  honour"  I  will  trust  no  man's  honour  in  affairs 
of  barter.  I  will  tell  you  why.  A  state  of  bargain  is 
Hobbes's  "  state  of  Nature — a  state  of  war."  2  It  is  so 
with  all  men.  If  I  come  to  a  friend,  and  say,  "  friend, 

1.  In  a  letter,  dated  November  14,  Murray  writes,  "  I  have  now 
"  sent  you  all  the  books  you  wrote  for,  and  amongst  them  your  own 
' '  copy  of  Burton,  which  I  got  at  your  sale.     The  bible  I  have  sent 
"  you  is  one  with  a  selection  of  the  best  commentaries." 

2.  "  Negari  non  potest,  quin  status  hominum  naturalis,  antequam 
"  in  societatem  coiretur,  bellum  fuerit  "  (Hobbes,  De  Give,  Libertas, 
cap.  i.  §  12). 

1 82 1.]  THE  ETHICS   OF   BARGAINING.  393 

"  lend  me  five  hundred  pounds  ! " — he  either  does  it,  or 
says  that  he  can't  or  won't ;  but  if  I  come  to  Ditto,  and  say, 
"  Ditto,  I  have  an  excellent  house,  or  horse,  or  carriage, 
"or  MSS.,  or  books,  or  pictures,  or,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  etc., 
"  etc.,  honestly  worth  a  thousand  pounds,  you  shall  have 
"  them  for  five  hundred,"  what  does  Ditto  say  ?  Why,  he 
looks  at  them,  he  hums,  he  7ia's, — he  humbiigs^  if  he  can, 
to  get  a  bargain  as  cheaply  as  he  can,  because  it  is  a 
bargain :  this  is  in  the  blood  and  bone  of  mankind  ;  and 
the  same  man  who  would  lend  another  a  thousand 
pounds  without  interest,  would  not  buy  a  horse  of  him 
for  half  its  value  if  he  could  help  it.  It  is  so :  there's  no 
denying  it ;  and  therefore  I  will  have  as  much  as  I  can, 
and  you  will  give  as  little.  And  there's  an  end.  All  men 
are  intrinsical  rascals,  and  I  am  only  sorry  that,  not  being 
a  dog,  I  can't  bite  them. 

So,  Thomas  M[oore]  is  in  town  incog. :  love  to  him. 
I  except  him  from  my  regretted  morsures,  for  I  have 
always  found  him  the  pink  of  honour  and  honesty : 
besides  I  liked  his  country  till  its  late  performance. 

By  the  way,  did  Mawman  or  Mawman's  friend  deliver 
to  him  the  two  MSS.  Books  consigned  for  him  ?  This 
is  your  concern,  so  anatomize  Mawman  about  it.  They 
belong  to  your  posthumous  adventure,  that  is  to  say,  to 

I  am  filling  another *  for  you  with  little  anecdotes,  to 
my  own  knowledge,  or  well  authenticated,  of  Sheridan, 
Curran,  etc.,  and  such  other  public  men  as  I  recollect  to 
have  been  acquainted  with,  for  I  knew  most  of  them 
more  or  less.  I  will  do  what  I  can  to  prevent  your 
losing  by  my  obsequies. 

Acknowledge  packets. 


i.  The  contents  of  this  book  are  printed  in  Chap.  XXIII. 


P.S. — Address  to  Pisa. 

P.S. — Acknowledge  Vision  of  Judgement  by  Quevedo 
Redivivus,  sent  on  the  pth;  also  "The  Irish  Avatar" 
(for  Mr.  Moore),  put  in  the  letter-bag  afterwards,  a  day 
or  two. 

949. — To  Samuel  Rogers.1 

Ravenna,  Oct.  21s.1  1821. 

DEAR  ROGERS, — I  shall  be  (the  Gods  willing)  in 
Bologna  on  Saturday  next.  This  is  a  curious  answer  to 
your  letter;  but  I  have  taken  a  house  in  Pisa  for  the 

I.  Rogers,  who  left  England  in  August,  1821,  reached  Venice  in 

October.     Thence  he  wrote  to   Byron,  proposing  to  visit  him  at 

Ravenna  (Clayden's  Rogers  and  his  Contemporaries,  vol.  i.  p.  319). 

They  met  at  Bologna.     On  the  road  to  Bologna  from  Ravenna 

Byron  met  Lord  Clare.     See  Detached  Thoughts,  p.  455  (91)  and 

p.  462  (113).     "At  Bologna,"  writes  Rogers  from  Florence  to  his 

sister,  November  n,  1821  (ibid.,  pp.  320,  323),  "I  waited  a  day 

'  for  Lord  Byron,  and  crossed  the  Apennines  with  him.     Our  party 

'  consisted  of  a  dog,  a  cat,  a  hawk,  an  old  gondolier  from  Venice, 

'  and  other  sundries.     His  Foscari  is  already  printed,  and  will,  I 

'  fear,  get  the  start  of  us.  ...  Lord  Byron  is  gone  to  live  at  Pisa. 

'  He  spent  only  one  day  here.     I  wish  you  had  seen  him  set  off, 

'  every  window  of  the  inn  was  open  to  see  him.  ...  I  received  a 

'  visit  from  our  old  friend  the  poet,  with  his  book.     Lord  Byron 

'  amused  himself  with  writing  a  sonnet  for  him,  in  which  he  makes 

'  him  describe  himself  as  a  bore  ;  whether  he  will  shew  it  about  I 

'don't  know."    The  meeting  is  described  by  Rogers  in  his  Italy 

(Bologna) — 

"  Much  had  pass'd 

Since  last  we  parted ;  and  those  five  short  years — 
Much  had  they  told  !  His  clustering  locks  were  turn'd 
Gray  ;  nor  did  aught  recall  the  Youth  that  swam 
From  Sestos  to  Abydos.     Yet  his  voice, 
Still  it  was  sweet ;  still  from  his  eye  the  thought 
Flashed  lightning-like,  nor  lingered  on  the  way, 
Waiting  for  words.     Far,  far  into  the  night 
We  sat,  conversing — no  unwelcome  hour, 
The  hour  we  met ;  and,  when  Aurora  rose, 
Rising,  we  climb'd  the  rugged  Apennine." 

For  Byron's  journey  across  the  Apennines  and  visit  to  Florence 
with  Rogers,  see  Detached  Thoughts,  p.  464  (114,  115). 

1 82 1.]  AN    INVITATION   TO   ROGERS.  395 

winter,  to  which  all  my  chattels — furniture,  horses,  car- 
riages, and  live  stock — are  already  removed,  and  I  am 
preparing  to  follow. 

The  cause  of  this  removal  is,  shortly,  the  exile  or  pro- 
scription of  all  my  friends'  relations  and  connections  here 
into  Tuscany,  on  account  of  our  late  politics ;  and  where 
they  go,  I  accompany  them.  I  merely  remained  till 
now  to  settle  some  arrangements  about  my  daughter,  and 
to  give  time  for  my  furniture,  etc.,  to  precede  me.  I 
have  not  here  a  seat  or  a  bed  hardly,  except  some/wry 
chairs,  and  tables,  and  a  mattrass  for  the  week  to  come. 

If  you  will  go  on  with  me  to  Pisa,  I  can  lodge  you 
for  as  long  as  you  like ;  (they  write  that  the  house,  the 
Palazzo  Lanfranchi,1  is  spacious  :  it  is  on  the  Arno ;)  and 
I  have  four  carriages,  and  as  many  saddle-horses  (such  as 
they  are  in  these  parts),  with  all  other  conveniences  at 
your  command,  as  also  their  owner.  If  you  can't  do 
this,  we  may,  at  least,  cross  the  Apennines  together;  or 
if  you  are  going  by  another  road,  we  shall  meet  at 
Bologna,  I  hope.  I  address  this  to  the  post-office  (as 
you  desire),  and  you  will  probably  find  me  at  the  Albergo 
di  San  Marco.  If  you  arrive  first,  wait  till  I  come  up, 
which  will  be  (barring  accidents)  on  Saturday  or  Sunday 
at  farthest. 

I  presume  you  are  alone  in  your  voyages.  Moore  is 
in  London  incog,  according  to  my  latest  advices  from 
those  climates. 

It  is  better  than  a  lustre  (five  years  and  six  months 

I.  The  Lanfranchi  family,  Ghibelline  leaders  at  Pisa,  are  men- 
tioned by  Count  Ugolino  (in  Circle  ix.  of  Hell),  together  with  the 
Gualandi  and  Sismondi,  as  compassing  his  destruction.  See  Inferno. 
Canto  XXXIII.  lines  31-33— 

"  Con  cagne  magre,  studiose  e  conte, 

Gualandi  con  Sismondi  e  con  Lanfranchi, 
S'avea  messi  dinanzi  dalla  fronte." 


and  some  days,  more  or  less)  since  we  met ;  and  like  the 
man  from  Tadcaster  in  the  farce  Love  Laughs  at  Lock- 
smiths l ),  whose  acquaintances,  including  the  cat  and  the 
terrier,  "  who  caught  a  halfpenny  in  his  mouth,"  were  all 
"gone  dead,"  but  too  many  of  our  acquaintances  have 
taken  the  same  path.  Lady  Melbourne,  Grattan,  Sheri- 
dan, Curran,  etc.,  etc. — without  reckoning  the  oiTroAAoi — 
almost  every  body  of  much  name  of  the  old  school.  But 
"  so  am  not  I,  said  the  foolish  fat  scullion ; "  2  therefore 
let  us  make  the  most  of  our  remainder. 

Let  me  find  two  lines  from  you  at  "  the  Hostel  or  Inn." 

Yours  ever,  etc., 

950. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra.  Octr.  26'!'  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — I  waited  here  another  week  to  receive 
the  proofs  of  Cain,  which  have  not  arrived,  though  your 
last  letter  announced  them  for  next  post.  I  must  start 
for  Pisa  on  Saturday,  so  by  this  means  there  is  a.  fortnight 
lost ;  for  the  proof  must  follow  through  cross  posts.  Upon 

1.  Love  Laughs  at  Locksmiths,    by  G.  Colman    the   Younger, 
act  ii.       Risk,  disguised  as  Solomon   Lob,   in   conversation   with 
Totterton,  who  asks  after  their  mutual  friends,  kills  them  all. 

"  Totterton,  And  honest  Mat  Figgins,  the  grocer — is  he  hale  and 

"  Risk.  He  be  dead  too. 

"  Totterton.  He  dead  too !  Poor  Mat !  his  lump  sugar  was 
"  excellent.  He  had  a  dog,  I  remember,  that  chucked  a  halfpenny 
"  off  his  nose  into  his  mouth  whenever  you  said  '  nine.'  Is  the  dog 

"  Risk.  Noa ;  he  eat  a  halfpenny. 

"  Totterton.  And  did  that  kill  him  ? 

"Risk.  Ees  ;  'Twere  such  a  varry  bad  one." 

2.  "  We  had  a  fat,  foolish  scullion — my  father,  I  think,  kept  her 
"for  her  simplicity; — she  had  been  all  autumn  struggling  with  a 
"dropsy. — 'He  is  dead,'  said  Obadiah, — 'he  is  certainly  dead  !' — 
"  '  So  am  not  I,'  said  the  foolish  scullion  "  ( Tristram  Shandy,  Bk.  V. 
c.  7). 

l82I.]  A    FINE   GENTLEMAN.  397 

my  word,  you  will  provoke  me  to  play  you  some  trick, 
one  of  these  days,  that  you  won't  like. 

By  this  post  I  send  you  a  third  corrected  copy  of  Don 
Juan.  I  will  thank  you  to  be  more  careful  in  future. 

Yours,  etc. 

Please  to  acknowledge  the  Vision  of  Judgement  by 
Quevedo  Redivivus,  and  other  packets. 

951. — To  John  Murray. 

Ra,  Octr.  26'!'  1821. 

DEAR  MORAY, — You  say  the  errors  are  in  the  MSS. : 
now,  excuse  me,  but  this  is  not  true ;  and  I  defy  you  to 
prove  it  to  be  true. 

The  truth  is  you  are  a  fine  gentleman,  and  negligent 
as  becomes  a  mighty  man  in  his  business. 

I  send  you  a  third  copy  corrected^  with  some  alteration ; 
and,  by  this  and  the  other  corrected  copies,  I  request  you 
to  print  any  future  impression. 


P.S. — Collate  this  with  the  other  two  copies,  both 
sent  by  the  post.  And,  pray,  when  I  send  you  a  parcel 
or  packet,  do  acknowledge  it.  I  care  nothing  about  my 
letters  or  your  answers:  I  only  want  to  know,  when  I 
have  taken  trouble  about  a  thing,  that  it  has  arrived. 

You  shall  be  the  hero  of  my  next  poem :  will  you 
publish  it  ? 

952. — To  Thomas  Moore. 

Ravenna,  Oct.  28,  1821. 

"  Tis  the  middle  of  night  by  the  castle  clock,"  1  and  in 
three  hours  more  I  have  to  set  out  on  my  way  to  Pisa — 
I.  Christabel,  Part  I.  line  I. 

398       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

sitting  up  all  night  to  be  sure  of  rising.  I  have  just  made 
them  take  off  my  bed-clothes — blankets  inclusive — in 
case  of  temptation  from  the  apparel  of  sheets  to  my 

Samuel  Rogers  is — or  is  to  be — at  Bologna,  as  he 
writes  from  Venice. 

I  thought  our  Magnifico  would  "pound  you,"  if 
possible.1  He  is  trying  to  "  pound "  me,  too  j  but  I'll 
specie  the  rogue — or  at  least,  I'll  have  the  odd  shillings 
out  of  him  in  keen  iambics. 

Your  approbation  of  Sardanapalus  2  is  agreeable,  for 
more  reasons  than  one.  Hobhouse  is  pleased  to  think 
as  you  do  of  it,  and  so  do  some  others — but  the  "  Arimas- 
"  pian "  whom,  like  "  a  Gryphon  in  the  wilderness,"  3  I 
will  "follow  for  his  gold"  (as  I  exhorted  you  to  do 
before),  did  or  doth  disparage  it — "  stinting  me  in  my 
"sizings."  His  notable  opinions  on  the  Foscari  and 
Cain  he  hath  not  as  yet  forwarded ;  or,  at  least,  I  have 
not  yet  received  them,  nor  the  proofs  thereof,  though 
promised  by  last  post. 

I  see  the  way  that  he  and  his  Quarterly  people  are 
tending — they  want  a  row  with  me,  and  they  shall  have 

1.  I.e.  Murray  would   try  to  pay  in  pounds,  not  guineas,  for  the 

2.  Moore,  in  his  Diary  for  September  30,  1821  (Memoirs,  etc.,  vol. 
iii.  p.  282),  writes,  "  Read  the  proofs  of  Lord  B.'s  '  Sardanapalus,' 
"  with  which  I  was  delighted.     Much  originality  in  the  character  of 
"  Sardanapalus,  but  not  a  dramatic  personage  ;  his  sly,  insinuating 
"  sarcasms  too  delicate  for  the  broad  sign-painting  of  the  stage." 

3.  The  Arimaspians,  a  one-eyed  people  of  Scythia,  coveted  gold 
for  the  adornment  of  their  hair.     Hence  there  is  perpetual  strife 
between  them  and  the  Gryphons,  creatures  in  form  half-eagle,  half- 
lion,  who  guard  the  mines  (Herodotus,  iv.  13).      Byron  refers  to 
Milton's  Paradise  Lost  (Bk.  II.  lines  943,  etc.) — 

"  As  when  a  gryphon  thro'  the  wilderness, 
With  winged  course,  o'er  hill  or  moory  dale, 
Pursues  the  Arimaspian,  who,  by  stealth, 
Had  from  his  wakeful  custody  purloined 
The  guarded  gold." 


it.  I  only  regret  that  I  am  not  in  England  for  the  nonce ; 
as,  here,  it  is  hardly  fair  ground  for  me,  isolated  and  out 
of  the  way  of  prompt  rejoinder  and  information  as  I  am. 
But,  though  backed  by  all  the  corruption,  and  infamy, 
and  patronage  of  their  master  rogues  and  slave  renegadoes, 
if  they  do  once  rouse  me  up, 

"They  had  better  gall  the  devil,  Salisbury."  ' 

I  have  that  for  two  or  three  of  them,  which  they  had 
better  not  move  me  to  put  in  motion ; — and  yet,  after  all, 
what  a  fool  I  am  to  disquiet  myself  about  such  fellows ! 
It  was  all  very  well  ten  or  twelve  years  ago,  when  I  was 
a  "  curled  darling,"  and  minded  such  things.  At  present, 
I  rate  them  at  their  true  value ;  but,  from  natural  temper 
and  bile,  am  not  able  to  keep  quiet. 

Let  me  hear  from  you  on  your  return  from  Ireland, 
which  ought  to  be  ashamed  to  see  you,  after  her  Bruns- 
wick blarney.2  I  am  of  Longman's  opinion,  that  you 
should  allow  your  friends  to  liquidate  the  Bermuda  claim.3 

1.  "  Thou  wert  better  gall  the  devil,  Salisbury." 

King  John,  act  iv.  sc.  3. 

2.  The  Annual  Register,   1821    (p.  220),   quotes  the  following 
passage  from  the  Dublin  Evening  Post : — 

"  No  King  that  ever  reigned  has  rendered  such  a  service  as  this  to 
'  Ireland.  If  our  factions,  losing  all  their  asperities,  shall  ultimately 
1  be  melted  into  one  feeling  of  Devotion  to  the  Sovereign,  and  of 
'  rational  attachment  to  the  Country,  posterity  will  attribute  the 
'  blessings  to  the  Fourth  King  of  the  Brunswick  Line,  to  the  first 
'  King  that  ever  visited  Ireland,  in  the  pride,  pomp,  and  circum- 
'  stance  of  glorious  Peace." 

Upon  this  passage  Byron  fastens  in  "  The  Irish  Avatar"  (Septem- 
ber 16,  1821) — 

"  But  he  comes  !  the  messiah  of  royalty  conies  ! 

Like  a  goodly  Leviathan  rolled  from  the  waves  ! 
Then  receive  him  as  best  such  an  advent  becomes, 

With  a  legion  of  cooks,  and  an  army  of  slaves  !  "  etc.,  etc. 

See  also  the  address  of  the  Corporation  of  Dublin  to  George  IV., 
in  the  Annual  Register,  1821  (p.  322*). 

3.  Moore,  during  his  visit  to  London  in  September,  1821  (Memoirs, 
vol.  iii.  p.  281),  was  told  by  Longman  that  Lord  Lansdowne  had 

400       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,   RAVENNA.       [CHAP.  XXII. 

Why  should  you  throw  away  the  two  thousand  pounds 
(of  the  non-guinea.  Murray)  ;upon  that  cursed  piece  of 
treacherous  inveiglement?  I  think  you  carry  the  matter 
a  little  too  far  and  scrupulously.  When  we  see  patriots 
begging  publicly,  and  know  that  Grattan  received  a  fortune 
from  his  country,  I  really  do  not  see  why  a  man,  in  no 
whit  inferior  to  any  or  all  of  them,  should  shrink  from 
accepting  that  assistance  from  his  private  friends  which 
every  tradesman  receives  from  his  connections  upon  much 
less  occasions.  For,  after  all,  it  was  not  your  debt — it 
was  a  piece  of  swindling  against  you.  As  to  *  *  *,  and 
the  "  what  noble  creatures  ! l  etc.,  etc.,"  it  is  all  very  fine 
and  very  well,  but,  till  you  can  persuade  me  that  there  is 
110  credit^  and  no  self-applause  to  be  obtained  by  being  of 
use  to  a  celebrated  man,  I  must  retain  the  same  opinion 
of  the  human  sp&cies,  which  I  do  of  our  friend  Mr.  Spe«>. 

Yours  ever,  etc., 


953. — To  John  Murray. 

gbre  30th  J82!. 

DEAR  MORAY, — You  say  the  errors  were  in  the  MSS. 
of  D.  J. — but  the  omitted  stanza,  which  I  sent  you  in  an 
after  letter,  and  the  omitted  notes?  please  to  replace 


placed  .£1000  in  his  hands  to  liquidate  the  Bermuda  claim  against 
himself.  Lord  John  Russell  (ibid.,  p.  292)  also  pressed  on  Moore 
.£200  for  the  same  object. 

I.  "I  had  mentioned  to  him,  with  all  the  praise  and  gratitude 
"  such  friendship  deserved,  some  generous  offers  of  aid  which,  from 
"  more  than  one  quarter,  I  had  received  at  this  period,  and  which, 
"  though  declined,  have  been  not  the  less  warmly  treasured  in  my 
"  recollection  "  (Moore). 

1 82 1.]  PRESENTIMENT   OF   EVIL.  4OI 

I  am  just  setting  off  for  Pisa.1 
Favour  the  enclosed  to  Mr.  Moore. 
Address  to  Pisa. 

I.  Moore  (Life,  p.  538)  quotes  Countess  Guiccioli's  account  of 
Byron's  reluctance  to  leave  Ravenna.  "Egli  era  parti  to  con  molto 
"  riverescimento  da  Ravenna,  e  col  pressentimento  che  la  sua 
"partenza  da  Ravenna  ci  sarebbe  cagione  di  molti  mali.  In  ogni 
"lettera  che  egli  mi  scriveva  allora  egli  mi  esprimeva  il  suo  dis- 
"piacere  di  lasciare  Ravenna.  '  Se  papa  e  richiamato  (mi  scriveva 
"egli)  io  torno  in  quel  istante  a  Ravenna,  e  se  e  richiamato  prima 
"dellamia  partenza,  io  nonparto?  In  questa  speranza  egli  differl 
"  varii  mesi  a  partire.  Ma,  finalmente,  non  potendo  piu  sperare  il 
"nostro  ri torno  prossimo,  egli  mi  scriveva — 'Io  parto  molto  mal 
"volontieri  prevedendo  dei  mali  assai  grandi  per  voi  altri  emassimo 
"  per  voi ;  altro  non  dico, — Io  vedrete.'  E  in  un  altra  lettera,  '  Io 
"lascio  Ravenna  cosi  mal  volontieri,  e  cosl  persuaso  che  la  mia 
"  partenza  non  puo  che  condurre  da  un  male  ad  un  altro  piu  grande 
"che  non  ho  cuore  di  scrivere  altro  in  questo  punto.'  Egli  mi 
"  scriveva  allora  sempre  in  Italiano  e  trascrivo  le  sue  precise  parole 
"  — ma  come  quei  suoi  pressentimenti  si  verificarono  poi  in  appresso ! " 

Of  this  passage  Moore  (ibid.,  pp.  538,  539)  gives  the  following 
translation  : — 

"  He  left  Ravenna  with  great  regret,  and  with  a  presentiment 
"  that  his  departure  would  be  the  forerunner  of  a  thousand  evils  to 
"us.  In  every  letter  he  then  wrote  to  me,  he  expressed  his  dis- 
"  pleasure  at  this  step.  '  If  your  father  should  be  recalled,'  he  said, 
"  '  1 immediately  return  to  Ravenna  ;  and  if  he  is  recalled  previous 
"  to  my  departure,  /  remain.1  In  this  hope  he  delayed  his  journey 
"  for  several  months  ;  but  at  last,  no  longer  having  any  expectation 
"of  our  immediate  return,  he  wrote  to  me,  saying,  'I  set  out  most 
"unwillingly,  foreseeing  the  most  evil  results  for  all  of  you,  and 
"principally  for  yourself.  I  say  no  more,  but  you  will  see.' 
"And  in  another  letter  he  says,  'I  leave  Ravenna  so  unwillingly, 
"and  with  such  a  persuasion  on  my  mind  that  my  departure  will 
"  lead  from  one  misery  to  another,  each  greater  than  the  former,  that 
"  I  have  not  the  heart  to  utter  another  word  on  the  subject.'  He 
"always  wrote  to  me  at  that  time  in  Italian,  and  I  transcribe  his 
"exact  words.  How  entirely  were  these  presentiments  verified  by 
"the  event!" 

Another  passage  from  Countess  Guiccioli's  letter,  of  which  the 
original  has  been  lost,  is  given  by  Moore  (ibid.,  p.  539) — 

"  This  sort  of  simple  life  he  led  until  the  fatal  day  of  his  departure 
"  for  Greece,  and  the  few  variations  he  made  from  it  may  be  said  to 
'  have  arisen  solely  from  the  greater  or  smaller  number  of  occasions 
'  which  were  offered  him  of  doing  good,  and  from  the  generous 
1  actions  he  was  continually  performing.  Many  families  (in  Ravenna 
'principally)  owed  to  him  the  few  prosperous  days  they  ever  en- 
'  joyed.  His  arrival  in  that  town  was  spoken  of  as  a  piece  of 

VOL.  V.  2    D 

402       THE   PALAZZO   GUICCIOLI,    RAVENNA.      [CHAP.  XXII. 

'  public  good  fortune,  and  his  departure  as  a  public  calamity ;  and 
'  this  is  the  life  which  many  attempted  to  asperse  as  that  of  a  liber - 
'  tine  !  But  the  world  must  at  last  learn  how,  with  so  good  and 
'  generous  a  heart,  Lord  Byron,  susceptible,  it  is  true,  of  the  most 
'  energetic  passions,  yet,  at  the  same  time,  of  the  sublimest  and 
1  most  pure,  and  rendering  homage  in  his  acts  to  every  virtue — how 
'he,  I  say,  could  affo